SC.912.L.16.16

Describe the process of meiosis, including independent assortment and crossing over. Explain how reduction division results in the formation of haploid gametes or spores.
General Information
Subject Area: Science
Grade: 912
Body of Knowledge: Life Science
Idea: Level 2: Basic Application of Skills & Concepts
Standard: Heredity and Reproduction -

A. DNA stores and transmits genetic information. Genes are sets of instructions encoded in the structure of DNA.

B. Genetic information is passed from generation to generation by DNA in all organisms and accounts for similarities in related individuals.

C. Manipulation of DNA in organisms has led to commercial production of biological molecules on a large scale and genetically modified organisms.

D. Reproduction is characteristic of living things and is essential for the survival of species.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/08
Date of Last Rating: 05/08
Status: State Board Approved

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
2002080: M/J Comprehensive Science 2, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000310: Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000320: Biology 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000430: Biology Technology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
3027010: Biotechnology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000440: Genetics Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002400: Integrated Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002410: Integrated Science 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002420: Integrated Science 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002430: Integrated Science 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000020: M/J Life Science, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7920015: Access Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
7920025: Access Integrated Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
2002085: M/J Comprehensive Science 2 Accelerated Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000315: Biology 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002405: Integrated Science 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))
2002425: Integrated Science 2 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
SC.912.L.16.In.7: Recognize that cells reproduce by dividing to produce new cells that are identical (mitosis) or new cells that are different (meiosis).
SC.912.L.16.Su.6: Recognize that cells reproduce by dividing.
SC.912.L.16.Pa.6: Recognize that living things produce offspring (reproduce).

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Lesson Plans

The Making of a Marvel: Part 3:

This lesson emphasizes the phases of meiosis and how it is different from mitosis. Students will model each phase using candy worms as chromosomes and other types of candy to represent other cellular structures. This gives students a hands on perspective of meiosis, allowing them to better grasp the differences in phases, as well as to understand the importance of meiosis in sexual reproduction.

Type: Lesson Plan

Making Mitosis with Yarn:

Students will model stages of mitosis and meiosis using yarn. By the end of the lesson, the students will be able to recognize the difference between mitosis and meiosis, know what type of cells are produced from mitosis and meiosis, and how many new cells are created at the end of each process.

This lesson is designed for student with mild/moderate disabilities enrolled in an Access class or in the inclusion classroom with assistance from the support facilitation teacher or possibly an Advanced Placement Biology student.

Type: Lesson Plan

Mitosis and Meiosis Pipe Cleaner Simulation: Crossing Over and Independent Assortment:

This lesson requires the students to simulate the movement of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis using different-colored pipe cleaners. The pipe cleaners allow the instructor to highlight both recombination (crossing over) and independent assortment, two important components of meiotic cell division. The processes that create variation among gametes are also emphasized.

This lesson plan includes excellent teacher support in the form of videos that explain how the pipe cleaners should be manipulated to demonstrate the concepts of mitosis, meiosis, and independent assortment.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorial

Meiosis: A Special Kind of Cell Division:

Learn how to describe Meiosis, the process by which sex cells--the sperm and the egg--are created in living things. In this interactive tutorial, you will also discover how sexual reproduction results in genetically diverse offspring.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Tutorials

Phases of Meiosis II:

This video discusses the phases of Meiosis (Part 2 of 2).

Type: Tutorial

Phases of Meiosis I:

This video discusses the phases of Meiosis (Part 1 of 2).

Type: Tutorial

Spermatogenesis:

Spermatogenesis is the process in which spermatozoa are produced from male primordial germ cells by way of mitosis and meiosis. This tutorial will help the learners to understand the process of spermatogenesis.

Type: Tutorial

How Meiosis Works:

This tutorial discusses the process of meiosis which results in the formation of sperm cells and egg cells. It is the process by which diploid cells become haploid gametes.

Type: Tutorial

Meiosis:


This animation describes what occurs in a cell during the process of meiosis. Each phase of meiosis is defined and a visual accompanies the definition. Students can see the process of a diploid cell becoming a haploid cell.

Type: Tutorial

Unique Features of Meiosis:

This tutorial will help you to understand the three unique features of meiosis and how meiosis is related to genetic inheritance.

Type: Tutorial

Stages of Meiosis:

This animation details the process of meiosis and explains each of the stages.

Type: Tutorial

Meiosis II:

This tutorial will help you to understand how meiosis II is very similar to mitosis. In both cases, chromosomes line up and sister chromatids are separated by the action of the spindle fibers.

Type: Tutorial

Meiosis 1:

This tutorial will help you to understand the unique features of the first round of meiosis. In meiosis 1, members of homologous chromosome pairs are separated. This results in the segregation of genes into two gametes.

Type: Tutorial

Meiosis with Crossing Over:

An important fundamental concept of genetics is the idea of independent assortment. This states that genes are inherited independently of one another. This tutorial will help you better understand crossing over and independent assortment during meiosis.

Type: Tutorial

Stages of Meiosis:

Meiosis is the process by which a diploid eukaryotic cell divides to generate four haploid cells. This process is important in forming gametes for sexual reproduction. This tutorial will help you understand the process of meiosis and its various stages.

