# MAFS.912.F-IF.1.1

Understand that a function from one set (called the domain) to another set (called the range) assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range. If f is a function and x is an element of its domain, then f(x) denotes the output of f corresponding to the input x. The graph of f is the graph of the equation y = f(x).
General Information
Subject Area: Mathematics
Domain-Subdomain: Functions: Interpreting Functions
Cluster: Level 1: Recall
Cluster: Understand the concept of a function and use function notation. (Algebra 1 - Major Cluster) (Algebra 2 - Supporting Cluster) -

Clusters should not be sorted from Major to Supporting and then taught in that order. To do so would strip the coherence of the mathematical ideas and miss the opportunity to enhance the major work of the grade with the supporting clusters.

Date of Last Rating: 02/14
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes
Test Item Specifications
Assessed with:

MAFS.912.F-IF.1.2

## Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
1200310: Algebra 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1200320: Algebra 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1200370: Algebra 1-A (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1200400: Foundational Skills in Mathematics 9-12 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1200410: Mathematics for College Success (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (course terminated))
1200700: Mathematics for College Algebra (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (course terminated))
7912070: Access Liberal Arts Mathematics (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2019, 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7912080: Access Algebra 1A (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2019, 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1200315: Algebra 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1200375: Algebra 1-A for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7912100: Fundamental Algebraic Skills (Specifically in versions: 2013 - 2015, 2015 - 2017 (course terminated))
1207300: Liberal Arts Mathematics 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (course terminated))
7912075: Access Algebra 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2019, 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)

## Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
MAFS.912.F-IF.1.AP.1a: Demonstrate that to be a function, from one set (called the domain) to another set (called the range) assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range.
MAFS.912.F-IF.1.AP.1b: Map elements of the domain sets to the corresponding range sets of functions and determine the rules in the relationship.

## Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

## Assessments

Sample 3 - High School Algebra 1 State Interim Assessment:

This is a State Interim Assessment for 9th-12th grades.

Type: Assessment

Sample 2 - High School Algebra 1 State Interim Assessment:

This is a State Interim Assessment for 9th-12th grades.

Type: Assessment

## Formative Assessments

What Is a Function?:

Students are asked to define the term function and describe any important properties of functions.

Type: Formative Assessment

Writing Functions:

Students are asked to create their own examples and nonexamples of functions by completing tables and mapping diagrams.

Type: Formative Assessment

Circles and Functions:

Students are shown the graph of a circle and asked to identify a portion of the graph that could be removed so that the remaining portion represents a function.

Type: Formative Assessment

Cafeteria Function:

Students are asked decide if one variable is a function of the other in the context of a real-world problem.

Type: Formative Assessment

Identifying Functions:

Students are asked to determine if relations given by tables and mapping diagrams are functions.

Type: Formative Assessment

Identifying the Graphs of Functions:

Students are given four graphs and asked to identify which represent functions and to justify their choices.

Type: Formative Assessment

## Lesson Plans

Functions: Domain and Range:

Students will identify if a graph represents a function and determine domain and range of the graphs.

Type: Lesson Plan

Exponential Graphing Using Technology:

This lesson is teacher/student directed for discovering and translating exponential functions using a graphing app. The lesson focuses on the translations from a parent graph and how changing the coefficient, base and exponent values relate to the transformation.

Type: Lesson Plan

## Original Student Tutorials

Functions, Functions, Everywhere: Part 2:

Continue exploring how to determine if a relation is a function using graphs and story situations in this interactive tutorial.

This is the second tutorial in a 2-part series. Click HERE to open Part 1.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Functions, Functions Everywhere: Part 1:

What is a function? Where do we see functions in real life? Explore these questions and more using different contexts in this interactive tutorial.

This is part 1 in a two-part series on functions. Click HERE to open Part 2.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

## Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Hurricane Dennis & Failed Math Models:

What happens when math models go wrong in forecasting hurricanes?

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

This is a simple task touching on two key points of functions. First, there is the idea that not all functions have real numbers as domain and range values. Second, the task addresses the issue of when a function admits an inverse, and the process of "restricting the domain" in order to achieve an invertible function.

Using Function Notation I:

The Parking Lot:

The purpose of this task is to investigate the meaning of the definition of function in a real-world context where the question of whether there is more than one output for a given input arises naturally. In more advanced courses this task could be used to investigate the question of whether a function has an inverse.

Domains:

The purpose of this task to help students think about an expression for a function as built up out of simple operations on the variable and understand the domain in terms of values for which each operation is invalid (e.g., dividing by zero or taking the square root of a negative number).

The Customers:

The purpose of this task is to introduce or reinforce the concept of a function, especially in a context where the function is not given by an explicit algebraic representation. Further, the last part of the task emphasizes the significance of one variable being a function of another variable in an immediately relevant real-life context.

