LAFS.4.L.3.5

Demonstrate understanding of word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
  1. Explain the meaning of simple similes and metaphors (e.g., as pretty as a picture) in context.
  2. Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.
  3. Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms).
General Information
Subject Area: English Language Arts
Grade: 4
Strand: Language Standards
Idea: Level 3: Strategic Thinking & Complex Reasoning
Date Adopted or Revised: 12/10
Date of Last Rating: 02/14
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes
Test Item Specifications
  • Item Type(s): This benchmark may be assessed using: EBSR , MS , ST , MC item(s)
  • Assessed with: LAFS.4.RL.2.4, LAFS.4.L.3.4
    Also assesses: LAFS.4.RF.3.3 and LAFS.4.RF.4.4

  • Assessment Limits :
    Items may ask the student to use the text to determine the meanings of words and phrases, especially those that allude to mythological characters. Items may ask the student to use contextual clues or Greek and Latin affixes and roots to determine the meaning of a word. Items may ask the student to explain the meaning of a simile or metaphor in the context of the text. Items may ask the student to explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs. Items may ask the student to relate words to their antonyms and synonyms. Items should not exclusively ask the student to determine the meaning of basic, everyday words and phrases that commonly appear in spoken language.
  • Text Types :
    The items assessing these standards may be used with one or more grade-appropriate literary texts. Texts may vary in complexity.
  • Response Mechanisms :
    The Enhanced Item Descriptions section on page 3 provides a list of Response Mechanisms that may be used to assess this standard (excluding the Editing Task Choice item type). The Sample Response Mechanisms may include, but are not limited to, the examples below.
  • Task Demand and Sample Response Mechanisms :

    Task Demand

    Determine the meaning of a word or phrase by using context clues.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Selectable Text

    • Requires the student to select details from the text that show the meaning of a word or phrase used in the text. 
    EBSR
    • Requires the student to select a meaning of a word or phrase and then to select details from the text that support that meaning. 
    Multiselect 
    • Requires the student to correctly identify multiple words or phrases that illustrate the meaning of a word in the text.
    Task Demand

    Determine the meaning of a word or phrase using grade-appropriate Greek and Latin roots or affixes.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Multiple Choice 

    • Requires the student to select the correct meaning of a word from the text that contains a Greek or Latin root or affix.
    Task Demand

    Explain the meaning of a simile or metaphor in the context of the text.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Selectable Text 

    • Requires the student to select words or phrases that illustrate the meaning of a simile or metaphor. 
    Multiple Choice 
    • Requires the student to select an explanation of a simile or metaphor found in the text. 
    Multiselect 
    • Requires the student to select multiple words or phrases that contribute to an explanation of a simile or metaphor found in the text.
    Task Demand

    Explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs found in the text.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Multiple Choice 

    • Requires the student to select an explanation of an idiom, adage, or proverb found in the text. 
    Multiselect 
    • Requires the student to select multiple words or phrases that contribute to an explanation of an idiom, adage, or proverb found in the text.
    Task Demand

    Relate words to their antonyms and synonyms.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Selectable Text 

    • Requires the student to select a word or words from the text that are antonyms or synonyms of a specific word from the text.
    Multiple Choice 
    • Requires the student to select an antonym or synonym of a specific word from the text. 

    Multiselect

    • Requires the student to select multiple words that function as antonyms or synonyms of a specific word from the text.

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
5010010: English for Speakers of Other Languages-Elementary (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (course terminated))
5010020: Basic Skills in Reading-K-2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021, 2021 and beyond (current))
5010030: Functional Basic Skills in Communications-Elementary (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
5010045: Language Arts - Grade Four (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7710015: Access Language Arts - Grade 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022 (current), 2022 - 2023, 2023 and beyond)
5010104: Introduction to Debate Grade 4 (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
LAFS.4.L.3.AP.5a: Relate words to their opposites (antonyms).
LAFS.4.L.3.AP.5b: Relate words to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms).
LAFS.4.L.3.AP.5c: Identify simple similes in context.
LAFS.4.L.3.AP.5d: Identify simple metaphors in context.
LAFS.4.L.3.AP.5e: Identify the meaning of common idioms.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Lesson Plans

Lead Me Into Exciting Writing!:

In this lesson students will learn how to create "leads" for narrative writing using fairy tales as the springboard.

Type: Lesson Plan

Using Idioms to Explain the Plot and to Predict Future Events :

In this lesson, students will use idioms to explain a plot and predict what will happen next in a story. The featured text for this lesson is the book In a Pickle and Other Funny Idioms by Marvin Terba. There are also two practice passages provided with the resource.

Type: Lesson Plan

IMAGERY THROUGH THE EYES OF THE OWL MOON BY JANE YOLEN:

This lesson incorporates the use of the book Owl Moon by Jane Yolen to help scaffold student skills by enriching their writing with descriptive words, metaphors, similes, and imagery. Teachers can use the shades of meaning within the text to help students understand the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the story. The book is full of beautiful descriptive passages that stand as excellent exemplars of how a simple scene can be brought to life with the addition of figurative language. In the end of lesson assessment, students will create their own vivid story while writing from their own experience.

