SC.912.L.16.2

Discuss observed inheritance patterns caused by various modes of inheritance, including dominant, recessive, codominant, sex-linked, polygenic, and multiple alleles.
General Information
Subject Area: Science
Grade: 912
Body of Knowledge: Life Science
Idea: Level 3: Strategic Thinking & Complex Reasoning
Standard: Heredity and Reproduction -

A. DNA stores and transmits genetic information. Genes are sets of instructions encoded in the structure of DNA.

B. Genetic information is passed from generation to generation by DNA in all organisms and accounts for similarities in related individuals.

C. Manipulation of DNA in organisms has led to commercial production of biological molecules on a large scale and genetically modified organisms.

D. Reproduction is characteristic of living things and is essential for the survival of species.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/08
Date of Last Rating: 05/08
Status: State Board Approved

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
2002080: M/J Comprehensive Science 2, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000310: Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000320: Biology 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000430: Biology Technology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
3027010: Biotechnology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000370: Botany (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002480: Forensic Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2017, 2017 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000440: Genetics Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002420: Integrated Science 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002430: Integrated Science 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000020: M/J Life Science, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7920015: Access Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
2002085: M/J Comprehensive Science 2 Accelerated Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000315: Biology 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000500: Bioscience 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2002425: Integrated Science 2 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
SC.912.L.16.Su.1: Recognize characteristics (traits) that offspring inherit from parents.
SC.912.L.16.Pa.1: Recognize similar characteristics (traits) between a child and parents, such as hair, eye, and skin color, or height.
SC.912.L.16.In.2: Identify traits that plants and animals, including humans, inherit.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Lesson Plans

Non-Mendelian Genetics: Not All Genetic Crosses Are Easy-PEAsy:

Students will compare and contrast the non-Mendelian inheritance patterns of codominance and incomplete dominance.

Type: Lesson Plan

Genetics, Genetics, and More Genetics:

Students will use appropriate tools (Punnett squares) and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data.Students will explore various modes of inheritance through a hands-on activity creating offspring of a fictitious organism. Students will complete Punnett Squares for various genetic crosses, and analyze and interpret the results of those crosses. Students will be able to predict the genotype and phenotype of P1 and F1 generations using Punnett Squares. Students will be able to identify complex patterns of inheritance such as co-dominance and incomplete dominance.

Type: Lesson Plan

One Fly, Two Fly, Red Fly, Blue Fly:

Students apply the scientific process in an online lab inquiry of how traits are inherited with the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. They also learn and apply the principles of Mendelian inheritance. Students make hypotheses for monohybrid, dihybrid and sex-linked traits and test their hypotheses by selecting fruit flies with different visible mutations, mating them, and analyzing the phenotypic ratios of the offspring. Students record their observations into an online notebook and write an online lab report.

Type: Lesson Plan

Livestock Plans for Raising Red Nosed Reindeer:

This lesson about genetics and mutations investigates how red nosed reindeer could be raised in a livestock setting. Students will draw Punnett squares and design livestock plans for reproduction of red nosed reindeer.

Type: Lesson Plan

Eggenetic Baby:

Students will apply their knowledge of genetics and predicting heredity to synthesize an original model of traits.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Truth about Blue Eyes:


Students work together to understand an article describing how genes cause eye color (and it probably doesn't match what's in your textbook!)

Type: Lesson Plan

Mendelian Genetics:

A full lesson plan on teaching Mendelian Genetics and how to use and understand Punnett squares.

Type: Lesson Plan

Dragon Genetics:

In this lab, Dragon Genetics: Principles of Mendelian Genetics, students learn the principles of Mendelian genetics by using Popsicle sticks, each of which represents a pair of homologous chromosomes with multiple genetic traits. Pairs of students use their sets of Popsicle sticks to represent a mating and then identify the genetic makeup and phenotypic traits of the resulting baby dragon.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Wolfman Syndrome:

This clicker case uses congenital generalized hypertrichosis (CGH), a rare genetic disease, to teach students the basic principles of Mendelian inheritance.