Points on a graph:

This task is designed to get at a common student confusion between the independent and dependent variables. This confusion often arises in situations like (b), where students are asked to solve an equation involving a function, and confuse that operation with evaluating the function.

Parabolas and Inverse Functions:

This problem is a simple de-contextualized version of F-IF Your Father and F-IF Parking Lot. It also provides a natural context where the absolute value function arises as, in part (b), solving for x in terms of y means taking the square root of x^2 which is |x|.This task assumes students have an understanding of the relationship between functions and equations.

Interpreting the Graph:

The purpose of this task is to help students learn to read information about a function from its graph, by asking them to show the part of the graph that exhibits a certain property of the function. The task could be used to further instruction on understanding functions or as an assessment tool, with the caveat that it requires some amount of creativity to decide how to best illustrate some of the statements.

## Professional Development

Domain and Range of a Function:

Definition of domain and range. The tutorial uses six different examples to demonstrate linear, quadratic, and rational functions with consideration to the domain and range.

Type: Professional Development

## Tutorials

Functions:

Functions can be thought of as mathematical machines, which when given an element from a set of permissible inputs, always produce the same element from a set of possible outputs

Type: Tutorial

Vertical Line Test:

A graph in Cartesian coordinates may represent a function or may only represent a binary relation. The "vertical line test" is a visual way to determine whether or not a graph represents a function.

Type: Tutorial

Linear Functions:

In this tutorial, "Linear functions of the form f(x) = ax + b and the properties of their graphs are explored interactively using an applet." The applet allows students to manipulate variables to discover the changes in intercepts and slope of the graphed line. There are six questions for students to answer, exploring the applet and observing changes. The questions' answers are included on this site. Additionally, a tutorial for graphing linear functions by hand is included.

Type: Tutorial

## Unit/Lesson Sequence

Sample Algebra 1 Curriculum Plan Using CMAP:

This sample Algebra 1 CMAP is a fully customizable resource and curriculum-planning tool that provides a framework for the Algebra 1 Course. The units and standards are customizable and the CMAP allows instructors to add lessons, worksheets, and other resources as needed. This CMAP also includes rows that automatically filter and display Math Formative Assessments System tasks, E-Learning Original Student Tutorials and Perspectives Videos that are aligned to the standards, available on CPALMS.

Learn more about the sample Algebra 1 CMAP, its features and customizability by watching the following video:

### Using this CMAP

To view an introduction on the CMAP tool, please .

To view the CMAP, click on the "Open Resource Page" button above; be sure you are logged in to your iCPALMS account.

To use this CMAP, click on the "Clone" button once the CMAP opens in the "Open Resource Page." Once the CMAP is cloned, you will be able to see it as a class inside your iCPALMS My Planner (CMAPs) app.

To access your My Planner App and the cloned CMAP, click on the iCPALMS tab in the top menu.

All CMAP tutorials can be found within the iCPALMS Planner App or at the following URL: http://www.cpalms.org/support/tutorials_and_informational_videos.aspx

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

## Video/Audio/Animations

What is a Function?:

This video will demonstrate how to determine what is and is not a function.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Real-Valued Functions of a Real Variable:

Although the domain and codomain of functions can consist of any type of objects, the most common functions encountered in Algebra are real-valued functions of a real variable, whose domain and codomain are the set of real numbers, R.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Domain and Range of Binary Relations:

Two sets which are often of primary interest when studying binary relations are the domain and range of the relation.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

## Virtual Manipulatives

Functions and Vertical Line Test:

This lesson is designed to introduce students to the vertical line test for functions as well as practice plotting points and drawing simple functions. The lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to the vertical line test and functions as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Function Flyer:

In this online tool, students input a function to create a graph where the constants, coefficients, and exponents can be adjusted by slider bars. This tool allows students to explore graphs of functions and how adjusting the numbers in the function affect the graph. Using tabs at the top of the page you can also access supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

## MFAS Formative Assessments

Cafeteria Function:

Students are asked decide if one variable is a function of the other in the context of a real-world problem.

Circles and Functions:

Students are shown the graph of a circle and asked to identify a portion of the graph that could be removed so that the remaining portion represents a function.

Identifying Functions:

Students are asked to determine if relations given by tables and mapping diagrams are functions.

Identifying the Graphs of Functions:

Students are given four graphs and asked to identify which represent functions and to justify their choices.

What Is a Function?:

Students are asked to define the term function and describe any important properties of functions.

Writing Functions:

Students are asked to create their own examples and nonexamples of functions by completing tables and mapping diagrams.

