SC.6.L.14.5

Identify and investigate the general functions of the major systems of the human body (digestive, respiratory, circulatory, reproductive, excretory, immune, nervous, and musculoskeletal) and describe ways these systems interact with each other to maintain homeostasis.
General Information
Subject Area: Science
Grade: 6
Body of Knowledge: Life Science
Idea: Level 3: Strategic Thinking & Complex Reasoning
Big Idea: Organization and Development of Living Organisms -

A. All living things share certain characteristics.

B. The scientific theory of cells, also called cell theory, is a fundamental organizing principle of life on Earth.

C. Life can be organized in a functional and structural hierarchy.

D. Life is maintained by various physiological functions essential for growth, reproduction, and homeostasis.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/08
Date of Last Rating: 05/08
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes
Test Item Specifications
  • Item Type(s): This benchmark may be assessed using: MC item(s)
  • Also Assesses
    SC.6.L.14.6
    Compare and contrast types of infectious agents that may infect the human body, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites.

  • Clarification :
    Students will identify and/or describe the general functions of the major systems of the human body.

    Students will identify and/or describe how the major systems of the human body interact to maintain homeostasis.

    Students will identify, compare, and/or contrast the types of infectious agents that affect the human body.
  • Content Limits :
    Items are limited to the human digestive, respiratory, circulatory, reproductive, excretory, immune, nervous, and musculoskeletal systems.

    Items will not assess the structures or functions of individual organs in isolation.

    Items assessing the interactions of systems to maintain homeostasis should include a reference to homeostasis and are limited to the organismal level.

    Items will not require specific knowledge of diseases that affect the human body or their causal agents.

    Items may assess the interactions of no more than three systems

    Items assessing infectious agents are limited to viruses, bacteria, and fungi.

  • Stimulus Attributes :
    Diagrams of the human reproductive system will not be used.
  • Response Attributes :
    None specified
  • Prior Knowledge :
    Items may require the student to apply science knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.5.L.14.1 and SC.5.L.14.2.
Sample Test Items (1)
  • Test Item #: Sample Item 1
  • Question: In order to maintain homeostasis, the systems of the human body work together to keep a constant internal temperature. Which of the following statements describes how the human body responds in a cold environment?
  • Difficulty: N/A
  • Type: MC: Multiple Choice

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
2002040: M/J Comprehensive Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2002050: M/J Comprehensive Science 1, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2000010: M/J Life Science (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2000020: M/J Life Science, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7820015: Access M/J Comprehensive Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
2002055: M/J Comprehensive Science 1 Accelerated Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7920035: Fundamental Integrated Science 2 (Specifically in versions: 2013 - 2015, 2015 - 2017 (course terminated))

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
SC.6.L.14.In.1: Identify how the major structures of plants and organs of animals work as parts of larger systems, such as the heart is part of the circulatory system that pumps blood.
SC.6.L.14.Su.1: Identify the major internal organs of animals and external structures of plants and their functions.
SC.6.L.14.Pa.4: Recognize body parts related to basic needs, such as mouth for eating.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Lesson Plans

Why Oh Why So Many Alveoli?:

Lung's use of alveoli to maintain homeostasis

structure and function

concepts - surface area

Type: Lesson Plan

Body in Balance :

The student will create explanations that fit evidence in science relating to how the human body maintains homeostasis. Students will discover body system interactions and how the organ systems work together to maintain homeostasis.

Type: Lesson Plan

Inside the Human Body!:

The teacher will open with a Predict, Observe, and Explain (P.O.E) scenario by asking students the following question: "What will happen to your body temperature as you play outside on a hot summer day, or a cold winter day?" (depending on the weather for that day). Students will write their responses on a sheet of paper and after about 5 minutes the teacher should allow the students to share out. After hearing student responses, the teacher will present the attached PowerPoint on the human body systems. While the instructor uses the PowerPoint to explain each human body system, students will fill in the guided notes worksheet that is attached. Once the PowerPoint is complete students will be able to start the interactive activity called "Inside the Human Body."

For the activity "Inside the Human Body," the teacher should already have the classroom set up like the human body (directions on how to do this are attached). The directions for completing the interactive "Inside the Human Body" activity are also attached.

Type: Lesson Plan

Waste Not, Want Not:

Students will explore the excretory system through a variety of activities that include an inquiry lab, a reading excerpt, an engineering design challenge, and creating an infomercial. Students will build a simulated kidney and explore what factors improve the filtering ability. Students will analyze the data and formulate findings.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Real Story of Where Babies Come From:

Students will observe, explore, and create a story about the main structures of the female/male reproductive systems, describing how these systems interact during the process of fertilization to a create human being.

