SC.912.P.12.3

Interpret and apply Newton's three laws of motion.
General Information
Subject Area: Science
Grade: 912
Body of Knowledge: Physical Science
Idea: Level 3: Strategic Thinking & Complex Reasoning
Standard: Motion -

A. Motion can be measured and described qualitatively and quantitatively. Net forces create a change in motion. When objects travel at speeds comparable to the speed of light, Einstein's special theory of relativity applies.

B. Momentum is conserved under well-defined conditions. A change in momentum occurs when a net force is applied to an object over a time interval.

C. The Law of Universal Gravitation states that gravitational forces act on all objects irrespective of their size and position.

D. Gases consist of great numbers of molecules moving in all directions. The behavior of gases can be modeled by the kinetic molecular theory.

E. Chemical reaction rates change with conditions under which they occur. Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic state in which forward and reverse processes occur at the same rates.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/08
Date of Last Rating: 05/08
Status: State Board Approved

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
2020910: Astronomy Solar/Galactic Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002480: Forensic Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2017, 2017 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002490: Forensic Sciences 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2017, 2017 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002400: Integrated Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002410: Integrated Science 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2003310: Physical Science (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2003320: Physical Science Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2003380: Physics 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2003390: Physics 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2003600: Principles of Technology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002330: Space Technology and Engineering (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018 (course terminated))
1800310: Aerospace Science 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
7920025: Access Integrated Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond)
2002405: Integrated Science 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))
2003385: Physics 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))
2003836: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Physics 1 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7920022: Access Physical Science (Specifically in versions: 2016 - 2018, 2018 and beyond)

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
SC.912.P.12.In.3: Recognize various situations that show Newton’s third law of motion: for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
SC.912.P.12.Su.3: Recognize the action and reaction in a situation that show Newton’s third law of motion: for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
SC.912.P.12.Pa.3: Identify the source of the force moving an object.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Lesson Plans

Elasticity: Studying How Solids Change Shape and Size:

This lesson's primary focus is to introduce high school students to the concept of Elasticity, which is one of the fundamental concepts in the understanding of the physics of deformation in solids. The main learning objectives are: (1) To understand the essential concept of Elasticity and be able to distinguish simple solids objects based on degree and extent of their elastic properties; (2) To appreciate the utility of the elastic force vs. deformation curve through experiments; (3) To be aware of potential sources of error present in such experiments and identify corrective measures; and (4) To appreciate the relevance of Elasticity in practical applications.

Type: Lesson Plan

Bottled Up Energy:

This experimental design project deals with real life understanding of being assigned a group task, creating a budget, and providing evidence about the completion of the assigned task. The task in this case is that students are being asked to create a model of a car out of supplied materials and to test these designs. After each trial the students will analyze the data collected and make any improvements that are necessary. The teams will test all modifications and after analyzing the results of their trials, they will create a presentation to the class on how their design performed.

Type: Lesson Plan

Hooke's Law and Simple Harmonic Motion:

Students will graphically determine the spring constant k using their knowledge of Newton's Laws of Motion and Hooke's Law and by determining the period of a weight on a spring undergoing simple harmonic motion.

Type: Lesson Plan

Lesson Plan for Designing, Building, and Launching Water Rockets:

The teacher brings the concepts presented in physics class to life through the experience of designing, building, and launching rockets. Acting as engineers, students will have the opportunity to match their ingenuity with the limits of the Laws of Physics in order to design a rocket that is aerodynamically sound. They must use their knowledge of Newton's laws, aerodynamic forces, and impulse and momentum to successfully meet the goal set by a control rocket. Their task is to increase the time flight, and altitude of their rocket without the usage of a recovery system.

Recordkeeping in the form of an engineering notebook will be encouraged as a vital tool, and will serve as the summative assessment. Students will be required to make daily entries throughout the duration of the challenge.

Type: Lesson Plan

Newton Video Project:

Students will research and take Cornell Notes over Newton's Three Laws of Motion. Once the research is completed, students will create either an animated video or an actual video in which they will correctly name, describe or explain and apply using a real world example of each of the three laws.