## Original Student Tutorials Mathematics - Grades 9-12

Functions, Functions Everywhere: Part 1:

What is a function? Where do we see functions in real life? Explore these questions and more using different contexts in this interactive tutorial.

This is part 1 in a two-part series on functions. Click HERE to open Part 2.

Functions, Functions, Everywhere: Part 2:

Continue exploring how to determine if a relation is a function using graphs and story situations in this interactive tutorial.

This is the second tutorial in a 2-part series. Click HERE to open Part 1.

## Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

## Original Student Tutorials

Functions, Functions, Everywhere: Part 2:

Continue exploring how to determine if a relation is a function using graphs and story situations in this interactive tutorial.

This is the second tutorial in a 2-part series. Click HERE to open Part 1.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Functions, Functions Everywhere: Part 1:

What is a function? Where do we see functions in real life? Explore these questions and more using different contexts in this interactive tutorial.

This is part 1 in a two-part series on functions. Click HERE to open Part 2.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

This is a simple task touching on two key points of functions. First, there is the idea that not all functions have real numbers as domain and range values. Second, the task addresses the issue of when a function admits an inverse, and the process of "restricting the domain" in order to achieve an invertible function.

Using Function Notation I:

The Parking Lot:

The purpose of this task is to investigate the meaning of the definition of function in a real-world context where the question of whether there is more than one output for a given input arises naturally. In more advanced courses this task could be used to investigate the question of whether a function has an inverse.

Domains:

The purpose of this task to help students think about an expression for a function as built up out of simple operations on the variable and understand the domain in terms of values for which each operation is invalid (e.g., dividing by zero or taking the square root of a negative number).

The Customers:

The purpose of this task is to introduce or reinforce the concept of a function, especially in a context where the function is not given by an explicit algebraic representation. Further, the last part of the task emphasizes the significance of one variable being a function of another variable in an immediately relevant real-life context.

Points on a graph:

This task is designed to get at a common student confusion between the independent and dependent variables. This confusion often arises in situations like (b), where students are asked to solve an equation involving a function, and confuse that operation with evaluating the function.

Parabolas and Inverse Functions:

This problem is a simple de-contextualized version of F-IF Your Father and F-IF Parking Lot. It also provides a natural context where the absolute value function arises as, in part (b), solving for x in terms of y means taking the square root of x^2 which is |x|.This task assumes students have an understanding of the relationship between functions and equations.

Interpreting the Graph:

The purpose of this task is to help students learn to read information about a function from its graph, by asking them to show the part of the graph that exhibits a certain property of the function. The task could be used to further instruction on understanding functions or as an assessment tool, with the caveat that it requires some amount of creativity to decide how to best illustrate some of the statements.

## Tutorial

Vertical Line Test:

A graph in Cartesian coordinates may represent a function or may only represent a binary relation. The "vertical line test" is a visual way to determine whether or not a graph represents a function.

Type: Tutorial

## Video/Audio/Animations

What is a Function?:

This video will demonstrate how to determine what is and is not a function.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Real-Valued Functions of a Real Variable:

Although the domain and codomain of functions can consist of any type of objects, the most common functions encountered in Algebra are real-valued functions of a real variable, whose domain and codomain are the set of real numbers, R.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Domain and Range of Binary Relations:

Two sets which are often of primary interest when studying binary relations are the domain and range of the relation.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

## Virtual Manipulative

Function Flyer:

In this online tool, students input a function to create a graph where the constants, coefficients, and exponents can be adjusted by slider bars. This tool allows students to explore graphs of functions and how adjusting the numbers in the function affect the graph. Using tabs at the top of the page you can also access supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

## Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

This is a simple task touching on two key points of functions. First, there is the idea that not all functions have real numbers as domain and range values. Second, the task addresses the issue of when a function admits an inverse, and the process of "restricting the domain" in order to achieve an invertible function.

Using Function Notation I:

The Parking Lot:

The purpose of this task is to investigate the meaning of the definition of function in a real-world context where the question of whether there is more than one output for a given input arises naturally. In more advanced courses this task could be used to investigate the question of whether a function has an inverse.

Domains:

The purpose of this task to help students think about an expression for a function as built up out of simple operations on the variable and understand the domain in terms of values for which each operation is invalid (e.g., dividing by zero or taking the square root of a negative number).

The Customers:

The purpose of this task is to introduce or reinforce the concept of a function, especially in a context where the function is not given by an explicit algebraic representation. Further, the last part of the task emphasizes the significance of one variable being a function of another variable in an immediately relevant real-life context.

Points on a graph:

This task is designed to get at a common student confusion between the independent and dependent variables. This confusion often arises in situations like (b), where students are asked to solve an equation involving a function, and confuse that operation with evaluating the function.