Type: Lesson Plan

Protect Your King/Queen- Building an Immune Defense:

Students will explore the human immune system by creating a castle designed to protect a fictional king/queen and their kingdom from an invading pathogen.

Type: Lesson Plan

Heart and Lungs and the Systems that Love Them!:

In this lesson, students will learn the parts of the circulatory and respiratory systems and how they work together to maintain homeostasis.

Type: Lesson Plan

Motion and Position of the Human Body:

In this lab students will explore the interactions of the muscular and skeletal systems and how they contribute to homeostasis. Students will collect data based on their own body movements and identify how movement occurs through muscles, tendons, joints and bones. Finally students will conclude that temperature maintenance, cell production and nutritional factors are all variables controlled, in part, by these body systems for the purpose of homeostasis.

Type: Lesson Plan

Circulatory and Respiratory Systems Working Together to Maintain Homeostasis:

In this lesson students will explore what happens at the cellular level for oxygen and carbon dioxide when the energy demands of the human body are increased. Students will explore how the actions of body are changed as the body struggles to maintain homeostasis. 

Type: Lesson Plan

Hooray for Bone Health!:

Students will learn about the musculoskeletal system with a focus on the skeletal system. In addition, students will be able to incorporate the importance of bone density and ways of improving it by helping to select the best weight bearing cardio machine for their fitness center.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

Out of this World Workout: Exercise in Space to Prevent Bone Loss:

Students will learn how exercise is helping astronauts decrease bone and muscle loss during extended stays in micro-gravity. They will be asked to design an exercise program that utilizes both aerobic and muscle-building workouts while using the 3 exercise machines currently in use on the International Space Station. Then, the students will learn that current research suggests that more intense, short bursts of exercise may be more effective at decreasing bone and muscle loss, and they will be asked to redesign their workout prescription accordingly.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

Body Systems and Homeostasis MEA with Dr. Homeostasis:

This MEA is based on a 6th grade life science standard. Using a doctor's report, students will create a checklist and system of identifying organs and body systems affected by the patients symptoms.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Body's Defense System:

The lesson consists of a series of mini-lessons presented through a PowerPoint presentation with embedded videos, formative assessments, a simulation activity and a writing assignment that can be used as a summative assessment. The components of the lesson include the body's external and internal defenses, information on the white blood cells role in defending the body and in creating immunity, vaccinations and how they work to help produce memory cells and challenges to our immune system.

Type: Lesson Plan

Journey through the Body - An Engineering Design Challenge:

This Engineering Design Challenge is intended to help students apply the concepts of the human body and organ systems from SC.6.L.14.5. It is not intended as an initial introduction to this benchmark.

Type: Lesson Plan

Circulatory System Lesson:

The lesson will begin with the teacher engaging the students with a presentation of "How the Blood Gets Around the Body" following a think quest presentation that covers the parts and functions of the circulatory system, including the brain, veins and arteries, heart and blood. Students will explore blood vessels by watching a short video clip, conducting a hands-on investigation about blood pressure. Next the teacher will lead a discussion and explain about the human heart and will use a "Map of the Human Heart" to show the class exactly how the heart pumps blood throughout your body and learn facts about the human heart. Students will get a chance to elaborate by creating a color picture of blood flow to, through and from the heart in their notebooks. To evaluate the students, they will watch a short video clip about the circulatory system and take the accompanying quiz.

Type: Lesson Plan

Skeletal System Lesson:

Students will read an engaging reading passage about what the skeletal system does and has a little activity called "Jumbled Bones" that has the students make a small human skeleton for their notebooks. Students will then explore, in small groups, chicken bones with magnifying glasses. The students will look at the bones for evidence of structure and components and they will speculate about purpose the bone served based on its physical appearance. Next, they will watch a short video clip about how red blood cells are produced. The teacher will follow-up with a class discussion about "How the skeletal, respiratory and circulatory systems work together to maintain homeostasis" and students will write a summary explanation in their interactive notebooks. For further elaboration, students will watch a video clip "Bones Narrated" which is a guided tour of the skeleton and its functions, and do a virtual game called "Build a Skeleton" which allows students to drag bones to create a human skeleton. Lastly, students will be evaluated on their knowledge of the skeletal system and its functions by creating a poster to present and explain to the teacher.