Type: Lesson Plan

Investigating Newton's Third Law: An Inquiry Based Lesson Plan:

This lesson provides an inquiry based approach that allows students to discover Newton's 3rd Law. In this lesson, students will use force sensors to measure the magnitude and direction of paired forces. The lab provides multiple experiments that allow the students to observe the magnitude and direction of paired forces for different situations. Upon completing the lab, the teacher can debrief the lab using class data to come up with a consensus for a definition for Newton's 3rd Law. Possible extensions of the lesson include using Newton's 3rd Law to design bottle rockets, or research the rocketry design process at firms such as NASA.

This lesson covers Newtons Third Law only of standard SC.912.P.12.3.

Type: Lesson Plan

Collision On The Tracks:

This is a lab activity focusing on Newton's Second Law of Motion. Students will investigate how both mass and force affect the acceleration of an object.

Type: Lesson Plan

Olympic Snowboard Design:

This MEA requires students to design a custom snowboard for five Olympic athletes, taking into consideration how their height and weight affect the design elements of a snowboard. There are several factors that go into the design of a snowboard, and the students must use reasoning skills to determine which factors are more important and why, as well as what factors to eliminate or add based on the athlete's style and preferences. After the students have designed a board for each athlete, they will report their procedure and reasons for their decisions.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Physics of Pool:

The objective of this lesson is to illustrate how a common everyday experience (such as playing pool) can often provide a learning moment. In the example chosen, we use the game of pool to help explain some key concepts of physics. One of these concepts is the conservation of linear momentum since conservation laws play an extremely important role in many aspects of physics. The idea that a certain property of a system is maintained before and after something happens is quite central to many principles in physics and in the pool example, we concentrate on the conservation of linear momentum. The latter half of the video looks at angular momentum and friction, examining why certain objects roll, as opposed to slide. We do this by looking at how striking a ball with a cue stick at different locations produces different effects.

Though not required, students who have been exposed to some physics would benefit most from this video. In mathematically rigorous classes, students can concentrate on the details of vectors and conservation of linear momentum.

No materials are required for this lesson, and it can be completed easily within a class period.

Type: Lesson Plan

BIOSCOPES Summer Institute 2013 - Forces:

This lesson is designed to be part of a sequence of lessons. It follows resource 52937 "BIOSCOPES Summer Institute 2013 - Motion" and precedes resource 52910 "BIOSCOPES Summer Institute 2013 - Mechanical Energy." This lesson uses a predict, observe, and explain approach along with inquiry based activities to enhance student understanding of Newton's three laws of motion.

Type: Lesson Plan

Discovering Newton's Third Law:

Students will investigate interacting forces between two objects.

Type: Lesson Plan

Splash and Learn:

Students will utilize their knowledge about projectiles to devise a method to launch a water balloon so that it lands on a 1 meter square cloth target at least 25 meters away. If they hit the target with the balloon (not just splash a few drops on it), they receive extra credit on the lab.

Type: Lesson Plan

How Fast Do Objects Fall?:

Students will investigate falling objects with very low air friction.

Type: Lesson Plan

Forced To Learn:

Using inquiry techniques, students, working in groups, are asked to design and conduct an experiment to test Newton's Second Law of Motion. Upon being provided with textbooks, rulers, measuring tapes, mini-storage containers, golf balls, marbles, rubber balls, steel balls, and pennies they work cooperatively to implement and revise their hypotheses. With limited guidance from the teacher, students are able to visualize the direct relationships between force and mass; force and acceleration; and the inverse relationship between mass and acceleration.

Type: Lesson Plan

Applying Newton's Second Law:

Students will investigate how acceleration of an object is affected by the mass of the object and by the applied force on the object.

