LAFS.4.RI.2.5

Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.
General Information
Subject Area: English Language Arts
Grade: 4
Strand: Reading Standards for Informational Text
Idea: Level 3: Strategic Thinking & Complex Reasoning
Date Adopted or Revised: 12/10
Date of Last Rating: 02/14
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes
Test Item Specifications
  • Item Type(s): This benchmark may be assessed using: TM , EBSR , ST , MC item(s)

  • Assessment Limits :
    Items may ask the student to refer to structural elements when explaining events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text. Items may ask the student to identify and describe the particular structure (chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) used in a text or part of a text.
  • Text Types :
    The items assessing this standard may be used with one or more grade-appropriate informational texts. Texts may vary in complexity.
  • Response Mechanisms :
    The Enhanced Item Descriptions section on page 3 provides a list of Response Mechanisms that may be used to assess this standard (excluding the Editing Task Choice item type). The Sample Response Mechanisms may include, but are not limited to, the examples below.
  • Task Demand and Sample Response Mechanisms :

    Task Demand

    Describe the overall structure of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or portion of a text.

    Sample Response Mechanisms

    Selectable Text

    • Requires the student to select a description of the structure of events, ideas, concepts, or information within a text and then to select a detail or details from the text that supports that description. 
    EBSR
    • Requires the student to select a description of the structure of a text and then to select a detail or details from the text that show the development of that structure.
    Multiple Choice
    • Requires the student to select a description of the overall structure of events, ideas, concepts, or information within a text.
    Table Match
    • Requires the student to complete a table by matching text structures with explanations of their development.

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
5002000: Introduction to Computers (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019 (course terminated))
5010010: English for Speakers of Other Languages-Elementary (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (course terminated))
5010020: Basic Skills in Reading-K-2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021, 2021 and beyond (current))
5021060: Social Studies Grade 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 - 2023, 2023 and beyond)
5010045: Language Arts - Grade Four (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1001405: English 4: Florida College Prep (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 - 2023, 2023 and beyond)
7710015: Access Language Arts - Grade 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022 (current), 2022 - 2023, 2023 and beyond)
7721015: Access Social Studies - Grade 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1008350: Reading for College Success (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
5010104: Introduction to Debate Grade 4 (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
LAFS.4.RI.2.AP.5a: Identify signal words that provide clues in determining the specific text structure of a short, informational text or text excerpt (e.g., description, problem/solution, time/order, compare/contrast, cause/effect, directions).
LAFS.4.RI.2.AP.5b: Identify the specific structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts or information in a text excerpt.
LAFS.4.RI.2.AP.5c: Identify the overall structure of a complete text.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Lesson Plans

What Did You Say Happened to the Everglades?:

In this lesson, students will conduct a close reading of an informational article about pythons in the Everglades. Students will use a variety of strategies to determine the meaning of selected academic words in context, and they will sort selected tier 3 words into categories and examine the relationships between words in a category. Students will also answer text-dependent questions about the article and identify and describe the cause/effect structure used throughout the article. Students will complete an informational paragraph about the events that are occurring in the Everglades using text evidence to support their ideas. Graphic organizers, answer keys, and a writing rubric have been provided with the lesson.

Type: Lesson Plan

How Important is the Amazon Rainforest?:

In this lesson, students will conduct a close reading of an informational article about the destruction of the Amazon rain forest. Students will use a variety of strategies to determine the meaning of selected academic words in context, and they will sort selected tier 3 words into categories and examine the relationships between words in a category. Students will also answer text-dependent questions about the article and identify and describe the cause/effect structure used throughout the article. Students will write an informational paragraph about the events that are occurring in the Amazon rain forest. Graphic organizers, answer keys, and a writing rubric have been provided with the lesson.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Tree that Saved the Day!:

In this lesson, students will conduct a close reading of an informational picture book about a community in Africa that is saved by the planting of mangrove trees. Students will use a variety of strategies to determine the meaning of selected academic words in context. Students will also answer text-dependent questions about the book and identify and describe the cause/effect structure used throughout the book. Graphic organizers, answer keys, and a writing rubric have been provided with the lesson.

Type: Lesson Plan

Close Reading of The Life and Times of the Ant:

This lesson will provide an in depth look at informational text that is heavy with graphic features and links science to reading. By the completion of the lesson, the students will have studied the key features and text structure of an informational text and explored content-specific vocabulary. They will use information provided to compare and contrast the lives of ants to the lives of humans.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Right Rental:

In this MEA students will have to find the right rental for a client as they use their knowledge of numbers and some reasoning. Students will read and write multi-digit whole numbers using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

Strategically Structured (Text Structures):

Strategically Structured presents the five text structures to fourth grade students (description, sequence, compare/contrast, cause/effect, and problem/solution). Students are able to identify key words that categorize each text structure, create their own graphic organizers and pieces of writing for each text structure, and identify examples and non-examples of each text structure. Students will be engaged with interactive technology throughout this lesson and will get plenty of opportunities to write their own non-fiction pieces using the different text structures. Fourth grade science and social studies content are presented in the text structure scenario examples.