Students watch a video clip from an ABC News interview that introduces them to Danny Gomez, a circus performer with the Mexican international Circus. Danny and several other family members of his family have a condition called hypertrichosis-excessive hair growth in areas of the body that is not predominately androgen dependent. In the process of meeting Danny and his family, students learn basic genetic concepts including DNA organization, karyotype analysis, dominance and recessive patterns of inheritance, sex linkage, and lyonization, as well as a brief introduction to the evolutionary idea of atavism.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorial

Complex Modes of Inheritance:

Learn the basics of inheritance in this interactive tutorial. You discover how to differentiate between polygenic and multiple alleles, predict genetic outcomes using a Punnett square, and analyze inheritance patterns caused by various modes of inheritances including codominant, incomplete dominance, sex-linked, polygenic, and multiple alleles. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Perspectives Video: Expert

Observable Inheritance Patterns:

A plant geneticist describes observable inheritance patterns and genetic mutations in maize.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Perspectives Video: Teaching Ideas

Teaching Inheritance with Alien Family Photos:

Here's a genetics activity that's out of this world!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Modeling Incomplete Dominance and Co-Dominance:

Don't lose your marbles over genetics concepts! Here's an idea to teach about non-Mendelian inheritance!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Student Center Activity

Dihybrid Cross Problem Set:

In this problem set, multiple choice problems are displayed one at a time. If students answer correctly, they are shown a short explanation. If their answer is incorrect, a tutorial will follow, and the students will be given another chance to answer.

Type: Student Center Activity

Teaching Idea

Dihybrid Crosses:

This simple guide will walk you through the steps of solving a typical dihybrid cross common in genetics. The method can also work for any cross that involves two traits.

Type: Teaching Idea

Text Resource

Know Your Genes:

This website is a good resource for reviewing the basics of the study of genetics. It conveniently lists and describes common genetic disorders, and describes procedure for setting up a medical family tree.

Type: Text Resource

Tutorials

Punnet Square Fun:

This Khan Academy video explains and demonstrates how to use Punnett Squares for monohybrid crosses and dihybrid crosses. The video also shows how to use Punnett Squares for inheritance patterns such as codominance, incomplete dominance, and multiple alleles.

Type: Tutorial

Sex-Linked Traits:

This Khan Academy tutorial addresses the differences between the X and Y chromosomes in humans. The SRY gene found on the Y chromosome is discussed and the genes that cause color-blindness and hemophilia on the X chromosome are discussed.

Type: Tutorial

Genes Come in Pairs:

This tutorial will help you to understand that genes play an important role in determining physical traits. These traits helps us to identify the homozygous or heterozygous variety of genes. When the pair of genes are homozygous, they are known as pure bred, i.e they have two copies of the same gene for each trait. For heterozygous variety, they have different gene for each trait. Out of this pair, one will be dominant and other will be recessive.

Type: Tutorial

Chromosomes Carry Genes:

With this tutorial, you can understand that DNA is wrapped together to form structures called chromosomes. Genes are sections of DNA that are carried on the chromosomes and determine specific characteristics in organisms. This specific tutorial focuses on sex-linked traits and the work done by Thomas Hunt Morgan with fruit flies.

Type: Tutorial

Video/Audio/Animations

Lab: Mendelian Inheritance:

  • Provides a historical background about Gregor Mendel, the father of Genetics
  • Lists the rules of inheritance
  • Contains an interactive activity for making a pedigree

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Sex-Linked Traits:

This video describes the chromosomal basis for gender and sex-linked traits.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Virtual Manipulatives

Genetics:

This tutorial explores the work of Gregor Mendel and his foundational genetics experiments with pea plants. It provides practice opportunities to check your understanding of inheritance patterns including single gene recessive traits and sex linked traits. The tutorial also covers more complex patterns of inheritance such those resulting from multiple alleles. Note: This resource is part of a larger collection of information regarding Genetics. Users may view information before and after the specific genetics components highlighted here.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Norn Genetics:

This is a simplified, interactive demonstration of genetic principles. Using a fictional species named the Norn, students can predict the outcome of genetic crosses (mono and di-hybrid, sex-linked, and multiple-allele). This could be used to strengthen the students understanding of genetics, practice Punnet squares, or practice calculation of genotypic/phenotypic ratios. However, it is unlikely to be useful as an independent assignment (if used as designed).

