MA.912.AR.2.5

Solve and graph mathematical and real-world problems that are modeled with linear functions. Interpret key features and determine constraints in terms of the context.

Examples

Algebra 1 Example: Lizzy’s mother uses the function C(p)=450+7.75p, where C(p) represents the total cost of a rental space and p is the number of people attending, to help budget Lizzy’s 16th birthday party. Lizzy’s mom wants to spend no more than $850 for the party. Graph the function in terms of the context.

Clarifications

Clarification 1: Key features are limited to domain, range, intercepts and rate of change.

Clarification 2: Instruction includes the use of standard form, slope-intercept form and point-slope form.

Clarification 3: Instruction includes representing the domain, range and constraints with inequality notation, interval notation or set-builder notation.

Clarification 4: Within the Algebra 1 course, notations for domain, range and constraints are limited to inequality and set-builder.

Clarification 5: Within the Mathematics for Data and Financial Literacy course, problem types focus on money and business.

General Information
Subject Area: Mathematics (B.E.S.T.)
Grade: 912
Strand: Algebraic Reasoning
Status: State Board Approved

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
1200310: Algebra 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1200320: Algebra 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1200370: Algebra 1-A (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1200400: Foundational Skills in Mathematics 9-12 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7912070: Access Mathematics for Liberal Arts (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7912080: Access Algebra 1A (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1200315: Algebra 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1200375: Algebra 1-A for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7912075: Access Algebra 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1210305: Mathematics for College Statistics (Specifically in versions: 2022 and beyond (current))
1207350: Mathematics for College Liberal Arts (Specifically in versions: 2022 and beyond (current))
1200388: Mathematics for Data and Financial Literacy Honors (Specifically in versions: 2022 and beyond (current))
1700600: GEAR Up 1 (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1700610: GEAR Up 2 (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1700620: GEAR Up 3 (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1700630: GEAR Up 4 (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1200384: Mathematics for Data and Financial Literacy (Specifically in versions: 2022 and beyond (current))
7912120: Access Mathematics for Data and Financial Literacy (Specifically in versions: 2022 and beyond (current))
1200710: Mathematics for College Algebra (Specifically in versions: 2022 and beyond (current))

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
MA.912.AR.2.AP.5: Given a mathematical and/or real-world problem that is modeled with linear functions, solve the mathematical problem, or select the graph using key features (in terms of context) that represents this model.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Formative Assessments

Uphill and Downhill:

Students are asked to interpret key features of a graph (intercepts and intervals over which the graph is increasing) in the context of a problem situation.

Type: Formative Assessment

Tech Repairs Graph:

Students are asked to graph an equation in two variables given in context.

Type: Formative Assessment

Lunch Account:

Students are given a linear function in context and asked to interpret its parameters in the context of a problem.

Type: Formative Assessment

Computer Repair:

Students are given a linear function in context and asked to interpret its parameters in the context of a problem.

Type: Formative Assessment

Constraints on Equations:

Students are asked to determine the constraint on a profit equation and to interpret solutions as being viable or not in the context of the problem.

Type: Formative Assessment

Lesson Plans

How Fast Do Objects Fall?:

Students will investigate falling objects with very low air friction.

Type: Lesson Plan

Which Function?:

This activity has students apply their knowledge to distinguish between numerical data that can be modeled in linear or exponential forms. Students will create mathematical models (graph, equation) that represent the data and compare these models in terms of the information they show and their limitations. Students will use the models to compute additional information to predict future outcomes and make conjectures based on these predictions.

Type: Lesson Plan

Don't Blow the Budget!:

Students use systems of equations and inequalities to solve real world budgeting problems involving two variables.

Type: Lesson Plan

My Candles are MELTING!:

In this lesson, students will apply their knowledge to model a real-world linear situation in a variety of ways. They will analyze a situation in which 2 candles burn at different rates. They will create a table of values, determine a linear equation, and graph each to determine if and when the candles will ever be the same height. They will also determine the domain and range of their functions and determine whether there are constraints on their functions.

Type: Lesson Plan

Turning Tires Model Eliciting Activity:

The Turning Tires MEA provides students with an engineering problem in which they must work as a team to design a procedure to select the best tire material for certain situations. The main focus of the MEA is applying surface area concepts and algebra through modeling.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

Exploring Systems with Piggies, Pizzas and Phones:

Students write and solve linear equations from real-life situations. 

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorial

Linear Functions: Jobs:

Learn how to interpret key features of linear functions and translate between representations of linear functions through exploring jobs for teenagers in this interactive tutorial. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Perspectives Video: Experts

Using Mathematics to Optimize Wing Design:

Nick Moore discusses his research behind optimizing wing design using inspiration from animals and how they swim and fly.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Problem Solving with Project Constraints:

It's important to stay inside the lines of your project constraints to finish in time and under budget. This NASA systems engineer explains how constraints can actually promote creativity and help him solve problems!

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Solving Systems of Equations, Oceans & Climate:

Angela Dial discusses how she solves systems of equations to determine how the composition of ocean floor sediment has changed over 65 million years to help reveal more information regarding climate change.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

STEM Lessons - Model Eliciting Activity

Turning Tires Model Eliciting Activity:

The Turning Tires MEA provides students with an engineering problem in which they must work as a team to design a procedure to select the best tire material for certain situations. The main focus of the MEA is applying surface area concepts and algebra through modeling.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

MFAS Formative Assessments

Computer Repair:

Students are given a linear function in context and asked to interpret its parameters in the context of a problem.

Constraints on Equations:

Students are asked to determine the constraint on a profit equation and to interpret solutions as being viable or not in the context of the problem.

Lunch Account:

Students are given a linear function in context and asked to interpret its parameters in the context of a problem.

Tech Repairs Graph:

Students are asked to graph an equation in two variables given in context.

Uphill and Downhill:

Students are asked to interpret key features of a graph (intercepts and intervals over which the graph is increasing) in the context of a problem situation.

Original Student Tutorials Mathematics - Grades 9-12

Linear Functions: Jobs:

Learn how to interpret key features of linear functions and translate between representations of linear functions through exploring jobs for teenagers in this interactive tutorial. 

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorial

Linear Functions: Jobs:

Learn how to interpret key features of linear functions and translate between representations of linear functions through exploring jobs for teenagers in this interactive tutorial. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Perspectives Video: Expert

Problem Solving with Project Constraints:

It's important to stay inside the lines of your project constraints to finish in time and under budget. This NASA systems engineer explains how constraints can actually promote creativity and help him solve problems!

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Perspectives Video: Expert

Problem Solving with Project Constraints:

It's important to stay inside the lines of your project constraints to finish in time and under budget. This NASA systems engineer explains how constraints can actually promote creativity and help him solve problems!

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert