SC.912.P.12.1

Distinguish between scalar and vector quantities and assess which should be used to describe an event.
General Information
Subject Area: Science
Grade: 912
Body of Knowledge: Physical Science
Idea: Level 3: Strategic Thinking & Complex Reasoning
Standard: Motion -

A. Motion can be measured and described qualitatively and quantitatively. Net forces create a change in motion. When objects travel at speeds comparable to the speed of light, Einstein's special theory of relativity applies.

B. Momentum is conserved under well-defined conditions. A change in momentum occurs when a net force is applied to an object over a time interval.

C. The Law of Universal Gravitation states that gravitational forces act on all objects irrespective of their size and position.

D. Gases consist of great numbers of molecules moving in all directions. The behavior of gases can be modeled by the kinetic molecular theory.

E. Chemical reaction rates change with conditions under which they occur. Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic state in which forward and reverse processes occur at the same rates.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/08
Date of Last Rating: 05/08
Status: State Board Approved

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
2002480: Forensic Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2017, 2017 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002490: Forensic Sciences 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2017, 2017 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002420: Integrated Science 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002430: Integrated Science 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2003320: Physical Science Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2003380: Physics 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2003390: Physics 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2003600: Principles of Technology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002425: Integrated Science 2 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))
2003385: Physics 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))
2003836: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Physics 1 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
SC.912.P.12.In.1: Recognize that scalar quantities describe the magnitude of the measurement, such as size, weight, volume, area, temperature, or speed.
SC.912.P.12.Su.1: Recognize that speed is expressed as distance moved in a certain time, such as miles per hour or feet per second.
SC.912.P.12.Pa.1: Recognize that objects travel at different speeds.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Lesson Plans

The Adventures of "Shelly the Sea Turtle":

This is a hands-on activity that will keep your students engaged while learning about vectors. Students will create a map using provided coordinates that will plot the "Adventures of Shelly the Sea Turtle."

Students are given the opportunity to be creative and distinguish between scalar and vector quantities and assess which should be used used to describe an event.

Type: Lesson Plan

X Marks the Spot:

This inquiry-lead activity that will engage students to discover the distinguishing qualities of scalars and vectors via a treasure hunt.

Type: Lesson Plan

Florida Vacation Project- Distance, Displacement, Speed and Velocity:

This is a culminating lesson for a unit on Motion. Students will be asked to plan a vacation around Florida that includes 5 destinations. By generating and analyzing their own data students will apply knowledge of distance, displacement, speed and velocity to a real world experience.

Type: Lesson Plan

Olympic Snowboard Design:

This MEA requires students to design a custom snowboard for five Olympic athletes, taking into consideration how their height and weight affect the design elements of a snowboard. There are several factors that go into the design of a snowboard, and the students must use reasoning skills to determine which factors are more important and why, as well as what factors to eliminate or add based on the athlete's style and preferences. After the students have designed a board for each athlete, they will report their procedure and reasons for their decisions.

Type: Lesson Plan

Motion: Speed and Velocity:

In this lesson students should be able to :

  • Identify appropriate SI units for measuring speed.
  • Compare and contrast average speed and instantaneous speed.
  • Interpret position-time graphs.
  • Calculate the speed of an object using slopes.

Type: Lesson Plan

Acceleration:

In this lesson students will learn to:

  1. Identify changes in motion that produce acceleration.
  2. Describe examples of objects moving with constant acceleration.
  3. Calculate the acceleration of an object, analytically, and graphically.
  4. Interpret velocity-time graph, and explain the meaning of the slope.
  5. Classify acceleration as positive, negative, and zero.
  6. Describe instantaneous acceleration.

Type: Lesson Plan

Splash and Learn:

Students will utilize their knowledge about projectiles to devise a method to launch a water balloon so that it lands on a 1 meter square cloth target at least 25 meters away. If they hit the target with the balloon (not just splash a few drops on it), they receive extra credit on the lab.

Type: Lesson Plan

Distance and Displacement.:

  • In this lesson students, will be able to identify frames of reference and describe how they are used to measure motion.
  • Identify appropriate SI units for measuring distances.
  • Distinguish between distance and displacement.
  • Calculate displacement using vector addition.

Type: Lesson Plan

Linear Motion:

The lesson explores ways for students to describe linear motion and investigate relationships between the velocity, acceleration, and the concepts of vector/scalar quantities.

