SC.912.L.14.52

Explain the basic functions of the human immune system, including specific and nonspecific immune response, vaccines, and antibiotics.
General Information
Subject Area: Science
Grade: 912
Body of Knowledge: Life Science
Idea: Level 2: Basic Application of Skills & Concepts
Standard: Organization and Development of Living Organisms -

A. Cells have characteristic structures and functions that make them distinctive.

B. Processes in a cell can be classified broadly as growth, maintenance, reproduction, and homeostasis.

C. Life can be organized in a functional and structural hierarchy ranging from cells to the biosphere.

D. Most multicellular organisms are composed of organ systems whose structures reflect their particular function.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/08
Date of Last Rating: 05/08
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes
Test Item Specifications
    Also Assesses:

    SC.912.L.14.6 Explain the significance of genetic factors, environmental factors, and pathogenic agents to health from the perspectives of both individual and public health.

    HE.912.C.1.4 Analyze how heredity and family history can impact personal health.

    HE.912.C.1.8 Analyze strategies for prevention, detection, and treatment of communicable and chronic diseases.

  • Clarification :

    Students will identify and/or explain the basic functions of the human immune system, including specific and nonspecific immune responses.

    Students will describe how the human immune system responds to vaccines and/or antibiotics.

    Students will explain the significance of genetic factors, environmental factors, and pathogenic agents to health from the perspective of both individual and public health.

  • Content Limits :
    Items assessing the significance of genetic factors, environmental factors, and pathogenic agents to health are limited to a conceptual understanding.
  • Stimulus Attributes :
    Scenarios are limited to those commonly included in a biology course.
  • Response Attributes :
    None specified
  • Prior Knowledge :
    Items may require the student to apply scientific knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge of SC.6.L.14.6, SC.6.E.7.8, SC.8.N.4.1, and SC.8.N.4.2.
Sample Test Items (1)
  • Test Item #: Sample Item 1
  • Question:

    The immune system has both specific and nonspecific defenses against viral infections. Which statement describes a nonspecific response of the immune system in fighting viral infections?

  • Difficulty: N/A
  • Type: MC: Multiple Choice

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
2000350: Anatomy and Physiology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000360: Anatomy and Physiology Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000310: Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000320: Biology 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000430: Biology Technology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
3027020: Biotechnology 2 (Specifically in versions: 2015 and beyond (current))
2002420: Integrated Science 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002430: Integrated Science 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7920015: Access Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
2000315: Biology 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000510: Bioscience 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2002425: Integrated Science 2 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Lesson Plans

Immune System Responses to Pathogens and Vaccines :

With this lesson students will explore immune responses to a pathogen attack and/or a vaccine with a didactic, kinesthetic model of the process.

Type: Lesson Plan

When Good Bugs Go Bad:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text that addresses research into the fine balance between microbes and their hosts. The text explains how a human's microbiota or microbiome plays a very important role in the immune system. The text describes how bacteria, or the lack of bacteria, play a role in the immune system and keep autoimmune diseases at bay. This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Hijacking the Immune System:

In this lesson, students will analyze an intended to support reading in the content area. The article discusses new research conducted by Penn State scientists to determine how the malaria parasite is evading the human immune system and entering into red blood cells. The study revealed how the parasite is able to use the complement system to its own advantage rather than being negatively affected by it. This lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. Numerous options to extend the lesson are also included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Back to the Basics: Immunity and Response:

The lesson was developed to broaden students' understanding of the immune system and its role in the human body. Students will do investigations and apply vocabulary terms to real-world scenarios.

Note that students will complete the 5E cycle twice over the course of two days; please see the attached "Lesson Overview" document for a chronological outline of each day.

 

Type: Lesson Plan

The Three Lines of Defense!:

This lesson is a good introduction to the immune system. It will give students the chance to have discussions with the teacher and classmates as well. The teacher will also have a chance to quickly assess the students' knowledge by using checkpoint questions scattered throughout the PowerPoint presentation. After the lesson is complete, the students will have a clear understanding of the three lines of defense and nonspecific and specific immune responses.