Type: Lesson Plan

Energetic Energy: What Do You Know?:

Using cause and effect organizer students will identify the different types of energy-light, sound, heat, electrical, and motion, recognize the cause of these energies and the effects that they have. Students will also understand the concept of using an informational text to help them understand information about a science topic.

Type: Lesson Plan

Informational Text Structure:

In this lesson, students will become familiar with common text structures in order to improve their comprehension of non-fiction material.

Type: Lesson Plan

Keep it Cool –an Engineering Design Challenge:

This Engineering Design Challenge is intended to help fourth grade students apply the concepts of the flow of heat from a hot object to a cold object and that heat flow may cause objects to change temperature. It is not intended as an initial introduction to this benchmark.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorial

Cause and Effect in the Deep, Blue Sea:

Help Noah learn how to identify examples of cause and effect in informational text in this ocean-themed, interactive tutorial. You will also learn how to match events and ideas in informational text that have a cause and effect relationship.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Student Center Activities

Edcite: ELA Reading Grade 4-5:

Students can practice answering reading comprehension questions with a text about online learning. With an account, students can save their work and send it to their teacher when complete.

Type: Student Center Activity

Comprehension: Cause and Effect Match:

In this activity, students will match causes and effects. NOTE: This is an introductory level activity. It will need to be extended using grade-appropriate text to meet the complexity of the aligned standards.

Type: Student Center Activity

Comprehension: Cause and Effect Organizer:

In this activity, students will identify cause and effect relationships in text and record them on a graphic organizer.

Type: Student Center Activity

Comprehension: Cause and Effect Roll:

In this activity, students will identify the relationship between cause and effect. NOTE: This is an introductory level activity. It will need to be extended using grade-appropriate text to meet the complexity of the aligned standards.

Type: Student Center Activity

Comprehension: Text Structure Reflection:

In this activity, students will identify text structures and complete corresponding graphic organizers. Multiple graphic organizers are provided, and a reference sheet is also provided that includes an explanation, signal words, and graphic organizer templates for each text structure.

Type: Student Center Activity

Comprehension: Text Structure Sort:

In this activity, students will sort sentences based on their text structures. As an extension activity, students can write about a topic using each text structure.

Type: Student Center Activity

Comprehension: Write Cause or Effect:

In this activity, students will identify the relationship between cause and effect. NOTE: This is an introductory activity for cause and effect. Students will need to extend their learning using text containing a cause/effect text structure to fully meet the expectations of the aligned standards.

Type: Student Center Activity

Teaching Ideas

Introducing Text Structures in Writing:

This teaching idea introduces students to the idea that science writing is organized in identifiable patterns called text structures. Understanding and using these different text structures helps refine students' abilities to both read and write in science. A wide variety of resources and extension activities are included.

Type: Teaching Idea

Wildlife Rehab Game-SeaWorld Classroom Activity:

In this activity, the students will discuss and determine wildlife rescue scenarios based on cards with situations.

Type: Teaching Idea

Unit/Lesson Sequence

Exploring Compare and Contrast Structure in Expository Texts:

This lesson focuses on identifying and analyzing the compare and contrast text structure within expository texts. First, students are introduced to the terms compare and contrast and asked to find similarities and differences between two common items. Next, students work in small groups to identify texts that are comparing and contrasting information. Students are then introduced to the Venn diagram as a tool that demonstrates similarities and differences and aids in learning new material.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

STEM Lessons - Model Eliciting Activity

The Right Rental:

In this MEA students will have to find the right rental for a client as they use their knowledge of numbers and some reasoning. Students will read and write multi-digit whole numbers using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Original Student Tutorials for Language Arts - Grades K-5

Cause and Effect in the Deep, Blue Sea:

Help Noah learn how to identify examples of cause and effect in informational text in this ocean-themed, interactive tutorial. You will also learn how to match events and ideas in informational text that have a cause and effect relationship.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorial

Cause and Effect in the Deep, Blue Sea:

Help Noah learn how to identify examples of cause and effect in informational text in this ocean-themed, interactive tutorial. You will also learn how to match events and ideas in informational text that have a cause and effect relationship.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Student Center Activity

Edcite: ELA Reading Grade 4-5:

Students can practice answering reading comprehension questions with a text about online learning. With an account, students can save their work and send it to their teacher when complete.

Type: Student Center Activity

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.