Type: Lesson Plan

Homeostasis and Human Body Systems:

***All activities from this lesson, with the exception of free alternative activities, are adapted from Florida Science Fusion Grade 6 Teacher's Manual and Lab Manual ©Holt McDougal***
This lesson addresses the structure and function of human body systems with emphasis on how organ systems collaborate to maintain homeostasis for an entire organism.

Type: Lesson Plan

Are We Like Robots?:

This lesson explores the similarities between how a human being moves/walks and how a robot moves. This allows students to see the human body as a system, i.e., from the perspective of an engineer. It shows how movement results from (i) decision making, i.e., deciding to walk and move, and (ii) implementing the decision by conveying the decision to the muscle (human) or motor (robot).

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorials

Human Body Systems: The Immune System (Part 8 of 9):

Help Igor learn about the immune system as he works to build Dr. Frankenstein’s creature!

This is part 8 of 9, in a series of interactive tutorials on human body systems. Click below to open the others in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Human Body Systems and Homeostasis (Part 9 of 9):

Learn how human body systems work together to achieve homeostasis, a balance between their external and internal conditions.

This is part 9 of 9, in a series of interactive tutorials on human body systems. Click below to open the others in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Human Body Systems: The Excretory System (Part 6 of 9):

Discover how the excretory system removes waste products from your body. 

This is part 6 of 9, in a series of interactive tutorials on human body systems. Click below to open the others in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Human Body Systems: The Digestive System (Part 5 of 9):

Chew on facts about the digestive system as you help to bring Dr. Frankenstein's famous creature to life. 

This is part 5 of 9, in a series of interactive tutorials on human body systems. Click below to open the others in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Human Body Systems: The Reproductive System (Part 7 of 9):

Get answers to your questions about the reproductive systems of biological males and females.

This is part 7 of 9, in a series of interactive tutorials on human body systems. Click below to open the others in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Human Body Systems: The Circulatory System (Part 3 of 9):

Explore the circulatory system as we bring Frankenstein's creature to life. 

This is part 3 of 9, in a series of interactive tutorials on human body systems. Click below to open the others in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Human Body Systems: The Musculoskeletal System (Part 4 of 9):

Learn how the musculoskeletal system enables us to run, dance, even chew! 

This is part 4 of 9, in a series of interactive tutorials on human body systems. Click below to open the others in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Human Body Systems: The Respiratory System (Part 2 of 9):

Investigate the respiratory system in this interactive tutorial as you help Dr. Frankenstein continue to build his Creature. 

This is part 2 of 9, in a series of interactive tutorials on human body systems. Click below to open the others in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Human Body Systems: The Nervous System (Part 1 of 9):

Learn how the nervous system serves as the bridge between the outside world and our bodies.

This is part 1 of 9, in a series of interactive tutorials on human body systems. Click below to open the others in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Project

Human Body Quest:

This quest give students the ability to work with a cooperative group and teach the class on specific body systems, while learning the content themselves. Teachers can choose what system each group presents and they can present them in front of the class using a PowerPoint presentation and the students listening can be writing notes. It can also be used as a culminating activity as well.

Type: Project

Text Resources

Circulatory System:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area.  This article describes the role of the circulatory system in the human body. The text divides this system into three main parts: the heart, blood vessels, and blood. Each component of the system is explained in detail, including its makeup, how it works, and why it is important. The text concludes by addressing some diseases of the circulatory system. 

Type: Text Resource

Respiratory System:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area.  This article describes the respiratory system, starting with the major functions. The article describes interactions that take place between the respiratory and other systems of the human body, especially the circulatory system. The article describes the respiratory tract and the many organs that complete it. Finally, the article gives an overview of the breathing process and concludes with explanations of various diseases and disorders that affect this system. 

Type: Text Resource

Bones: They're Alive!:

This informational text resource supports reading in the content area. The text explains how our bones do much more than just hold us up and keep us moving—they play many other important roles in the body.

Type: Text Resource

STEM Lessons - Model Eliciting Activity

Body Systems and Homeostasis MEA with Dr. Homeostasis:

This MEA is based on a 6th grade life science standard. Using a doctor's report, students will create a checklist and system of identifying organs and body systems affected by the patients symptoms.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Hooray for Bone Health!:

Students will learn about the musculoskeletal system with a focus on the skeletal system. In addition, students will be able to incorporate the importance of bone density and ways of improving it by helping to select the best weight bearing cardio machine for their fitness center.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Out of this World Workout: Exercise in Space to Prevent Bone Loss:

Students will learn how exercise is helping astronauts decrease bone and muscle loss during extended stays in micro-gravity. They will be asked to design an exercise program that utilizes both aerobic and muscle-building workouts while using the 3 exercise machines currently in use on the International Space Station. Then, the students will learn that current research suggests that more intense, short bursts of exercise may be more effective at decreasing bone and muscle loss, and they will be asked to redesign their workout prescription accordingly.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Original Student Tutorials Science - Grades K-8

Human Body Systems and Homeostasis (Part 9 of 9):

Learn how human body systems work together to achieve homeostasis, a balance between their external and internal conditions.

