SC.912.L.16.6

Discuss the mechanisms for regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes at transcription and translation level.
General Information
Subject Area: Science
Grade: 912
Body of Knowledge: Life Science
Idea: Level 3: Strategic Thinking & Complex Reasoning
Standard: Heredity and Reproduction -

A. DNA stores and transmits genetic information. Genes are sets of instructions encoded in the structure of DNA.

B. Genetic information is passed from generation to generation by DNA in all organisms and accounts for similarities in related individuals.

C. Manipulation of DNA in organisms has led to commercial production of biological molecules on a large scale and genetically modified organisms.

D. Reproduction is characteristic of living things and is essential for the survival of species.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/08
Date of Last Rating: 05/08
Status: State Board Approved

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
2000330: Biology 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000430: Biology Technology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
3027010: Biotechnology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
3027020: Biotechnology 2 (Specifically in versions: 2015 and beyond (current))
2000440: Genetics Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000500: Bioscience 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2000510: Bioscience 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Lesson Plans

New Research into Epigenetics and Rheumatoid Arthritis:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text that describes recent research into the underlying factors affecting rheumatoid arthritis. The text describes how epigenetic analysis in knee and hip joints revealed unique patterns that suggest the disease may differ from joint to joint. The findings may allow for the development of more effective, personalized treatment for those who suffer with RA. This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, a vocabulary handout, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Protein Synthesis: Transcription & Translation:

Students will explore the process of protein synthesis, specifically transcription and translation, using a sequenced graphic organizer and an interactive simulation (Lesson 1 & 2).

This resource contains 3 lessons:

  • Lesson 1: Transcription & Translation
  • Lesson 2: Lac Operon
  • Lesson 3: Proteins & Cancer

As an extension (Lesson 3) the students will justify the applications of biotechnology that uses transcription and translation to synthesize proteins that target cancer cells or reason the possibilities of the amplification of antibodies using immortal cells.

They will explore how mutations, genetic or epigenetic (lifestyle-chemicals, radiation, viruses), resulting in cancer.

The student will connect changes that occur in the genetic code, during transcription and translation, to the deleterious impact on proto oncogenes that promote cell division and tumor suppressor genes that normally inhibit it.

Type: Lesson Plan

Tissue Specific Gene Expression:

How is it that all cells in our body have the same genes, yet cells in different tissues express different genes? A basic notion in biology that most high school students fail to conceptualize is the fact that all cells in the animal or human body contain the same DNA, yet different cells in different tissues express, on the one hand, a set of common genes, and on the other, express another set of genes that vary depending on the type of tissue and the stage of development. In this video lesson, the student will be reminded that genes in a cell/tissue are expressed when certain conditions in the nucleus are met. Interestingly, the system utilized by the cell to ensure tissue specific gene expression is rather simple. Among other factors - all discussed fully in the lesson - the cells make use of a tiny scaffold known as the "Nuclear Matrix or Nucleo-Skeleton". This video lesson spans 20 minutes and provides 5 exercises for students to work out in groups and in consultation with their classroom teacher. The entire duration of the video demonstration and exercises should take about 45-50 minutes, or equivalent to one classroom session. There are no supplies needed for students' participation in the provided exercises. They will only need their notebooks and pens. However, the teacher may wish to emulate the demonstrations used in the video lesson by the presenter and in this case simple material can be used as those used in the video. These include play dough, pencils, rubber bands (to construct the nuclear matrix model), a tennis ball and 2-3 Meters worth of shoe laces. The students should be aware of basic information about DNA folding in the nucleus, DNA replication, gene transcription, translation and protein synthesis.

Type: Lesson Plan

The King of Dinosaurs or a Chicken Dinner?:

This lesson uses the fundamentals of protein synthesis as a context for investigating the closest living relative to Tyrannosaurus rex and evaluating whether or not paleontologist and dinosaur expert, Jack Horner, will be able to "create" live dinosaurs in the lab. The first objective is for students to be able to access and properly utilize the NIH's protein sequence database to perform a BLAST, using biochemical evidence to determine T rex's closest living relative. The second objective is for students to be able to explain and evaluate Jack Horner's plans for creating live dinosaurs in the lab. The main prerequisite for the lesson is a basic understanding of protein synthesis, or the flow of information in the cell from DNA to RNA during transcription and then from RNA to protein during translation. You will find downloadable handouts of the necessary documents for the lesson. To complete the lesson, you will need the handouts and ideally computers with Internet connections so that students can complete the BLAST on their own or in groups. The computers are not a requirement, however, because the video has an optional segment that goes through the BLAST step-by-step and shows students exactly what they would see if they were doing it themselves. There is an optional reading assignment from WIRED magazine at the close of the lesson, and the article can be accessed for free on-line at . The lesson should take somewhere around 90 minutes, a portion of which is group or classroom discussion based on prompts from the video or the handouts.

