MAFS.3.OA.1.4

Determine the unknown whole number in a multiplication or division equation relating three whole numbers. For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 × ? = 48, 5 = [] ÷ 3, 6 × 6 = ?.

Clarifications

Examples of Opportunities for In-Depth Focus

Word problems involving equal groups, arrays, and measurement quantities can be used to build students’ understanding of and skill with multiplication and division, as well as to allow students to demonstrate their understanding of and skill with these operations.

General Information
Subject Area: Mathematics
Grade: 3
Domain-Subdomain: Operations and Algebraic Thinking
Cluster: Level 1: Recall
Cluster: Represent and solve problems involving multiplication and division. (Major Cluster) -

Clusters should not be sorted from Major to Supporting and then taught in that order. To do so would strip the coherence of the mathematical ideas and miss the opportunity to enhance the major work of the grade with the supporting clusters.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/14
Content Complexity Rating: Level 1: Recall - More Information
Date of Last Rating: 02/14
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes
Test Item Specifications

  • Assessment Limits :

    All values in items may not exceed whole number multiplication facts of 10 x 10 or the related division facts. Items must provide the equation. Students may not be required to create the equation.

  • Calculator :

    No

  • Context :

    No context

Sample Test Items (3)


Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
5012050: Grade Three Mathematics (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7712040: Access Mathematics Grade 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
5012055: Grade 3 Accelerated Mathematics (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
5012015: Foundational Skills in Mathematics 3-5 (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
MAFS.3.OA.1.AP.4a: Find the unknown number in a multiplication equation.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Assessments

Sample 2 - Third Grade Math State Interim Assessment:

This is a State Interim Assessment for third grade.

Type: Assessment

Sample 1 - Third Grade Math State Interim Assessment:

This is a State Interim Assessment for third grade.

Type: Assessment

Educational Games

Patterns in Algebra:

This website is a game that incorporates algebraic thinking with patterning. It can be used for third or fourth grade students.

Type: Educational Game

Arithmetic Workout:

This interactive Flash applet offers three ways for students to practice basic fact skills related to multiplication and division. Users control the challenge level by choosing the size of the blank multiplication grid displayed by the applet. In Multiply mode users type in the product that completes a multiplication sentence. In Factor mode users click a grid cell that matches a given product. In Divide mode users type in a missing factor in the displayed multiplication sentence. A sound effect and timing feature are optional.

Type: Educational Game

Formative Assessments

Multiplication and Division Equations:

Students are given multiplication and division equations within 100 and asked to find the missing numbers. The missing numbers are presented in all positions.

Type: Formative Assessment

Missing Numbers In Multiplication Equations:

Students are given multiplication equations with products within 50 and are asked to find missing numbers. The missing numbers are presented in all positions.

Type: Formative Assessment

Missing Numbers In Division Equations:

Students are given division equations involving numbers within 50 and are asked to find missing numbers. The missing numbers are presented in all positions.

Type: Formative Assessment

Find the Unknown Number:

Students are given multiplication and division equations within 50 and are asked to find missing numbers. The missing numbers are presented in all positions.

Type: Formative Assessment

Lesson Plans

Discovering the Mystery Factor Through Arrays:

Students will begin with the use of manipualtives to solve for unknown factors by building arrays. They will progress to drawn models as mastery is shown with manipulatives. 

Type: Lesson Plan

Cupid's Carnival Rides:

In this lesson, students will look at different carnival rides and will determine which ride will make the most profit by looking at factors such as number of tickets per ride, the cost per ticket, the length of the ride, the number of hours the ride is open and the cost to operate the ride. Students will need to use different operations in order to solve the tasks and will be required to do multi-steps.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

Giddy Up, Round Up: Relating Division to Multiplication:

In this lesson, students will learn to solve division problems by relating them to multiplication facts. Practice materials focus on the 6's and 8's multiplication facts.

Type: Lesson Plan

Tasty Algebra: Using toasted O cereal to find the missing factor in a multiplication equation.:

In this lesson students will use Cheerios to solve multiplication equations relating 3 whole numbers from word problems that include missing factors ranging from one through ten. Students will also argue the validity of multiplication equations that include missing factors and products with corresponding word problems.

Type: Lesson Plan

Field Trip Fundraiser:

This 3rd grade MEA asks students to work as a team to figure out which product would be the best choice for their fundraiser for their field trip. They will compare two vendor's products and make a decision about which product would be the best option for their school.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

Lesson Study Resource Kit

Operations and Algebraic Thinking Lesson Study Resource Kit – Third Grade:

This lesson study resource kit can be used to guide and support teams of third grade teachers as they engage in lesson study focused on the academic standards in the Operations and Algebraic Thinking domain.

Type: Lesson Study Resource Kit

Virtual Manipulatives

The Multiplication Game:

This fun game lets the learners use their multiplication skills to beat the computer. Both the learner and the computer take turns moving one marker at a time. Whoever get 4 in a row first will win the game.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Arithmetic:

The students will be given mutiplication and division problems which they must answer. They also have the option of being given a number then stating the factors of how that number was attained using either multiplication or division.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

STEM Lessons - Model Eliciting Activity

Cupid's Carnival Rides:

In this lesson, students will look at different carnival rides and will determine which ride will make the most profit by looking at factors such as number of tickets per ride, the cost per ticket, the length of the ride, the number of hours the ride is open and the cost to operate the ride. Students will need to use different operations in order to solve the tasks and will be required to do multi-steps.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Field Trip Fundraiser:

This 3rd grade MEA asks students to work as a team to figure out which product would be the best choice for their fundraiser for their field trip. They will compare two vendor's products and make a decision about which product would be the best option for their school.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

MFAS Formative Assessments

Find the Unknown Number:

Students are given multiplication and division equations within 50 and are asked to find missing numbers. The missing numbers are presented in all positions.

Missing Numbers In Division Equations:

Students are given division equations involving numbers within 50 and are asked to find missing numbers. The missing numbers are presented in all positions.

Missing Numbers In Multiplication Equations:

Students are given multiplication equations with products within 50 and are asked to find missing numbers. The missing numbers are presented in all positions.

Multiplication and Division Equations:

Students are given multiplication and division equations within 100 and asked to find the missing numbers. The missing numbers are presented in all positions.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Educational Game

Patterns in Algebra:

This website is a game that incorporates algebraic thinking with patterning. It can be used for third or fourth grade students.

Type: Educational Game

Virtual Manipulative

Arithmetic:

The students will be given mutiplication and division problems which they must answer. They also have the option of being given a number then stating the factors of how that number was attained using either multiplication or division.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Virtual Manipulative

The Multiplication Game:

This fun game lets the learners use their multiplication skills to beat the computer. Both the learner and the computer take turns moving one marker at a time. Whoever get 4 in a row first will win the game.

Type: Virtual Manipulative