SC.912.L.14.2

Relate structure to function for the components of plant and animal cells. Explain the role of cell membranes as a highly selective barrier (passive and active transport).
General Information
Subject Area: Science
Grade: 912
Body of Knowledge: Life Science
Idea: Level 2: Basic Application of Skills & Concepts
Standard: Organization and Development of Living Organisms -

A. Cells have characteristic structures and functions that make them distinctive.

B. Processes in a cell can be classified broadly as growth, maintenance, reproduction, and homeostasis.

C. Life can be organized in a functional and structural hierarchy ranging from cells to the biosphere.

D. Most multicellular organisms are composed of organ systems whose structures reflect their particular function.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/08
Date of Last Rating: 05/08
Status: State Board Approved

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
2002050: M/J Comprehensive Science 1, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000310: Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000320: Biology 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000430: Biology Technology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
3027010: Biotechnology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
3027020: Biotechnology 2 (Specifically in versions: 2015 and beyond (current))
2000370: Botany (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002480: Forensic Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2017, 2017 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002400: Integrated Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002410: Integrated Science 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000020: M/J Life Science, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7920015: Access Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
7920025: Access Integrated Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
2002055: M/J Comprehensive Science 1 Accelerated Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000315: Biology 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000500: Bioscience 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2002405: Integrated Science 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
SC.912.L.14.Pa.1: Match parts of common living things to their functions.
SC.912.L.14.In.2: Identify the major parts of plant and animal cells, including the cell membrane, nucleus, and cytoplasm, and their basic functions.
SC.912.L.14.Su.2: Recognize that cells have different parts and each has a function.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Lesson Plans

Eukaryotic Cells: The Factories of Life:

Students will be able to identify the main parts of a cell and to describe the basic function of each part. The students will match parts of a cell to parts of a city that have functions that are analogous to each cell part. They will then develop their own analogy and present it to the class. Finally, they will practice their knowledge using a computer-based review game.

Type: Lesson Plan

Just Be Passive:

In this lesson, students will design their own controlled experiment. The teacher introduces osmosis through a short Prezi, checking their understanding along the way by means of comprehension questions included in the presentation. Immediately after the introduction, the teacher will place students into three or four groups and facilitate a brainstorming process in which students work together to develop questions, list materials and outline procedures. These will then be peer reviewed by their classmates in which they will give them recommendations and or offer suggestions. The teacher will make the final approval and experiments will commence the following class. Students will then report their results as a written lab report or using the same lab report format to create a gallery walk.

Type: Lesson Plan

Movement Across the Membrane: Red Rover:

Using the familiar children's game "Red Rover," students will simulate the selectively permeable cell membrane and model how various molecules can/can not cross with/without assistance.

Type: Lesson Plan

Crossing the Barrier:

This lesson uses a lecture, a 3D model, and worksheets to help students master the concept of molecular transport across the cell membrane.

Type: Lesson Plan

Diffusion of Starch and Potato Osmosis:

The students will discover how the movement of material occurs through the selectively permeable cell membrane, a highly selective barrier. They will observe the processes of diffusion and osmosis, first in two teacher-led demonstrations, and then through two lab activities: the diffusion of starch molecules through a plastic bag and potato cores immersed in isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic solutions. Finally, students will connect this knowledge to how water moves in and out of a cell in different solutions.

Type: Lesson Plan

Cell Membrane Structure and Function:

This resource includes hands-on-activities to familiarize students with the fluid mosaic model of the cell membrane and its function.

Type: Lesson Plan

Cells: Taking out the Trash:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text that addresses cellular waste. The article students will read explains the different ways a cell gets rid of waste, including how proteasomes and lysosomes break down cell waste. The article covers another method of letting the waste "pile up." This informational text is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Spirillum, Dandelions, and Koalas, OH MY!:

This lesson allows students to create a science center display showing their knowledge of the general structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and the structures and functions for the components of plant and animal cells. At the end of this lesson, students will be assessed by participating in a gallery walk that displays their design for a local science center.

This lesson is a STEM project-based learning opportunity.

Type: Lesson Plan

Modeling Kidney Dialysis:

This activity will have you look at transport of molecules in and out of membranes in a different way by modeling kidney dialysis. Students should complete the Solution Problems Worksheet before beginning the Kidney Dialysis activity.

Type: Lesson Plan

Here's Your Sign! An Interactive Analogous View of the Cell:

This two-part lesson will help students to be able to identify the major organelles of plant and animal cells, and enables them to understand correlations between the organelles' structure and how that aids in function. Students will be able to compare and contrast plant and animal cells. The first part of the lesson allows the class to interact together through a game of Jeopardy style questions regarding these two major types of cell types. The second portion of the lesson has students created an illustrated analogy of a cell to something that they are more familiar with, such as their school.