Type: Lesson Plan

Non-specific and Specific Immune System explained:

ResourceID: 28153

This lesson covers the information on the basic functions of the human non-specific and specific immune response. It does not cover the vaccines, health or antibiotics used as an approach to aid the immune system.

There is vocabulary that goes as high as AP Biology. The lessons are editable so you can change vocabulary if you would like to bring the lesson down to lower levels. However, higher level vocabulary is not too extraneous and I leave it for my 9th grade Honors classes.

Type: Lesson Plan

Cover Your Mouth! An overview of disease spread and the immune system.:

This lesson introduces the basic forms of pathogens and how our bodies prevent and fight infection from them. It goes more in depth on the differences between active and passive immunity as well as the differences in non specific and specific defenses. The students will actively role play the events of specific immunity as well as evaluate methods of maintaining individual and public health.

Type: Lesson Plan

Immune System:

Students will identify the major parts of the immune system, including specific and nonspecific immune response, vaccines, and antibiotics.

Type: Lesson Plan

Immune System-History of an Epidemic:

Students will learn about the immune system and how disease can affect personal and public health.

Type: Lesson Plan

Infectious Diseases and the Immune System:

The lesson is design to explain the basic functions of the human immune system, including specific and nonspecific immune response, vaccines, and antibiotics. Primarily, it focuses on infectious diseases and how the immune system defend the body against infectious diseases. The lesson uses the 5E model as an approach for students to become engage, analytical and inquisitive in learning about infectious diseases and the immune system.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorials

When the Immune System Isn't Enough:

Explores how vaccines and antibiotics provide an extra level of protection from infectious agents and pathogens. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Immune System: Your Body’s Private Defense System:

Learn how to identify the basic functions of the immune system. You will also be able to distinguish between nonspecific and specific immune responses. 

 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Text Resources

The Microbiome: When Good Bugs Go Bad:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text describes current research being conducted on microbiota and the immune system. The text describes how bacteria, or the lack of bacteria, play a role in the immune system and keep autoimmune diseases at bay. There is currently a spike in autoimmune diseases like Crohn's disease and psoriasis that occur primarily in developed countries. This research emphasizes how important our symbiotic relationship is with bacteria.

Type: Text Resource

Researchers Make a Key Discovery in How Malaria Evades the Immune System:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses the research conducted by scientists to determine how the malaria parasite evades the human immune system and enters into red blood cells. It was determined the parasite is able to use the complement system to its own advantage rather than being negatively affected by it.

Type: Text Resource

Immune System:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The immune system's job is to defend against pathogens and keep our bodies healthy. There are a number of cell types, tissues, and organs that play a role in the immune process. The article discusses the three types of immunity: innate, adaptive, and passive. Finally, the article discusses various immune system disorders and diseases that are associated with each one.

Type: Text Resource

Body's Immune System Kills Mutant Cells Daily:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article explores how scientists discovered that the immune system naturally suppresses cancer while they were researching how B cells change during the growth of lymphoma. The text explains how T cells work as an "immune surveillance" and can be a way of preventing blood cancers. Through experimentation, scientists discovered how vitally important those cells are to possibly suppressing other forms of cancer in the future.

Type: Text Resource

The Human Immune System and Infectious Disease:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text explains the importance and function of the human immune system with a detailed discussion of non-specific versus specific immunity. The text features an embedded animated component showing how vaccines work.

Type: Text Resource

Deploying the Body's Army:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Scientists have been making breakthroughs in immunotherapy: the use of infectious pathogens as a method for treating cancer. The infections heighten the response of the immune system and eradicate the cancer in the process.

Type: Text Resource

World Cup Raises Epidemic Questions:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Tropical areas such as Brazil can be hotspots for communicable diseases due to warm temperatures and crowded urban spaces. There is a concern that when Brazil hosts the World Cup, mosquito-borne dengue fever may spread to its visitors. The article explores methods of pathogen transfer in a variety of venues (pilgrimages, airplanes, cruise lines) and compares these to conditions at the World Cup.

Type: Text Resource

Blood Does a Body Good:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article describes the components of blood (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and plasma) including their functions and origins, along with a novel medical application for the rare blood-producing stem cells.