Type: Tutorial

Unique Features of Meiosis:

This tutorial will help you to understand the basic principles of genetic inheritance which are segregation and independent assortment of two alleles.

The principles of genetic inheritance are based on unique features of meiosis. Synapsis of homologous chromosomes and the separation of the homologous pairs during anaphase 1 cause the segregation of alleles. Crossing over and the random separation of chromosomes cause independent assortment.

Type: Tutorial

Meiosis:


This tutorial will help students understand the process of meiosis. Each stage in the process of meiosis is explained and animated in this tutorial.

Type: Tutorial

Video/Audio/Animation

Photosynthesis animation and other cell processes in animation:

This site has fantastic short Flash animations of intricate cell processes, including photosynthesis and the electron transport chain.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Virtual Manipulative

Meiosis or Mitosis:

This virtual lab has three components: a short tutorial describing meiosis, a series of microscope slides allowing students to identify stages of meiosis, and a karyotyping activity. The first components support student understanding of mitosis and meiosis, as well as gamete formation. The karyotyping activity is fun and interesting for students, but is not necessary for mastery of NGSS science benchmarks.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Worksheet

Dragon Genetics -- Independent Assortment and Gene Linkage :

This is a lab/activity that uses dragons as "research subjects" for genetics research. It highlights independent assortment as well as gene linkage. Students will do the first part of the activity using independent assortment (genes on different chromosomes). The second part of the activity looks at genes on the same chromosome, and how linkage plays a part in allele assortment. It can be used to show how crossing over allows increased variation when involving linked genes.

Worksheets are available in both Word and PDF formats, for both teacher and student. There is an additional dragon genetics lab that illustrates the principles of Mendelian genetics as a whole.

Type: Worksheet

Original Student Tutorials Science - Grades 9-12

Meiosis: A Special Kind of Cell Division:

Learn how to describe Meiosis, the process by which sex cells--the sperm and the egg--are created in living things. In this interactive tutorial, you will also discover how sexual reproduction results in genetically diverse offspring.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorial

Meiosis: A Special Kind of Cell Division:

Learn how to describe Meiosis, the process by which sex cells--the sperm and the egg--are created in living things. In this interactive tutorial, you will also discover how sexual reproduction results in genetically diverse offspring.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Tutorials

Phases of Meiosis II:

This video discusses the phases of Meiosis (Part 2 of 2).

Type: Tutorial

Phases of Meiosis I:

This video discusses the phases of Meiosis (Part 1 of 2).

Type: Tutorial

Spermatogenesis:

Spermatogenesis is the process in which spermatozoa are produced from male primordial germ cells by way of mitosis and meiosis. This tutorial will help the learners to understand the process of spermatogenesis.

Type: Tutorial

How Meiosis Works:

This tutorial discusses the process of meiosis which results in the formation of sperm cells and egg cells. It is the process by which diploid cells become haploid gametes.

Type: Tutorial

Meiosis:


This animation describes what occurs in a cell during the process of meiosis. Each phase of meiosis is defined and a visual accompanies the definition. Students can see the process of a diploid cell becoming a haploid cell.

Type: Tutorial

Unique Features of Meiosis:

This tutorial will help you to understand the three unique features of meiosis and how meiosis is related to genetic inheritance.

Type: Tutorial

Stages of Meiosis:

This animation details the process of meiosis and explains each of the stages.

Type: Tutorial

Meiosis II:

This tutorial will help you to understand how meiosis II is very similar to mitosis. In both cases, chromosomes line up and sister chromatids are separated by the action of the spindle fibers.

Type: Tutorial

Meiosis 1:

This tutorial will help you to understand the unique features of the first round of meiosis. In meiosis 1, members of homologous chromosome pairs are separated. This results in the segregation of genes into two gametes.

Type: Tutorial

Meiosis with Crossing Over:

An important fundamental concept of genetics is the idea of independent assortment. This states that genes are inherited independently of one another. This tutorial will help you better understand crossing over and independent assortment during meiosis.

Type: Tutorial

Stages of Meiosis:

Meiosis is the process by which a diploid eukaryotic cell divides to generate four haploid cells. This process is important in forming gametes for sexual reproduction. This tutorial will help you understand the process of meiosis and its various stages.

Type: Tutorial

Unique Features of Meiosis:

This tutorial will help you to understand the basic principles of genetic inheritance which are segregation and independent assortment of two alleles.

The principles of genetic inheritance are based on unique features of meiosis. Synapsis of homologous chromosomes and the separation of the homologous pairs during anaphase 1 cause the segregation of alleles. Crossing over and the random separation of chromosomes cause independent assortment.

Type: Tutorial

Meiosis:


This tutorial will help students understand the process of meiosis. Each stage in the process of meiosis is explained and animated in this tutorial.

Type: Tutorial

Video/Audio/Animation

Photosynthesis animation and other cell processes in animation:

This site has fantastic short Flash animations of intricate cell processes, including photosynthesis and the electron transport chain.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.