Type: Lesson Plan

Water, Water, Where Did You Go?:

This lesson plan explains the principle of osmosis in plant tissues. It is designed for three class periods, each 50 minutes in length, and one take-home activity. Students will compare and contrast osmotic potential of different plant tissues given through an investigation. The teacher explains and presents the content and the procedures on the first day as a lesson walk through. The investigative lab attached help the students to explore and relate the concept of osmosis in real life.

Type: Lesson Plan

Transport Across a Membrane:

In this activity students will investigate how and under what conditions molecules move across the cell membrane.

Type: Lesson Plan

Who's your cell mate?:

During the lesson students will review parts of the plant and animal cell and build upon that knowledge by studying organelle function more closely.

Type: Lesson Plan

Small Cells verses Large Cells:

The students will have an opportunity to discover that the size of cells (surface area and volume) has a major impact on the movement of nutrients and waste products in and out through the cell by diffusion across the semipermeable membrane. The movement of these molecules is essential for the health of the cell and to maintain homeostasis.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorial

Cellular Transport: The Role of the Cell Membrane:

Learn about the function of the cell membrane as a selective barrier that moves material into and out of the cell to maintain homeostasis with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Ins and Outs of Kidney Dialysis:

When your kidneys fail you, there's help with kidney dialysis.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Perspectives Video: Teaching Ideas

Studying Cell Membranes and Osmosis with Hard-Boiled Eggs:

Your mind will swell with knowledge after submerging in this idea to demonstrate osmosis.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Semipermiable Cell Membrane Inquiry:

Let this semipermiable membrane teaching idea sink in.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Learning Stations for Cell Transport:

Get a tip for modeling the cell membrane in this lesson idea.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Problem-Solving Task

Osmosis in Potatoes:

In this lab exercise, students will demonstrate diffusion in potatoes by placing them into solutions of water and salt water.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Teaching Ideas

Egg Osmosis Lab:

This lab is a hands on activity where students can explore the concepts of osmotic solutions and diffusion. It demonstrates all 3 osmotic solution types: isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic. It takes a duration of 4 days, but each day is approximately 15 minutes of a specific daily task.

Type: Teaching Idea

Osmosis Demonstration Lab:

Students will use potato cores to demonstrate osmosis in salt solutions.

Type: Teaching Idea

Text Resources

How Cells Take Out the Trash:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text focuses on cellular waste and describes different ways a cell gets rid of waste. The text also briefly addresses how further study of the ways cells dispose of waste could lead to new approaches for preventing or treating disease.

Type: Text Resource

Blood Made Suitable For All:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text explains how blood is classified into types based on the presence of antigens. It describes a process whereby antigens can be removed by an enzyme to make all blood types the same as the universal donor.

Type: Text Resource

Animal Cells Can Communicate by Reaching Out and Touching, UCSF Team Discovers:

This resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Scientists have discovered that animal cells can communicate by sending out thin tubes of cytoplasm called cytonemes that extend across many cells to reach a cell that will receive the signal, much like neuron communication.

Type: Text Resource

Tutorials

Cell Structure and Function:

This tutorial is a basic unit on cellular biology. The unit introduces the cell theory and its parts. It also discusses the importance of microscopes while studying cells. This presentation describes animal and plant cells in detail and discusses the organelles found in each.

Type: Tutorial

Mineral Transport in Plants:

This tutorial will help you to understand how minerals are absorbed by the root hair in plants.

Type: Tutorial

Cell Membrane Function:

This tutorial will help you to understand how a molecule can be transported across a membrane against a concentration gradient. Cellular membranes function to keep the internal environment of the cell distinct from the external environment. Concentrations of many molecules differ across cellular membranes. This animation shows the function of the sodium potassium pump.

Type: Tutorial

Water Transport in Plants:

This tutorial will help you to understand how plant cells intake water. This animation shows how water is transported from the root systems of plants upwards to the leaves.

Type: Tutorial

Diffusion and Osmosis:

This Khan Academy tutorial guides you through the processes of diffusion and osmosis while explaining the vocabulary and terminology involved in detail.

Type: Tutorial

Introduction to the Cell Membrane:

This Khan Academy tutorial addresses the importance of the phospholipid bilayer in the structure of the cell membrane. The types of molecules that can diffuse through the cell membrane are also discussed.