This is part 9 of 9, in a series of interactive tutorials on human body systems. Click below to open the others in the series.

Human Body Systems: The Circulatory System (Part 3 of 9):

Explore the circulatory system as we bring Frankenstein's creature to life. 

This is part 3 of 9, in a series of interactive tutorials on human body systems. Click below to open the others in the series.

Human Body Systems: The Digestive System (Part 5 of 9):

Chew on facts about the digestive system as you help to bring Dr. Frankenstein's famous creature to life. 

This is part 5 of 9, in a series of interactive tutorials on human body systems. Click below to open the others in the series.

Human Body Systems: The Excretory System (Part 6 of 9):

Discover how the excretory system removes waste products from your body. 

This is part 6 of 9, in a series of interactive tutorials on human body systems. Click below to open the others in the series.

Human Body Systems: The Immune System (Part 8 of 9):

Help Igor learn about the immune system as he works to build Dr. Frankenstein’s creature!

This is part 8 of 9, in a series of interactive tutorials on human body systems. Click below to open the others in the series.

Human Body Systems: The Musculoskeletal System (Part 4 of 9):

Learn how the musculoskeletal system enables us to run, dance, even chew! 

This is part 4 of 9, in a series of interactive tutorials on human body systems. Click below to open the others in the series.

Human Body Systems: The Nervous System (Part 1 of 9):

Learn how the nervous system serves as the bridge between the outside world and our bodies.

This is part 1 of 9, in a series of interactive tutorials on human body systems. Click below to open the others in the series.

Human Body Systems: The Reproductive System (Part 7 of 9):

Get answers to your questions about the reproductive systems of biological males and females.

This is part 7 of 9, in a series of interactive tutorials on human body systems. Click below to open the others in the series.

Human Body Systems: The Respiratory System (Part 2 of 9):

Investigate the respiratory system in this interactive tutorial as you help Dr. Frankenstein continue to build his Creature. 

This is part 2 of 9, in a series of interactive tutorials on human body systems. Click below to open the others in the series.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorials

Human Body Systems: The Immune System (Part 8 of 9):

Help Igor learn about the immune system as he works to build Dr. Frankenstein’s creature!

This is part 8 of 9, in a series of interactive tutorials on human body systems. Click below to open the others in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Human Body Systems and Homeostasis (Part 9 of 9):

Learn how human body systems work together to achieve homeostasis, a balance between their external and internal conditions.

This is part 9 of 9, in a series of interactive tutorials on human body systems. Click below to open the others in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Human Body Systems: The Excretory System (Part 6 of 9):

Discover how the excretory system removes waste products from your body. 

This is part 6 of 9, in a series of interactive tutorials on human body systems. Click below to open the others in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Human Body Systems: The Digestive System (Part 5 of 9):

Chew on facts about the digestive system as you help to bring Dr. Frankenstein's famous creature to life. 

This is part 5 of 9, in a series of interactive tutorials on human body systems. Click below to open the others in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Human Body Systems: The Reproductive System (Part 7 of 9):

Get answers to your questions about the reproductive systems of biological males and females.

This is part 7 of 9, in a series of interactive tutorials on human body systems. Click below to open the others in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Human Body Systems: The Circulatory System (Part 3 of 9):

Explore the circulatory system as we bring Frankenstein's creature to life. 

This is part 3 of 9, in a series of interactive tutorials on human body systems. Click below to open the others in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Human Body Systems: The Musculoskeletal System (Part 4 of 9):

Learn how the musculoskeletal system enables us to run, dance, even chew! 

This is part 4 of 9, in a series of interactive tutorials on human body systems. Click below to open the others in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Human Body Systems: The Respiratory System (Part 2 of 9):

Investigate the respiratory system in this interactive tutorial as you help Dr. Frankenstein continue to build his Creature. 

This is part 2 of 9, in a series of interactive tutorials on human body systems. Click below to open the others in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Human Body Systems: The Nervous System (Part 1 of 9):

Learn how the nervous system serves as the bridge between the outside world and our bodies.

This is part 1 of 9, in a series of interactive tutorials on human body systems. Click below to open the others in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.