Type: Lesson Plan

Newton's Three Laws of Motion: A Student-Centered Approach:

This is an extended lesson that will take approximately two to three weeks to complete. Students begin by completing an inertial balance lab, which includes a graphing and data analysis component, in order to introduce them to Newton's First Law of Motion. Students then go on to complete a Webquest to reinforce Newton's First Law and to learn about Newton's Second Law and Free-body Diagrams. The class then participates in a demonstration to learn Newton's Third Law of Motion. Students then either complete a worksheet to practice calculations involving Newton's Second Law or an inquiry lab to understand how Newton's Laws can be used to build Balloon Rocket Cars (or both!). Finally, students complete an original project by writing a letter, recording a song, or creating a poster to demonstrate their mastery of Newton's Three Laws of Motion.

Type: Lesson Plan

How Mosquitoes Can Fly in the Rain:

In this lesson, we learn how insects can fly in the rain. The objective is to calculate the impact forces of raindrops on flying mosquitoes. Students will gain experience with using Newton's laws, gathering data from videos and graphs, and most importantly, the utility of making approximations. No calculus will be used in this lesson, but familiarity with torque and force balances is suggested. No calculators will be needed, but students should have pencil and paper to make estimations and, if possible, copies of the graphs provided with the lesson. Between lessons, students are recommended to discuss the assignments with their neighbors.

Type: Lesson Plan

Brain Trauma:

Students investigate how bicycle helmets protect the brain from forces related to sudden changes in motion.

Type: Lesson Plan

Amusement Park Physics:

Students will research various types of amusement park rides and use their findings to design a feasible ride of their own. They will summarize their findings and present their ride design to the class. Each student will then write a persuasive letter to a local amusement park describing the reasons their ride design is the best.

Type: Lesson Plan

Hanging by a Thread:

This lesson focuses on two elements: understanding Newton’s laws of motion, and how to use Newton’s laws to create force diagrams. This lesson also demonstrates how to incorporate requirements of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) into a physics lesson. It uses a discrepant event (phenomenon) to model forces at work on an object resulting in motion. 

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorials

Discovering Newton's Third Law of Motion: On the Basketball Court:

Learn about Newton's third law of motion on the basketball court in this interactive tutorial.

This is part 3 in a 4-part series. Click below to explore the other tutorials in the series. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Discovering Newton's Second Law of Motion: On the Softball Diamond:

Learn about Newton's second law of motion on the softball diamond with this interactive tutorial.

This is part 2 in a 4-part series. Click below to explore the other tutorials in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Discovering Newton's First Law of Motion: On the Soccer Pitch:

Take to the soccer pitch to learn about Newton's first law of motion in this interactive tutorial.

This part 1 in a 4-part series. Click below to explore the other tutorials in the series.
Part 2: Discovering Newton’s Second Law of Motion: On the Softball Diamond (Coming soon)
Part 3: Discovering Newton’s Third Law of Motion: On the Basketball Court (Coming soon)
Part 4: Newton’s Insight: Standing on the Shoulders of Giants (Coming soon)

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Perspectives Video: Experts

Force, Motion, and Momentum in Military Projectile Weapons Testing:

Dr. Betta Jerome, a senior mechanical engineer with the United States Air Force, explains force, motion, and momentum in the context of a military projectile weapons testing environment.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Gravity, Air Friction, and Falling Objects:

Watch as Dr. Simon Capstick drops fruit from a tall building to demonstrate the effect of mass, gravity, and air friction on falling objects.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiasts

Boat Propellers:

We'll be looking at the role of pitch, number of blades and material for outboard motor props as it relates to the propulsion of a boat

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Vectors and Flight Forces:

When you watch this video, your knowledge related to flight and physics will really take off!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Perspectives Video: Teaching Ideas

Paper Glider Forces:

Have you ever wanted to fly paper airplanes for fun while learning about the science of flight? Here's your chance! Produced with funding from the Florida Division of Cultural Affairs.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Pinewood Derby Forces and Motion:

Let's get rolling and explore the physics behind rolling cars! Make sure you stay on track. Produced with funding from the Florida Division of Cultural Affairs.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Student Center Activity

Newtonian Mechanics: Momentum:

This web page provides an elementary introduction and overview of momentum and a discussion of recoil, conservation and energy. A lesson plan and related pages are also linked to this page. This is part of an extensive web site, "From Stargazers to Starships", that uses the topics of space exploration and space science to introduce topics in physics and astronomy. Translations in French, Italian and Spanish are available.