Type: Lesson Plan

Owl Moon: Similies and Metaphors:

In this lesson, students will be able to identify similes and metaphors within a piece of literature. Students will be able to determine the literal meaning of similes and metaphors and also develop their own non-literal meaning. The students will be able to then use their understanding of similes and metaphors to apply them to their own narrative writing.

Type: Lesson Plan

Incredible Idioms:

In this lesson, students will listen to and read literature where figurative language (specifically idioms) are used to convey meaning and enhance writing. Students will have opportunities to explore and discuss idioms, in addition to applying their understanding of idioms by incorporating idioms in their own writing. Students will work in groups, individually, and with direct instruction from the teacher to gain a better understanding of idioms and how they are used in literature.

Type: Lesson Plan

Close Reading Exemplar: "The Making of a Scientist":

The goal of this two to three day exemplar is to give students the opportunity to use the reading and writing habits they've been practicing on a regular basis to absorb deep lessons from Richard Feynman's recollections of interactions with his father. By reading and rereading the passage closely, and focusing their reading through a series of questions and discussion about the text, students will identify how and why Feynman started to look at the world through the eyes of a scientist. When combined with writing about the passage, students will discover how much they can learn from a memoir.

Type: Lesson Plan

Figurative Language: Interpretation of Similes and Metaphors:

In this resource, students will interpret the meanings of poems using similes and metaphors. The featured resource in the teacher modeling and guided practice sections utilize the text Poetry for Young People: Langston Hughes edited by David Roessel and Arnold Rampersad. The poem (not a Langston Hughes poem) for the independent practice is provided with the lesson.

Type: Lesson Plan

Idioms...Let's "Figure" them out!:

In this lesson students will be introduced to commonly used idioms and their meanings. Students will have the opportunity to listen to idioms used in short stories and recognize how they add meaning to the text. Students will be given time to work in small groups and discuss idioms found in stories they will read with one another. Students will also have the opportunity to work individually to create illustrations that depict both the literal meaning and the figurative meaning of the idiom of their choice.

Type: Lesson Plan

Student Center Activities

Vocabulary: Homograph Hitch:

In this activity, students will identify the meanings of homographs by playing a matching game.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Spin Sort:

In this activity, students will identify and sort contractions, synonyms, antonyms, abbreviations, homophones, and homographs.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Homophone Puzzle:

In this activity, students will write homophones in a crossword puzzle by using meaning clues.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Homophone Go Fish:

In this activity, students will match homophones with their meanings by playing a card game.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Homograph Hoorah!:

In this activity, students will read two meanings and write the matching homograph.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Antonym Concentration:

In this activity, students will match antonyms by playing a memory game.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Antonym Dominoes:

In this activity, students will identify antonyms by playing a domino game.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Synonym-Antonym Connections:

In this activity, students will identify synonyms and antonyms.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Synonym Bingo!:

In this activity, students will identify synonyms by playing a bingo-like game.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Analogy Soccer:

In this activity, students will identify words to complete analogies.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Category Clues:

In this activity, students will produce category labels for related words to demonstrate understanding of their shared attributes/meanings.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Category Creations:

In this activity, students will produce categories and corresponding words. As an adaptation to this activity, the students may sort teacher-selected words into categories and produce a category heading based on shared attributes OR produce words that belong in teacher-selected categories (based on units of study).

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Category Tag:

In this activity, students will state words that correspond to specific categories by playing a board game. NOTE: A blank game board is provided to allow teachers to create categories relevant to classroom instruction. As an extension, students may choose the word that does not belong in a set of words and name the category for the remaining words.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Compare Extraordinaire :

In this activity, students will identify similarities and differences between the meanings of words using a Venn diagram.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Hink Pink Think!:

In this activity, students will find Hink Pinks that correspond to meanings by playing a matching game.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Homograph Hook:

In this activity, students will match homographs with their corresponding meanings.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Homophone Hunt:

In this activity, students will choose the correct homophone to complete sentences.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Now Featuring:

In this activity, students will distinguish one word from another by completing an attribute analysis grid. As an adaptation to this activity, teachers may create attribute analysis grids that reflect units of study.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Pun Fun:

In this activity, students will identify examples of non-literal words and phrases in text and record possible meanings.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Synonym-Antonym Creations:

In this activity, students will produce synonyms and antonyms to match targeted words.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Up With Words:

In this activity, students will produce more precise alternatives for overused words in context.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Word-by-Word:

In this activity, students will show the relationship among words by placing them on a continuum.

Type: Student Center Activity

Vocabulary: Worn-Out Words:

In this activity, students will produce synonyms as more precise alternatives for overused words.

Type: Student Center Activity

Unit/Lesson Sequence

As Slippery as an Eel: An Ocean Unit Exploring Simile and Metaphor:

In this resource, students will be introduced to the concepts of simile and metaphor. Throughout guided and independent practice, they will create their own similes and metaphors inspired by pictures of ocean animals. Students will use templates to create a class book on the ocean that features similes and metaphors, along with student created illustrations, to showcase those comparisons.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.