SC.912.L.14.6

Explain the significance of genetic factors, environmental factors, and pathogenic agents to health from the perspectives of both individual and public health.
General Information
Subject Area: Science
Grade: 912
Body of Knowledge: Life Science
Idea: Level 3: Strategic Thinking & Complex Reasoning
Standard: Organization and Development of Living Organisms -

A. Cells have characteristic structures and functions that make them distinctive.

B. Processes in a cell can be classified broadly as growth, maintenance, reproduction, and homeostasis.

C. Life can be organized in a functional and structural hierarchy ranging from cells to the biosphere.

D. Most multicellular organisms are composed of organ systems whose structures reflect their particular function.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/08
Date of Last Rating: 05/08
Status: State Board Approved

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
2000310: Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000320: Biology 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000330: Biology 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000430: Biology Technology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
3027010: Biotechnology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
3027020: Biotechnology 2 (Specifically in versions: 2015 and beyond (current))
2001340: Environmental Science (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002480: Forensic Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2017, 2017 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002490: Forensic Sciences 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2017, 2017 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002420: Integrated Science 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002430: Integrated Science 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000390: Limnology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018 (course terminated))
2002500: Marine Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002510: Marine Science 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2003400: Nuclear Radiation (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018 (course terminated))
2020710: Nuclear Radiation Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1800310: Aerospace Science 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
7920015: Access Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond)
2000315: Biology 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000500: Bioscience 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2000510: Bioscience 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2002425: Integrated Science 2 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))
2001341: Environmental Science Honors (Specifically in versions: 2016 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
SC.912.L.14.In.4: Describe common human health issues.
SC.912.L.14.Su.3: Recognize common human health issues.
SC.912.L.14.Pa.3: Identify ways to prevent infection from bacteria and viruses, such as hand washing and first aid.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Educational Game

Some Similarities between the Spread of Infections and Growth Population:

This is a hands on experiment where simulates the way that an infection disease spread in a population and the similarities with growth population.

Type: Educational Game

Lesson Plans

The Importance of a Baboon's Birthday:

In this lesson, students will read an article from the National Science Foundation that discusses how a drought affected the savannas of southern Kenya during 2009. It further addresses how baboons are affected later in life based on when they are born and the social status they are born into. Based on the research on baboons, the implications on human health are also discussed in the latter portion of the article. This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

A New Vaccine for Yellow Fever?:

This informational text resource from the National Institutes of Health is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses how yellow fever is becoming a health threat once again in parts of Africa and why it is necessary for a new vaccine against yellow fever to be developed. The article further discusses in detail the processes and experimental trials by which the vaccine will be tested for its effectiveness and its safety. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Spread of Rabies in Peru:

In this lesson plan, students will analyze an informational text intended to support reading in the content area. The article explains how the rabies virus is likely to spread from the interior of Peru to its coast by the year 2020. It further discusses the technology used to determine that the male vampire bat is most likely the carrier of the rabies virus to different areas in Peru. The lesson plan includes a vocabulary guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Economics and Epidemiology:

In this lesson, students will read an article from the National Science Foundation. The article discusses the rise of pandemic disease outbreaks across the globe and how these outbreaks can affect world economies. The article further describes how economic models were used to assess different strategies on their effectiveness. The strategy of identifying the underlying cause of emerging diseases was considered to be most cost-effective and beneficial long-term. This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, a vocabulary handout, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Mosquitoes in Miami:

In this lesson, students will analyze an intended to support reading in the content area. The National Geographic article discusses the problems facing Miami Beach as health officials try to execute a mosquito management program to combat Zika. Because of the high rise buildings, the pesticides being sprayed are not reaching the intended areas. Another concern is that mosquitoes may become resistant to the first choice pesticides being used against them. This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

 

Type: Lesson Plan

Green with Envy:

Students will make recommendations for dealing with the effects of algal blooms with regard to public health.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

Finding the Sources of Ebola and other Filoviruses:

In this lesson, students will analyze an from Science Daily that discusses the research conducted by scientists who used machine learning methods to identify bats that were likely to be reservoirs for Ebola and other filoviruses. Scientists mapped out the geographical ranges of these bats and hope to be able to use this information to prevent future outbreaks.This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a vocabulary guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

El Niño Can Spread Disease:

In this lesson plan, students analyze an  intended to support reading in the content area. The article discusses new research conducted by scientists showing the correlation between El Niño events and the spread of waterborne infectious diseases. The article discusses how the scientists believe Vibrio bacteria are being transported across the ocean during El Niño events, and it discusses the impact this can have on public health. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. Numerous options to extend the lesson are also included.