Type: Student Center Activity

Tutorials

Ice Accelerating Down an Incline:

This video tutorial from the Khan Academy explains how to calculate the acceleration of ice down a plane made of ice.

Type: Tutorial

Inclined plane force components:

This video tutorial shows how to figure out the components of force due to gravity that are parallel and perpendicular to the surface of an inclined plane.

Type: Tutorial

Forces:

This tutorial provides the learners with detailed information about forces. Topics covered include Newton's Laws, friction, gravity, balanced and unbalanced forces, vectors, weight, motion and momentum.

Type: Tutorial

LSSS Tutorial 1-2: Introduction to Free-body diagrams:

This brief tutorial introduces teachers to the construction of free-body diagrams and their use in setting up and solving equations of motion for objects under the influence of one or more forces.

Type: Tutorial

Video/Audio/Animations

MIT BLOSSOMS - The Physics of Boomerangs:

This learning video explores the mysterious physics behind boomerangs and other rapidly spinning objects. Students will get to make and throw their own boomerangs between video segments! A key idea presented is how torque causes the precession of angular momentum. One class period is required to complete this learning video, and the optimal prerequisites are a familiarity with forces, Newton's laws, vectors and time derivatives. Each student would need the following materials for boomerang construction: cardboard (roughly the size of a postcard), ruler, pencil/pen, scissors, protractor, and a stapler.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Science of the Olympic Winter Games - Aerial Physics:

A 4-minute video in which an Olympic freestyle skier and a physicist discuss the physics behind freestyle skiing.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

MIT BLOSSOMS - Galaxies and Dark Matter:

This video lesson has the goal of introducing students to galaxies as large collections of gravitationally bound stars. It explores the amount of matter needed for a star to remain bound and then brings in the idea of Dark Matter, a new kind of matter that does not interact with light. It is best if students have had some high school level mechanics, ideally Newton's laws, orbital motion and centripetal force. The teacher guide segment has a derivation of centripetal acceleration. This lesson should be mostly accessible to students with no physics background. The video portion of this lesson runs about 30 minutes, and the questions and demonstrations will give a total activity time of about an hour if the materials are all at hand and the students work quickly. However, 1 1/2 hours is a more comfortable amount of time. There are several demonstrations that can be carried out using string, ten or so balls of a few inches in diameter, a stopwatch or clock with a sweep second hand and some tape. The demonstrations are best done outside, but can also be carried out in a gymnasium or other large room. If the materials or space are not available, there are videos of the demonstrations in the module and these may be used.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Virtual Manipulatives

Newton's three laws of motion:

This website has a short biography about Sir Isaac Newton. It also reviews his three laws of motion with examples, and ends with a short quiz.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Collision lab:

Learn more about collisions with the use of a virtual air hockey table. Investigate simple and complex collisions in one and two dimensions.Experiment with the number of discs, masses and initial conditions. Vary the elasticity and see how the total momentum and kinetic energy changes during collisions.

Some of the sample learning goals can be:

  • Draw "Before and After" pictures of collisions.
  • Construct momentum vector representations of "Before and After" collisions.
  • Apply law of conservation of momentum to solve problems with collisions.
  • Explain why energy is not conserved and varies in some collisions.
  • Determine the change in mechanical energy in collisions of varying "elasticity".
  • What does "elasticity" mean?

Type: Virtual Manipulative

A Hydraulic Lever:

This simulated activity will help understand and apply Pascal's principle which states that pressure is transmitted undiminished in an enclosed static fluid. This is the theoretical foundation of hydraulic levers.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Ramp: Forces and Motion:

This simulation allows you to explore forces and motion as you push household objects up and down a ramp. Observe how the angle of inclination affects the parallel forces. Graphical representation of forces, energy and work makes it easier to understand the concept.

Some of the learning goals can be:

  • Predict, qualitatively, how an external force will affect the speed and direction of an object's motion.
  • Explain the effects with the help of a free body diagram
  • Use free body diagrams to draw position, velocity, acceleration and force graphs and vice versa.
  • Explain how the graphs relate to one another.
  • Given a scenario or a graph, sketch all four graphs.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

STEM Lessons - Model Eliciting Activity

Olympic Snowboard Design:

This MEA requires students to design a custom snowboard for five Olympic athletes, taking into consideration how their height and weight affect the design elements of a snowboard. There are several factors that go into the design of a snowboard, and the students must use reasoning skills to determine which factors are more important and why, as well as what factors to eliminate or add based on the athlete's style and preferences. After the students have designed a board for each athlete, they will report their procedure and reasons for their decisions.

Original Student Tutorials Science - Grades 9-12

Discovering Newton's First Law of Motion: On the Soccer Pitch:

Take to the soccer pitch to learn about Newton's first law of motion in this interactive tutorial.

This part 1 in a 4-part series. Click below to explore the other tutorials in the series.
Part 2: Discovering Newton’s Second Law of Motion: On the Softball Diamond (Coming soon)
Part 3: Discovering Newton’s Third Law of Motion: On the Basketball Court (Coming soon)
Part 4: Newton’s Insight: Standing on the Shoulders of Giants (Coming soon)

Discovering Newton's Second Law of Motion: On the Softball Diamond:

Learn about Newton's second law of motion on the softball diamond with this interactive tutorial.

This is part 2 in a 4-part series. Click below to explore the other tutorials in the series.

Discovering Newton's Third Law of Motion: On the Basketball Court:

Learn about Newton's third law of motion on the basketball court in this interactive tutorial.

This is part 3 in a 4-part series. Click below to explore the other tutorials in the series. 

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorials

Discovering Newton's Third Law of Motion: On the Basketball Court:

Learn about Newton's third law of motion on the basketball court in this interactive tutorial.

This is part 3 in a 4-part series. Click below to explore the other tutorials in the series. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Discovering Newton's Second Law of Motion: On the Softball Diamond:

Learn about Newton's second law of motion on the softball diamond with this interactive tutorial.

This is part 2 in a 4-part series. Click below to explore the other tutorials in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Discovering Newton's First Law of Motion: On the Soccer Pitch:

Take to the soccer pitch to learn about Newton's first law of motion in this interactive tutorial.

This part 1 in a 4-part series. Click below to explore the other tutorials in the series.
Part 2: Discovering Newton’s Second Law of Motion: On the Softball Diamond (Coming soon)
Part 3: Discovering Newton’s Third Law of Motion: On the Basketball Court (Coming soon)
Part 4: Newton’s Insight: Standing on the Shoulders of Giants (Coming soon)

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Lesson Plans

Elasticity: Studying How Solids Change Shape and Size:

This lesson's primary focus is to introduce high school students to the concept of Elasticity, which is one of the fundamental concepts in the understanding of the physics of deformation in solids. The main learning objectives are: (1) To understand the essential concept of Elasticity and be able to distinguish simple solids objects based on degree and extent of their elastic properties; (2) To appreciate the utility of the elastic force vs. deformation curve through experiments; (3) To be aware of potential sources of error present in such experiments and identify corrective measures; and (4) To appreciate the relevance of Elasticity in practical applications.

Type: Lesson Plan

Hanging by a Thread:

This lesson focuses on two elements: understanding Newton’s laws of motion, and how to use Newton’s laws to create force diagrams. This lesson also demonstrates how to incorporate requirements of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) into a physics lesson. It uses a discrepant event (phenomenon) to model forces at work on an object resulting in motion. 

Type: Lesson Plan

Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiasts

Boat Propellers:

We'll be looking at the role of pitch, number of blades and material for outboard motor props as it relates to the propulsion of a boat

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Vectors and Flight Forces:

When you watch this video, your knowledge related to flight and physics will really take off!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Tutorials

Ice Accelerating Down an Incline:

This video tutorial from the Khan Academy explains how to calculate the acceleration of ice down a plane made of ice.

Type: Tutorial

Inclined plane force components:

This video tutorial shows how to figure out the components of force due to gravity that are parallel and perpendicular to the surface of an inclined plane.

Type: Tutorial

Forces:

This tutorial provides the learners with detailed information about forces. Topics covered include Newton's Laws, friction, gravity, balanced and unbalanced forces, vectors, weight, motion and momentum.

Type: Tutorial

Video/Audio/Animation

Science of the Olympic Winter Games - Aerial Physics:

A 4-minute video in which an Olympic freestyle skier and a physicist discuss the physics behind freestyle skiing.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Virtual Manipulatives

Newton's three laws of motion:

This website has a short biography about Sir Isaac Newton. It also reviews his three laws of motion with examples, and ends with a short quiz.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Collision lab:

Learn more about collisions with the use of a virtual air hockey table. Investigate simple and complex collisions in one and two dimensions.Experiment with the number of discs, masses and initial conditions. Vary the elasticity and see how the total momentum and kinetic energy changes during collisions.

Some of the sample learning goals can be:

  • Draw "Before and After" pictures of collisions.
  • Construct momentum vector representations of "Before and After" collisions.
  • Apply law of conservation of momentum to solve problems with collisions.
  • Explain why energy is not conserved and varies in some collisions.
  • Determine the change in mechanical energy in collisions of varying "elasticity".
  • What does "elasticity" mean?

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Ramp: Forces and Motion:

This simulation allows you to explore forces and motion as you push household objects up and down a ramp. Observe how the angle of inclination affects the parallel forces. Graphical representation of forces, energy and work makes it easier to understand the concept.

Some of the learning goals can be:

  • Predict, qualitatively, how an external force will affect the speed and direction of an object's motion.
  • Explain the effects with the help of a free body diagram
  • Use free body diagrams to draw position, velocity, acceleration and force graphs and vice versa.
  • Explain how the graphs relate to one another.
  • Given a scenario or a graph, sketch all four graphs.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Vectors and Flight Forces:

When you watch this video, your knowledge related to flight and physics will really take off!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Tutorial

Forces:

This tutorial provides the learners with detailed information about forces. Topics covered include Newton's Laws, friction, gravity, balanced and unbalanced forces, vectors, weight, motion and momentum.

Type: Tutorial

Video/Audio/Animation

Science of the Olympic Winter Games - Aerial Physics:

A 4-minute video in which an Olympic freestyle skier and a physicist discuss the physics behind freestyle skiing.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Virtual Manipulatives

Collision lab:

Learn more about collisions with the use of a virtual air hockey table. Investigate simple and complex collisions in one and two dimensions.Experiment with the number of discs, masses and initial conditions. Vary the elasticity and see how the total momentum and kinetic energy changes during collisions.

Some of the sample learning goals can be:

  • Draw "Before and After" pictures of collisions.
  • Construct momentum vector representations of "Before and After" collisions.
  • Apply law of conservation of momentum to solve problems with collisions.
  • Explain why energy is not conserved and varies in some collisions.
  • Determine the change in mechanical energy in collisions of varying "elasticity".
  • What does "elasticity" mean?

Type: Virtual Manipulative

A Hydraulic Lever:

This simulated activity will help understand and apply Pascal's principle which states that pressure is transmitted undiminished in an enclosed static fluid. This is the theoretical foundation of hydraulic levers.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Ramp: Forces and Motion:

This simulation allows you to explore forces and motion as you push household objects up and down a ramp. Observe how the angle of inclination affects the parallel forces. Graphical representation of forces, energy and work makes it easier to understand the concept.

Some of the learning goals can be:

  • Predict, qualitatively, how an external force will affect the speed and direction of an object's motion.
  • Explain the effects with the help of a free body diagram
  • Use free body diagrams to draw position, velocity, acceleration and force graphs and vice versa.
  • Explain how the graphs relate to one another.
  • Given a scenario or a graph, sketch all four graphs.

Type: Virtual Manipulative