Type: Tutorial

Proton Pump:

This tutorial will help you to understand how a concentration gradient across a membrane is used. When a molecule or an ion is moved across a membrane from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration then a gradient is generated. This gradient can be chemical or it can also create a difference in electrical charge across the membrane if ions are involved. The proton pump generates an electrical and chemical gradient that can be used to create ATP which can drive a large number of different biochemical reactions.

Type: Tutorial

Cell Membrane Proteins:

Students will learn about the different types of proteins found in the cell membrane while viewing this Khan Academy tutorial video.

Type: Tutorial

Sodium Potassium Exchange Pump:

This tutorial will help you to understand how sodium and potassium ions are pumped in opposite directions across a membrane building up a chemical and electrical gradient for each. These gradients can be used to drive other transport processes.

Type: Tutorial

Active Transport and the Sodium-Potassium Exchange Pump:

This tutorial will help you to understand the process of active transport. Sodium and potassium ions are pumped in opposite directions across the membrane building up a chemical and electrical gradient for each.

Type: Tutorial

Regulated Secretion:

This online tutorial will help you to understand the process of regulated secretion. In regulated secretion, proteins are secreted from a cell in large amounts when a specific signal is detected by the cell. The specific example used in this tutorial is the release of insulin after a glucose signal enters a pancreatic beta cell.

Type: Tutorial

Cells vs. Virus: A Battle for Health:

All living things are made of cells. In the human body, these highly efficient units are protected by layer upon layer of defense against icky invaders like the cold virus. Shannon Stiles takes a journey into the cell, introducing the microscopic arsenal of weapons and warriors that play a role in the battle for your health.

Type: Tutorial

Cell Anatomy:

This tutorial will help the learners to learn about the anatomy of the cell. As the learners move the cursor over each cell organelle, they are shown information about that organelle's structure and function.

Type: Tutorial

Video/Audio/Animations

Bozeman Science: A Tour of the Cell:

This is a very clear, thorough, easy to understand video on cells. It includes the history of the microscope, types of microscopes, future microscope technology, and how they all work. The majority of the video is a comparison/contrast of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including size, structure and function of the organelles in a eukaryotic cell.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Transport Across the Cell Membrane:

Paul Andersen describes how cells move materials across the cell membrane. All movement can be classified as passive or active. Passive transport, like diffusion, requires no energy as particles move along their gradient. Active transport requires additional energy as particles move against their gradient.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

MIT BLOSSOMS - Methods for Protein Purification:

This Protein Purification video lesson is intended to give students some insight into the process and tools that scientists and engineers use to explore proteins. It is designed to extend the knowledge of students who are already somewhat sophisticated and who have a good understanding of basic biology. The question that motivates this lesson is, "what makes two cell types different?" and this question is posed in several ways. Such scientific reasoning raises the experimental question: how could you study just a subset of specialized proteins that distinguish one cell type from another? Two techniques useful in this regard are considered in the lesson. This video lesson will easily fit into a 50-minute class period, and prerequisites include a good understanding of cellular components (DNA vs. Protein vs. lipid) and some understanding of the physical features of proteins (charge, size etc). The simple cell model used here can be assembled in any kind of container and with any components of different solubility, density, charge etc. In-class activities during the video breaks include discussions, careful observations, and the use of a "very simple cell" model to explore two techniques of protein purification. Students and teachers can spend additional time discussing and exploring the question of "how we know what we know" since this lesson lends itself to the teaching of the process of science as well.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Virtual Manipulatives

Plant, Animal and Bacteria Cell Models:

Living cells are divided into two types - procaryotic and eucaryotic. This division is based on internal complexity. This website provides interactive graphic roadmaps to the organization of both of these cell types. It also shows distinctions between plant and animal cells.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Illustrating the process of diffusion :


This virtual manipulative will help the students to understand that osmosis is the movement of water molecules from an area of high concentration across a semipermeable membrane to an area of low concentration. This illustration of the diffusion process will help the students to understand the concept of osmotic pressure which is created by the movement of the water based on their concentration gradient and thus resulting in the difference of the solute concentration.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Membrane Channel Simulations:

This interactive cell membrane simulation allows students to see how different types of channels allow particles to move through the membrane.

Sample learning goals:

  • Predict when particles will move through the membrane and when they will not.
  • Identify which particle type will diffuse depending on which type of channels are present.
  • Predict the rate of diffusion based on the number and type of channels present.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Original Student Tutorials Science - Grades 9-12

Cellular Transport: The Role of the Cell Membrane:

Learn about the function of the cell membrane as a selective barrier that moves material into and out of the cell to maintain homeostasis with this interactive tutorial.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorial

Cellular Transport: The Role of the Cell Membrane:

Learn about the function of the cell membrane as a selective barrier that moves material into and out of the cell to maintain homeostasis with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Tutorials

Cell Structure and Function:

This tutorial is a basic unit on cellular biology. The unit introduces the cell theory and its parts. It also discusses the importance of microscopes while studying cells. This presentation describes animal and plant cells in detail and discusses the organelles found in each.