Type: Lesson Plan

Perspectives Video: Experts

Gene Expression and Regulation:

Genes are transcribed and translated into proteins, a process called gene expression. Learn here how you have the proteins you need in the quantities required through regulation.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Gene Expression:

Check this out and learn about how prokaryotes and eukaryotes regulate gene expression.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Transcription and Translation:

How do you know what genes are thinking? By their expression. Learn more from a plant geneticist.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Teaching Idea

Modeling Transcription and Translation :

In the lab "From Gene to Protein - Transcription and Translation," students learn how genes are involved in the process of protein synthesis, including exploring specific examples such as albinism and sickle cell anemia. Students use paper models to simulate the process of transcription and translation.

Type: Teaching Idea

Text Resources

Rheumatoid Arthritis Mechanisms May Vary by Joint:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. New research indicates that rheumatoid arthritis mechanisms may vary by joint. These findings may point to developing specific therapies for individual patients that target precise locations.

Type: Text Resource

Human DNA Is Not A Document, It's An App:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article discusses the relevance of the new findings regarding DNA coding and uses seven technological metaphors (i.e. Apps and Zappos) to compare DNA coding to contemporary physics.

Type: Text Resource

Tutorials

How Intracellular Receptors Regulate Gene Transcription:

Gene transcription is controlled by multiple factors. Some proteins bind to DNA sequences and start the process of gene transcription. RNA synthesis can only occur when these activators are bound to specific DNA sequences. This tutorial will help you to understand the process of gene transcription.

Type: Tutorial

DNA Three Letter Words:

You will see how the genetic code, using the DNA alphabet A,T,C, and G, produces codons to specify the 20 known amino acids. Each codon consists of a three letter code producing 64 possible words which specify the amino acids and stop signals.

Type: Tutorial

Virtual Manipulative

Build a GeneNetwork:


The lac operon is a set of genes which are responsible for the metabolism of lactose in some bacterial cells. Students will explore the effects of mutation within the lac operon by adding or removing genes from the DNA.

  • Predicts the effects on lactose metabolism when the various genes and DNA control elements are mutated (added or removed).
  • Predicts the effects on lactose metabolism when the concentration of lactose is changed.
  • Explain the roles of Lacl, LacZ, and LacY in lactose regulation.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Perspectives Video: Experts

Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Gene Expression:

Check this out and learn about how prokaryotes and eukaryotes regulate gene expression.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Transcription and Translation:

How do you know what genes are thinking? By their expression. Learn more from a plant geneticist.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Tutorials

How Intracellular Receptors Regulate Gene Transcription:

Gene transcription is controlled by multiple factors. Some proteins bind to DNA sequences and start the process of gene transcription. RNA synthesis can only occur when these activators are bound to specific DNA sequences. This tutorial will help you to understand the process of gene transcription.

Type: Tutorial

DNA Three Letter Words:

You will see how the genetic code, using the DNA alphabet A,T,C, and G, produces codons to specify the 20 known amino acids. Each codon consists of a three letter code producing 64 possible words which specify the amino acids and stop signals.

Type: Tutorial

Virtual Manipulative

Build a GeneNetwork:


The lac operon is a set of genes which are responsible for the metabolism of lactose in some bacterial cells. Students will explore the effects of mutation within the lac operon by adding or removing genes from the DNA.

  • Predicts the effects on lactose metabolism when the various genes and DNA control elements are mutated (added or removed).
  • Predicts the effects on lactose metabolism when the concentration of lactose is changed.
  • Explain the roles of Lacl, LacZ, and LacY in lactose regulation.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Perspectives Video: Experts

Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Gene Expression:

Check this out and learn about how prokaryotes and eukaryotes regulate gene expression.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Transcription and Translation:

How do you know what genes are thinking? By their expression. Learn more from a plant geneticist.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Virtual Manipulative

Build a GeneNetwork:


The lac operon is a set of genes which are responsible for the metabolism of lactose in some bacterial cells. Students will explore the effects of mutation within the lac operon by adding or removing genes from the DNA.

  • Predicts the effects on lactose metabolism when the various genes and DNA control elements are mutated (added or removed).
  • Predicts the effects on lactose metabolism when the concentration of lactose is changed.
  • Explain the roles of Lacl, LacZ, and LacY in lactose regulation.

Type: Virtual Manipulative