 

Type: Lesson Plan

Antibiotic Resistant Wildlife?:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text intended to support reading in the content area. The article addresses the possibility that antibiotic resistance is spreading through ecosystems in Botswana because resistance in humans has been shared with many other organisms. Researchers found that antibiotic resistance is significantly higher in water-associated species and carnivores. Scientists believe they can use this information to increase their understanding of why and how species are becoming antibiotic-resistant, with the end goal of stopping the spread of antibiotic resistance in humans. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. Numerous options to extend the lesson are also included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Leptospirosis: A Serious Disease:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text intended to support reading in the content area. The NSF article describes current research into the transmission of the bacterial disease leptospirosis, with the ultimate goal of using the research to prevent future outbreaks. The article highlights the environmental conditions that increase the transmission of the disease. The lesson plan includes text-dependent questions with an answer key, a writing prompt with a sample response, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

White Ibis: A Feathered Cujo:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text that describes the impact that local ibises have on their environment and the impact that humans have on the birds. The study examines how humans are changing the lifestyles of white ibises, which in turn causes the interactions between birds and humans to lead to a greater spread of disease. The author analyzes the positive and negative effects of interactions between organisms in an ecosystem. The lesson plan includes a text coding strategy, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, sample answer keys, and a writing rubric. Numerous options to extend the lesson are also included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Killer Clay!:

This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text that addresses innovative research to aid in the understanding of how certain clays can be responsible for the killing of some bacterial pathogens. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Black Death Epidemic:

Students will research the history of the Black Death and learn about the causative pathogen involved through a POGIL activity. There will be suggested web-links for the students to research what is currently known about the disease and questions for them to answer as a teaching method and evaluation. As a final assessment, the students will construct an epidemiological triangle in pairs and then share with the class.

Type: Lesson Plan

Seeking the Zika Virus:

In this lesson, students will read an informational text from the National Science Foundation. The text describes current research into the mosquitoes that carry the Zika virus, with the ultimate goal of using the research to predict and possibly prevent future outbreaks. Scientists are studying three towns in Ecuador by collecting data to help them discover the socioeconomic and environmental factors that put people most at risk for diseases carried by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, including the Zika virus. The scientists are also examining how virus transmission by these mosquitoes may be affected by climate change. This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes text-dependent questions with an answer key, a writing prompt with a sample response, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Pathogens in the Room:

In this lesson, students will research pathogens to explain the significance of pathogenic agents for their health and the community. It aims to clear up common misconceptions about pathogens and the diseases they cause. Students will be assigned a pathogen and then conduct research to accurately describe the disease it causes.

Type: Lesson Plan

Pathogens, Diseases, and Vaccines:

This lesson introduces different types of pathogens and how they cause disease in humans. It introduces and/or reinforces prior knowledge of active and passive immunity as well as the differences in non specific and specific defenses. Students will be introduced to how a vaccine works in the individual as well as the community to create immunity to a pathogen. The students will research different pathogens, the diseases they cause, the vaccines that have been developed for them, and how these vaccines protect individual as well as public health. The students will then compose a position paper on mandatory vaccinations for school children.

Type: Lesson Plan

Tracking a Virus:

Simulation of an outbreak of an infectious disease using colorimetric reagents to identify the source.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Drama of Glucose Regulation:

Students will act out glucose metabolism - from the blood stream to cells where they will be converted to ATP, with help from insulin.

Type: Lesson Plan

Killer Microbe:

A lesson about the important topic of antibiotic-resistant bacteria with student activities and A/V resources.

Type: Lesson Plan

Pandemic Flu:

In this lesson, students will model an avian-human flu virus structure, replication, and spread. The accompanying PBS NOVA movie Pandemic Flu regarding H5N1 Avian and Swine Flu highlights interactions between the virus, humans, and birds.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorials

Genes and Health:

Genetic mutations can cause illness. Learn how genetic diseases can affect you and your communities in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Genes and Environment:

Learn how the expression of genes is affected our environment, including lifestyle choices. In this interactive tutorial, you'll also explore how a combination of genes and environmental factors can impact the risk of multifactorial disease.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Pathogens and Disease:

Pathogens of all sorts can make us sick. Learn the whats, whys, and hows of the process in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Challenges to Public Health :

Learn to distinguish between public health issues and individual health issues in this interactive tutorial. 