Type: Tutorial

Mineral Transport in Plants:

This tutorial will help you to understand how minerals are absorbed by the root hair in plants.

Type: Tutorial

Cell Membrane Function:

This tutorial will help you to understand how a molecule can be transported across a membrane against a concentration gradient. Cellular membranes function to keep the internal environment of the cell distinct from the external environment. Concentrations of many molecules differ across cellular membranes. This animation shows the function of the sodium potassium pump.

Type: Tutorial

Water Transport in Plants:

This tutorial will help you to understand how plant cells intake water. This animation shows how water is transported from the root systems of plants upwards to the leaves.

Type: Tutorial

Diffusion and Osmosis:

This Khan Academy tutorial guides you through the processes of diffusion and osmosis while explaining the vocabulary and terminology involved in detail.

Type: Tutorial

Introduction to the Cell Membrane:

This Khan Academy tutorial addresses the importance of the phospholipid bilayer in the structure of the cell membrane. The types of molecules that can diffuse through the cell membrane are also discussed.

Type: Tutorial

Proton Pump:

This tutorial will help you to understand how a concentration gradient across a membrane is used. When a molecule or an ion is moved across a membrane from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration then a gradient is generated. This gradient can be chemical or it can also create a difference in electrical charge across the membrane if ions are involved. The proton pump generates an electrical and chemical gradient that can be used to create ATP which can drive a large number of different biochemical reactions.

Type: Tutorial

Cell Membrane Proteins:

Students will learn about the different types of proteins found in the cell membrane while viewing this Khan Academy tutorial video.

Type: Tutorial

Sodium Potassium Exchange Pump:

This tutorial will help you to understand how sodium and potassium ions are pumped in opposite directions across a membrane building up a chemical and electrical gradient for each. These gradients can be used to drive other transport processes.

Type: Tutorial

Active Transport and the Sodium-Potassium Exchange Pump:

This tutorial will help you to understand the process of active transport. Sodium and potassium ions are pumped in opposite directions across the membrane building up a chemical and electrical gradient for each.

Type: Tutorial

Regulated Secretion:

This online tutorial will help you to understand the process of regulated secretion. In regulated secretion, proteins are secreted from a cell in large amounts when a specific signal is detected by the cell. The specific example used in this tutorial is the release of insulin after a glucose signal enters a pancreatic beta cell.

Type: Tutorial

Cells vs. Virus: A Battle for Health:

All living things are made of cells. In the human body, these highly efficient units are protected by layer upon layer of defense against icky invaders like the cold virus. Shannon Stiles takes a journey into the cell, introducing the microscopic arsenal of weapons and warriors that play a role in the battle for your health.

Type: Tutorial

Cell Anatomy:

This tutorial will help the learners to learn about the anatomy of the cell. As the learners move the cursor over each cell organelle, they are shown information about that organelle's structure and function.

Type: Tutorial

Virtual Manipulatives

Illustrating the process of diffusion :


This virtual manipulative will help the students to understand that osmosis is the movement of water molecules from an area of high concentration across a semipermeable membrane to an area of low concentration. This illustration of the diffusion process will help the students to understand the concept of osmotic pressure which is created by the movement of the water based on their concentration gradient and thus resulting in the difference of the solute concentration.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Membrane Channel Simulations:

This interactive cell membrane simulation allows students to see how different types of channels allow particles to move through the membrane.

Sample learning goals:

  • Predict when particles will move through the membrane and when they will not.
  • Identify which particle type will diffuse depending on which type of channels are present.
  • Predict the rate of diffusion based on the number and type of channels present.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Tutorial

Cell Anatomy:

This tutorial will help the learners to learn about the anatomy of the cell. As the learners move the cursor over each cell organelle, they are shown information about that organelle's structure and function.

Type: Tutorial

Virtual Manipulative

Illustrating the process of diffusion :


This virtual manipulative will help the students to understand that osmosis is the movement of water molecules from an area of high concentration across a semipermeable membrane to an area of low concentration. This illustration of the diffusion process will help the students to understand the concept of osmotic pressure which is created by the movement of the water based on their concentration gradient and thus resulting in the difference of the solute concentration.

Type: Virtual Manipulative