Type: Text Resource

Swine Flu Goes Global:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article is about the swine flu. It explains where and how the virus originated, what countries it can be found in, facts about the virus, and whether a vaccine might be developed.

Type: Text Resource

New Problem Linked to 'Jet Lag':

This resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Scientists have discovered that when they disrupt waking and sleeping times in mice, their immune systems responded in a harmful way causing disease, asthma, allergies, and maybe even immune disorders.

Type: Text Resource

Tutorials

Post Stroke Inflammation:

Learn about post-stroke inflammation.

Type: Tutorial

Vaccine and Active Immunity:


A vaccine allows a person to develop acquired immunity against an illness without actually getting the disease. This interactive tutorial will help the learners to understand the process by which vaccines work in the human body.

Type: Tutorial

Cytotoxic T Cells:

This Khan Academy video explains how cytotoxic t cells get activated by MHC-I antigen complexes and then proceed to kill infected cells. This video addresses the concept at a high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

Helper T Cells:

This Khan Academy video discusses helper t cells in the immune system. The role of helper t cells in activating b cells is detailed. This challenging tutorial addresses the concept at a high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

B Lymphocytes:

This Khan Academy video describes B lymphocyte cells, and how they are activated and produce antibodies within the immune system.

Type: Tutorial

Role of Phagocytosis in Nonspecific Immunity:

This Khan Academy video describes non specific immunity, and the specific role of phagocytes. The tutorial explains how phagocytes engulf pathogens that enter the body as a line of defense.

Type: Tutorial

Types of Immune Responses:

This Khan Academy video contains an overview of the types of immune responses in the body. The differences between humoral adaptive immunity and cell mediated immunity are discussed in detail.

Type: Tutorial

The Immune Response:

This tutorial will help students understand how the immune system of vertebrates is characterized by acquired responses that are highly specific to particular antigens. This system has the advantage of having a cellular memory for previous infections.

Type: Tutorial

Allergy Immune Response:

This tutorial will help you to understand how allergies develop. Allergies are exaggerated immune responses caused by B cells producing excess IgE antibodies. An allergen (food, dust) is a foreign substance, which binds to the antibodies and triggers a reaction that includes the production of histamine.

This challenging tutorial addresses the concept at a very high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

Cytotoxic T-Cell Activity Against Target Cells:

One of the functions of the T-Cells in the immune system is to attack and destroy infected cells. Target cells are cells that have been attacked by a virus. When the target cells have been taken over by a virus and they do not have a good chance of surviving, they trigger their own death. This action reduces the chance that other nearby cells will become infected.

This challenging tutorial addresses the concept at a high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

Phagocytosis:

This tutorial will help you to understand the function of phagocytes. Phagocytes are specialized cells that ingest and break down foreign material including bacteria and viruses.

This challenging tutorial addresses the concept at a high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

T-Cell Dependent Antigens:

T-cells perform a wide variety of functions in the immune system. In this tutorial you will understand the structure and function of the T-cells.

Type: Tutorial

Cells vs. Virus: A Battle for Health:

All living things are made of cells. In the human body, these highly efficient units are protected by layer upon layer of defense against icky invaders like the cold virus. Shannon Stiles takes a journey into the cell, introducing the microscopic arsenal of weapons and warriors that play a role in the battle for your health.

Type: Tutorial

What Causes Antibiotic Resistance?:

This short video describes the process of antibiotic resistance. Right now, you are inhabited by trillions of micro organisms. Many of these bacteria are harmless (or even helpful!), but there are a few strains of ‘super bacteria' that are pretty nasty -- and they're growing resistant to our antibiotics. Why is this happening? Kevin Wu details the evolution of this problem that presents a big challenge for the future of medicine.

Type: Tutorial

Video/Audio/Animation

AIDS: Evolution of an Epidemic:

This Howard Hughes Medical Institute Holiday Lecture Series video includes 6, 60-minute lectures on the history of the AIDS epidemic. The talk covers AIDS/HIV history in the United States from the 1980's through 2007 (when the lecture was taped) and also some basics on the biology of HIV and AIDS, including transmission, viral replication and the human immune system. The video offers a useful perspective on an example of the evolution of scientific thinking and research, as researchers discuss the development of scientific theories about HIV/AIDS as well as treatments. Several related resources, such as animations and video clips, can be found on the main page.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Original Student Tutorials Science - Grades 9-12

The Immune System: Your Body’s Private Defense System:

Learn how to identify the basic functions of the immune system. You will also be able to distinguish between nonspecific and specific immune responses. 