This is part 1 of 4 in a series of tutorials addressing this standard.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Perspectives Video: Experts

Coral Research Driving Florida Reef Restoration Policy:

Dr. Erinn Muller explains how coral health research at Mote Marine Laboratory is driving policy decisions regarding coral reef restoration in Florida.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Coral Genotype Assessment for Reef Restoration:

Dr. Erinn Muller explains research related to discovering coral genotypes capable of thriving despite environmental health challenges.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Causes of Disease:

Lots of issues causes disease - genetics, lifestyle, pathogens - let's practice prevention when we can.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Presentation/Slideshow

Introduction to Infectious Diseases:

A PowerPoint with speaker notes covering infectious diseases, causes, transmission, and control.

Type: Presentation/Slideshow

Text Resources

Ebola, Dengue Fever, Lyme Disease: The Growing Economic Cost of Infectious Diseases:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses the rise of pandemic disease outbreaks across the globe and how these outbreaks can affect world economies. The article further describes how economic models were used to assess different strategies on their effectiveness. The strategy of identifying the underlying cause of the emerging disease was considered to be most cost-effective and beneficial long-term.

Type: Text Resource

Rabies Could Spread to Peru's Coast by 2020:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses how the rabies virus is likely to spread to the coast of Peru by the year 2020. It further discusses the technology used to determine that the male vampire bat is most likely the carrier of the rabies virus to different areas in Peru.

Type: Text Resource

Born During a Drought: Bad News for Baboons:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses how a drought affected the savanna ecosystem found in southern Kenya during 2009. It further addresses how baboons are affected later in life based on the conditions when they are born and the social status they are born into. Based on the research on baboons, the implications on human health are discussed in the latter portion of the article.

Type: Text Resource

NIH Launches Early-stage Yellow Fever Vaccine Trial:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article discusses how yellow fever is becoming a health threat once again in parts of Africa and why it is necessary for a new vaccine for yellow fever to be developed. The article further discusses the process and experimental trials by which the vaccine is being tested for its effectiveness as well as its safety.

Type: Text Resource

Zika's Accidental Ally: Miami's Luxury High-Rises:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses the problems that are being encountered in Miami Beach as health officials try to execute a mosquito management program. Because of the high rise buildings, the pesticides being sprayed are not necessarily reaching the intended areas. Not only are mosquitoes staying alive, but they may become resistant to the first-choice pesticides being used against them.

Type: Text Resource

Cholera-Like Disease 'Piggybacking' on El Nino to Reach New Shores:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses the research conducted by scientists showing the correlation between El Niño events and the spread of infectious disease. The article discusses how the scientists believe Vibrio bacteria are being transported across the ocean and the impact this can have on public health.

Type: Text Resource

Ecologists Identify Potential New Sources of Ebola and Other Filoviruses:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses the research conducted by scientists who used machine learning methods to identify bats that were likely to be reservoirs for filoviruses. Scientists mapped out the geographical ranges of these bats and hope to be able to use this information to prevent future outbreaks.

Type: Text Resource

Wildlife Species Provide Clues to Spread of Antibiotic Resistance in Africa:

The informational text resource describes how researchers from Virginia Tech and the University of Sydney tested for resistance to 10 antibiotics among 18 wildlife species and cattle in Botswana. The results from the tests showed that antibiotic resistance is being transferred to mostly carnivores at the top of the food web. Animals that show multi-drug resistance are crocodiles, leopards, hyenas, hippos, baboons, and warthogs. There also seems to be a correlation to drug resistance and aquatic life, but only certain species. Further research should be conducted in order to understand how the resistance moves across landscapes.

Type: Text Resource

Field Fever, Harvest Fever, Rat Catcher's Yellows: Leptospirosis by Any Name Is a Serious Disease:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text describes current research into the factors that increase the rate of transmission of the bacterial disease Leptospirosis. Scientists are using research to provide tools to prevent future transmission. Scientists are studying three communities in Chile and determining what factors in each setting are contributing to the spread of the disease.

Type: Text Resource

Feeding Birds in Your Local Park? If They're White Ibises in Florida, Think Twice:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes the interactions between local wildlife (white ibises in Florida) and humans, and the impact that these interactions have on both species. The article presents both benefits as well as potential drawbacks to the close proximity of humans and white ibises. The article also describes how scientists are studying these interactions and their effects.

Type: Text Resource

Scientists Discover How Blue and Green Clays Kill Bacteria:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. This text describes how researchers unearthed a natural clay deposit with antibacterial characteristics. The text also discusses exactly how the two elements in the clay cause the destruction of the bacteria. The end of the article addresses how this discovery could provide possible solutions to bacteria that are antibiotic-resistant, like MRSA.