Type: Lesson Plan

Momentum and the Law of Conservation of Momentum: A Student-Centered Lesson:

This is a largely self-paced unit for students to learn the basics of Momentum as well as the Law of Conservation of Momentum. Students complete two investigative exercises (one hands-on, the other virtual). They then are directed to read a website (or a textbook could be substituted) and take notes with the teacher"s support as needed. After taking their own notes, students complete a worksheet to practice calculations involving the Law of Conservation of Momentum. At the end of the unit, students take a traditional summative assessment with True/False, multiple-choice, and fill-in-the-blank questions along with a calculations section. Note that this lesson only covers the basics of linear momentum and does not include impulse or angular momentum.

Type: Lesson Plan

Lesson Study Resource Kits

Motion and Forces:

This Lesson Study Resource Kit was adapted from a 2013 BioScopes physical science summer institute. It features a STEM-integrated unit plan that consists of resources and activities aligned to a unit of instruction on that employs Vernier LabQuest probeware in an investigation of Newton's Laws.

Type: Lesson Study Resource Kit

The Motion of Objects:

This 9-12 Lesson study resource kit is designed to engage teachers of physical science and physics in the planning and design of an instructional unit and research lesson pertaining to the motion of objects. Included in this resource kit are unit plans, concept progressions, formative and summative assessments, complex informational texts, and etc. that align to academic standards for science, mathematics, and English language arts.

Type: Lesson Study Resource Kit

Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiasts

Practical Applications of Vectors in Military Air Traffic Control:

Senior Airman Jennifer Tisdale explains the role of vectors in management of flight traffic for the United States Air Force. 

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Vectors and Flight Forces:

When you watch this video, your knowledge related to flight and physics will really take off!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Text Resources

The Physics Hypertextbook: Speed & Velocity:

This resource offers content support for teachers with sets of conceptual and numerical problems related to speed and velocity. It includes creative ideas for classroom investigations that integrate statistics. This is part of an online textbook in introductory physics.

Type: Text Resource

Beginner's Guide to Aerodynamics:

NASA's "Beginner's Guide to Aerodynamics" provides some general information on the basics of aerodynamics. The site allows users to explore at their own pace and level of interest. The topics available include equations of motion, free falling, air resistance, force, gas properties, and atmosphere. Movies, reading materials, and activities are all available to accommodate a variety of different learning styles.

Type: Text Resource

Tutorials

LSSS Tutorial: Introduction to Vectors and Scalars:

This resource is intended to serve as a concise introduction to vector and scalar quantities for teachers of secondary math and science. It provides definitions of vectors and scalars as well as physical examples of each type of quantity, and also illustrates the differences between these two types of quantities in both one and two dimensions, through determinations of both distance (scalar) and displacement (vector).

Type: Tutorial

Acceleration:

This page is from a comprehensive and comprehensible tutorial in physics. Schematic drawings, questions for understanding with the answers, and links to animations are included.

Type: Tutorial

Virtual Manipulative

Coulomb's Law:


This virtual manipulative will help the learners understand Coulomb's law which is the fundamental principle of electrostatics. It is the force of attraction or repulsion between two charged particles which is directly proportional to the product of the charges and inversely proportional to the distance between them.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

STEM Lessons - Model Eliciting Activity

Olympic Snowboard Design:

This MEA requires students to design a custom snowboard for five Olympic athletes, taking into consideration how their height and weight affect the design elements of a snowboard. There are several factors that go into the design of a snowboard, and the students must use reasoning skills to determine which factors are more important and why, as well as what factors to eliminate or add based on the athlete's style and preferences. After the students have designed a board for each athlete, they will report their procedure and reasons for their decisions.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Vectors and Flight Forces:

When you watch this video, your knowledge related to flight and physics will really take off!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Text Resource

Beginner's Guide to Aerodynamics:

NASA's "Beginner's Guide to Aerodynamics" provides some general information on the basics of aerodynamics. The site allows users to explore at their own pace and level of interest. The topics available include equations of motion, free falling, air resistance, force, gas properties, and atmosphere. Movies, reading materials, and activities are all available to accommodate a variety of different learning styles.

Type: Text Resource

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Vectors and Flight Forces:

When you watch this video, your knowledge related to flight and physics will really take off!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Virtual Manipulative

Coulomb's Law:


This virtual manipulative will help the learners understand Coulomb's law which is the fundamental principle of electrostatics. It is the force of attraction or repulsion between two charged particles which is directly proportional to the product of the charges and inversely proportional to the distance between them.

Type: Virtual Manipulative