 

When the Immune System Isn't Enough:

Explores how vaccines and antibiotics provide an extra level of protection from infectious agents and pathogens. 

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorials

When the Immune System Isn't Enough:

Explores how vaccines and antibiotics provide an extra level of protection from infectious agents and pathogens. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Immune System: Your Body’s Private Defense System:

Learn how to identify the basic functions of the immune system. You will also be able to distinguish between nonspecific and specific immune responses. 

 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Tutorials

Post Stroke Inflammation:

Learn about post-stroke inflammation.

Type: Tutorial

Vaccine and Active Immunity:


A vaccine allows a person to develop acquired immunity against an illness without actually getting the disease. This interactive tutorial will help the learners to understand the process by which vaccines work in the human body.

Type: Tutorial

Cytotoxic T Cells:

This Khan Academy video explains how cytotoxic t cells get activated by MHC-I antigen complexes and then proceed to kill infected cells. This video addresses the concept at a high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

Helper T Cells:

This Khan Academy video discusses helper t cells in the immune system. The role of helper t cells in activating b cells is detailed. This challenging tutorial addresses the concept at a high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

B Lymphocytes:

This Khan Academy video describes B lymphocyte cells, and how they are activated and produce antibodies within the immune system.

Type: Tutorial

Role of Phagocytosis in Nonspecific Immunity:

This Khan Academy video describes non specific immunity, and the specific role of phagocytes. The tutorial explains how phagocytes engulf pathogens that enter the body as a line of defense.

Type: Tutorial

Types of Immune Responses:

This Khan Academy video contains an overview of the types of immune responses in the body. The differences between humoral adaptive immunity and cell mediated immunity are discussed in detail.

Type: Tutorial

The Immune Response:

This tutorial will help students understand how the immune system of vertebrates is characterized by acquired responses that are highly specific to particular antigens. This system has the advantage of having a cellular memory for previous infections.

Type: Tutorial

Allergy Immune Response:

This tutorial will help you to understand how allergies develop. Allergies are exaggerated immune responses caused by B cells producing excess IgE antibodies. An allergen (food, dust) is a foreign substance, which binds to the antibodies and triggers a reaction that includes the production of histamine.

This challenging tutorial addresses the concept at a very high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

Cytotoxic T-Cell Activity Against Target Cells:

One of the functions of the T-Cells in the immune system is to attack and destroy infected cells. Target cells are cells that have been attacked by a virus. When the target cells have been taken over by a virus and they do not have a good chance of surviving, they trigger their own death. This action reduces the chance that other nearby cells will become infected.

This challenging tutorial addresses the concept at a high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

Phagocytosis:

This tutorial will help you to understand the function of phagocytes. Phagocytes are specialized cells that ingest and break down foreign material including bacteria and viruses.

This challenging tutorial addresses the concept at a high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

T-Cell Dependent Antigens:

T-cells perform a wide variety of functions in the immune system. In this tutorial you will understand the structure and function of the T-cells.

Type: Tutorial

Cells vs. Virus: A Battle for Health:

All living things are made of cells. In the human body, these highly efficient units are protected by layer upon layer of defense against icky invaders like the cold virus. Shannon Stiles takes a journey into the cell, introducing the microscopic arsenal of weapons and warriors that play a role in the battle for your health.

Type: Tutorial

What Causes Antibiotic Resistance?:

This short video describes the process of antibiotic resistance. Right now, you are inhabited by trillions of micro organisms. Many of these bacteria are harmless (or even helpful!), but there are a few strains of ‘super bacteria' that are pretty nasty -- and they're growing resistant to our antibiotics. Why is this happening? Kevin Wu details the evolution of this problem that presents a big challenge for the future of medicine.

Type: Tutorial

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.