Type: Text Resource

Seeking Zika: Where and When Will Zika-Carrying Mosquitoes Strike Next?:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes current research into the mosquitoes that carry the Zika virus, with the ultimate goal of using the research to predict and possibly prevent future outbreaks. Scientists are studying three towns in Ecuador by collecting data to help them discover the socioeconomic and environmental factors that put people most at risk for diseases carried by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, including the Zika virus. The scientists are also examining how virus transmission by these mosquitoes may be affected by climate change.

Type: Text Resource

World Cup Raises Epidemic Questions:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Tropical areas such as Brazil can be hotspots for communicable diseases due to warm temperatures and crowded urban spaces. There is a concern that when Brazil hosts the World Cup, mosquito-borne dengue fever may spread to its visitors. The article explores methods of pathogen transfer in a variety of venues (pilgrimages, airplanes, cruise lines) and compares these to conditions at the World Cup.

Type: Text Resource

Tutorials

Infectious Evidence:

Click "View Site" to open a full-screen version. This tutorial is designed to help secondary science teachers learn how to integrate literacy skills within their science curriculum. This tutorial focuses on using specific textual evidence to support students' responses as they analyze science texts. The focus on literacy across content areas is designed to help students independently build knowledge in different disciplines through reading and writing.

Type: Tutorial

Virus:


This tutorial will help the student understand about viruses which are small infectious agents that replicate only inside the living cells of other organisms.

Type: Tutorial

What Causes Antibiotic Resistance?:

This short video describes the process of antibiotic resistance. Right now, you are inhabited by trillions of micro organisms. Many of these bacteria are harmless (or even helpful!), but there are a few strains of ‘super bacteria' that are pretty nasty -- and they're growing resistant to our antibiotics. Why is this happening? Kevin Wu details the evolution of this problem that presents a big challenge for the future of medicine.

Type: Tutorial

Video/Audio/Animation

AIDS: Evolution of an Epidemic:

This Howard Hughes Medical Institute Holiday Lecture Series video includes 6, 60-minute lectures on the history of the AIDS epidemic. The talk covers AIDS/HIV history in the United States from the 1980's through 2007 (when the lecture was taped) and also some basics on the biology of HIV and AIDS, including transmission, viral replication and the human immune system. The video offers a useful perspective on an example of the evolution of scientific thinking and research, as researchers discuss the development of scientific theories about HIV/AIDS as well as treatments. Several related resources, such as animations and video clips, can be found on the main page.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

STEM Lessons - Model Eliciting Activity

Green with Envy:

Students will make recommendations for dealing with the effects of algal blooms with regard to public health.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Original Student Tutorials Science - Grades 9-12

Challenges to Public Health :

Learn to distinguish between public health issues and individual health issues in this interactive tutorial. 

This is part 1 of 4 in a series of tutorials addressing this standard.

Genes and Environment:

Learn how the expression of genes is affected our environment, including lifestyle choices. In this interactive tutorial, you'll also explore how a combination of genes and environmental factors can impact the risk of multifactorial disease.

Genes and Health:

Genetic mutations can cause illness. Learn how genetic diseases can affect you and your communities in this interactive tutorial.

Pathogens and Disease:

Pathogens of all sorts can make us sick. Learn the whats, whys, and hows of the process in this interactive tutorial.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorials

Genes and Health:

Genetic mutations can cause illness. Learn how genetic diseases can affect you and your communities in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Genes and Environment:

Learn how the expression of genes is affected our environment, including lifestyle choices. In this interactive tutorial, you'll also explore how a combination of genes and environmental factors can impact the risk of multifactorial disease.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Pathogens and Disease:

Pathogens of all sorts can make us sick. Learn the whats, whys, and hows of the process in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Challenges to Public Health :

Learn to distinguish between public health issues and individual health issues in this interactive tutorial. 

This is part 1 of 4 in a series of tutorials addressing this standard.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Presentation/Slideshow

Introduction to Infectious Diseases:

A PowerPoint with speaker notes covering infectious diseases, causes, transmission, and control.

Type: Presentation/Slideshow

Tutorials

Virus:


This tutorial will help the student understand about viruses which are small infectious agents that replicate only inside the living cells of other organisms.

Type: Tutorial

What Causes Antibiotic Resistance?:

This short video describes the process of antibiotic resistance. Right now, you are inhabited by trillions of micro organisms. Many of these bacteria are harmless (or even helpful!), but there are a few strains of ‘super bacteria' that are pretty nasty -- and they're growing resistant to our antibiotics. Why is this happening? Kevin Wu details the evolution of this problem that presents a big challenge for the future of medicine.

Type: Tutorial

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.