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Worksheet

Dragon Genetics -- Independent Assortment and Gene Linkage :

This is a lab/activity that uses dragons as "research subjects" for genetics research. It highlights independent assortment as well as gene linkage. Students will do the first part of the activity using independent assortment (genes on different chromosomes). The second part of the activity looks at genes on the same chromosome, and how linkage plays a part in allele assortment. It can be used to show how crossing over allows increased variation when involving linked genes.

Worksheets are available in both Word and PDF formats, for both teacher and student. There is an additional dragon genetics lab that illustrates the principles of Mendelian genetics as a whole.

Type: Worksheet

Original Student Tutorials Science - Grades 9-12

Complex Modes of Inheritance:

Learn the basics of inheritance in this interactive tutorial. You discover how to differentiate between polygenic and multiple alleles, predict genetic outcomes using a Punnett square, and analyze inheritance patterns caused by various modes of inheritances including codominant, incomplete dominance, sex-linked, polygenic, and multiple alleles. 

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorial

Complex Modes of Inheritance:

Learn the basics of inheritance in this interactive tutorial. You discover how to differentiate between polygenic and multiple alleles, predict genetic outcomes using a Punnett square, and analyze inheritance patterns caused by various modes of inheritances including codominant, incomplete dominance, sex-linked, polygenic, and multiple alleles. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Perspectives Video: Expert

Observable Inheritance Patterns:

A plant geneticist describes observable inheritance patterns and genetic mutations in maize.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Student Center Activity

Dihybrid Cross Problem Set:

In this problem set, multiple choice problems are displayed one at a time. If students answer correctly, they are shown a short explanation. If their answer is incorrect, a tutorial will follow, and the students will be given another chance to answer.

Type: Student Center Activity

Text Resource

Know Your Genes:

This website is a good resource for reviewing the basics of the study of genetics. It conveniently lists and describes common genetic disorders, and describes procedure for setting up a medical family tree.

Type: Text Resource

Tutorials

Punnet Square Fun:

This Khan Academy video explains and demonstrates how to use Punnett Squares for monohybrid crosses and dihybrid crosses. The video also shows how to use Punnett Squares for inheritance patterns such as codominance, incomplete dominance, and multiple alleles.

Type: Tutorial

Sex-Linked Traits:

This Khan Academy tutorial addresses the differences between the X and Y chromosomes in humans. The SRY gene found on the Y chromosome is discussed and the genes that cause color-blindness and hemophilia on the X chromosome are discussed.

Type: Tutorial

Genes Come in Pairs:

This tutorial will help you to understand that genes play an important role in determining physical traits. These traits helps us to identify the homozygous or heterozygous variety of genes. When the pair of genes are homozygous, they are known as pure bred, i.e they have two copies of the same gene for each trait. For heterozygous variety, they have different gene for each trait. Out of this pair, one will be dominant and other will be recessive.

Type: Tutorial

Video/Audio/Animations

Lab: Mendelian Inheritance:

  • Provides a historical background about Gregor Mendel, the father of Genetics
  • Lists the rules of inheritance
  • Contains an interactive activity for making a pedigree

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Sex-Linked Traits:

This video describes the chromosomal basis for gender and sex-linked traits.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Virtual Manipulatives

Genetics:

This tutorial explores the work of Gregor Mendel and his foundational genetics experiments with pea plants. It provides practice opportunities to check your understanding of inheritance patterns including single gene recessive traits and sex linked traits. The tutorial also covers more complex patterns of inheritance such those resulting from multiple alleles. Note: This resource is part of a larger collection of information regarding Genetics. Users may view information before and after the specific genetics components highlighted here.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Norn Genetics:

This is a simplified, interactive demonstration of genetic principles. Using a fictional species named the Norn, students can predict the outcome of genetic crosses (mono and di-hybrid, sex-linked, and multiple-allele). This could be used to strengthen the students understanding of genetics, practice Punnet squares, or practice calculation of genotypic/phenotypic ratios. However, it is unlikely to be useful as an independent assignment (if used as designed).

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Perspectives Video: Expert

Observable Inheritance Patterns:

A plant geneticist describes observable inheritance patterns and genetic mutations in maize.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Modeling Incomplete Dominance and Co-Dominance:

Don't lose your marbles over genetics concepts! Here's an idea to teach about non-Mendelian inheritance!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea