**Subject Area:**Science

**Grade:**912

**Body of Knowledge:**Physical Science

**Idea:**Level 3: Strategic Thinking & Complex Reasoning

**Standard:**Motion -

A. Motion can be measured and described qualitatively and quantitatively. Net forces create a change in motion. When objects travel at speeds comparable to the speed of light, Einstein's special theory of relativity applies.

B. Momentum is conserved under well-defined conditions. A change in momentum occurs when a net force is applied to an object over a time interval.

C. The Law of Universal Gravitation states that gravitational forces act on all objects irrespective of their size and position.

D. Gases consist of great numbers of molecules moving in all directions. The behavior of gases can be modeled by the kinetic molecular theory.

E. Chemical reaction rates change with conditions under which they occur. Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic state in which forward and reverse processes occur at the same rates.

**Date Adopted or Revised:**02/08

**Date of Last Rating:**05/08

**Status:**State Board Approved

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## Lesson Plans

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## Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

## Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

## Text Resources

## Tutorials

## Video/Audio/Animations

## Virtual Manipulatives

## Student Resources

## Lesson Plan

The goal of this lesson is to explain how sailboats work by exploring basic physics principles. At the end of this lesson, students will be able to identify the forces acting on a sailboat and explain how the combination of these forces results in the forward motion of a sailboat. Students should be familiar with vectors and be able to use them to represent forces and moments, and also should be familiar with using free body diagrams to represent forces and moments. The classroom activity challenges are centered around small-group discussions based on the questions posed before each break. Free body diagrams, or another conceptual representation of his or her answer, should support each student’s solution to the questions posed in the video.

Type: Lesson Plan

## Perspectives Video: Expert

Jump to it and learn more about how quadratic equations are used in robot navigation problem solving!

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

## Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Math is important to help you get where you want to go in life, especially if you plan to fly there!

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

## Text Resource

NASA's "Beginner's Guide to Aerodynamics" provides some general information on the basics of aerodynamics. The site allows users to explore at their own pace and level of interest. The topics available include equations of motion, free falling, air resistance, force, gas properties, and atmosphere. Movies, reading materials, and activities are all available to accommodate a variety of different learning styles.

Type: Text Resource

## Tutorials

This video discusses how to figure out the horizontal displacement for a projectile launched at an angle.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial is about projectile motion. This powerpoint lecture discusses the independence of the vertical and horizontal motion of projectiles. Students will be asked to solve problems involving projectile motion of both projectiles fired horizontally and at an angle. This tutorial is geared for advanced students.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial provides the learners with detailed information about forces. Topics covered include Newton's Laws, friction, gravity, balanced and unbalanced forces, vectors, weight, motion and momentum.

Type: Tutorial

## Virtual Manipulatives

Learn more about collisions with the use of a virtual air hockey table. Investigate simple and complex collisions in one and two dimensions.Experiment with the number of discs, masses and initial conditions. Vary the elasticity and see how the total momentum and kinetic energy changes during collisions.

Some of the sample learning goals can be:

- Draw "Before and After" pictures of collisions.
- Construct momentum vector representations of "Before and After" collisions.
- Apply law of conservation of momentum to solve problems with collisions.
- Explain why energy is not conserved and varies in some collisions.
- Determine the change in mechanical energy in collisions of varying "elasticity".
- What does "elasticity" mean?

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will the students learn about position, velocity and acceleration. Acceleration is the derivative of velocity with respect to time and the velocity is the derivative of position with respect to time. With the elimination of time, the relationship between the acceleration, velocity and position can be represented as x = v2 / 2a. In the stimulation, students will be able to move the man back and forth with the mouse and plot his motion.

Some of the sample learning goals can be:

- Interpret, predict and draw charts (position, velocity, and acceleration) for common situations.
- Provide reasoning used to make sense of the charts.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

The students will drag a red point across the screen in any direction they please and, in the process, will be able to see the forces that are being put on that point at any given moment.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

The students will try to move a red ball into a blue goal without touching the walls. They will have fun competing amongst themselves to get the best time but at the same time they will also be learning about vectors, velocity, and acceleration.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This simulation demonstrates the physics of projectile motion. The user can fire different objects through a cannon, set its speed, angle and mass and observe the resultant motion.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

## Parent Resources

## Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Math is important to help you get where you want to go in life, especially if you plan to fly there!

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

## Tutorial

This tutorial provides the learners with detailed information about forces. Topics covered include Newton's Laws, friction, gravity, balanced and unbalanced forces, vectors, weight, motion and momentum.

Type: Tutorial

## Virtual Manipulatives

Learn more about collisions with the use of a virtual air hockey table. Investigate simple and complex collisions in one and two dimensions.Experiment with the number of discs, masses and initial conditions. Vary the elasticity and see how the total momentum and kinetic energy changes during collisions.

Some of the sample learning goals can be:

- Draw "Before and After" pictures of collisions.
- Construct momentum vector representations of "Before and After" collisions.
- Apply law of conservation of momentum to solve problems with collisions.
- Explain why energy is not conserved and varies in some collisions.
- Determine the change in mechanical energy in collisions of varying "elasticity".
- What does "elasticity" mean?

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will the students learn about position, velocity and acceleration. Acceleration is the derivative of velocity with respect to time and the velocity is the derivative of position with respect to time. With the elimination of time, the relationship between the acceleration, velocity and position can be represented as x = v2 / 2a. In the stimulation, students will be able to move the man back and forth with the mouse and plot his motion.

Some of the sample learning goals can be:

- Interpret, predict and draw charts (position, velocity, and acceleration) for common situations.
- Provide reasoning used to make sense of the charts.

Type: Virtual Manipulative