MA.4.FR.2.2

Add and subtract fractions with like denominators, including mixed numbers and fractions greater than one, with procedural reliability.

Examples

The difference begin mathsize 12px style 9 over 5 minus 4 over 5 end stylecan be expressed as 9 fifths minus 4 fifths which is 5 fifths, or one.

Clarifications

Clarification 1: Instruction includes the use of word form, manipulatives, drawings, the properties of operations or number lines.

Clarification 2: Within this benchmark, the expectation is not to simplify or use lowest terms.

Clarification 3: Denominators are limited to 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 and 100.

General Information
Subject Area: Mathematics (B.E.S.T.)
Grade: 4
Strand: Fractions
Status: State Board Approved

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
5012060: Mathematics - Grade Four (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7712050: Access Mathematics Grade 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5012055: Grade 3 Accelerated Mathematics (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5012015: Foundational Skills in Mathematics 3-5 (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
MA.4.FR.2.AP.2: Explore adding and subtracting fractions less than one with like denominators. Denominators limited to 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 or 10.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Formative Assessments

Adding and Subtracting Mixed Numbers:

Students are given pairs of mixed numbers to either add or subtract.

Type: Formative Assessment

Fraction Word Problems:

Students are asked to solve a word problem that involves subtracting fractions with like denominators. Students then analyze a word problem involving subtraction of unlike unit quantities.

Type: Formative Assessment

Image/Photograph

Clipart ETC Fractions:

Illustrations that can be used for teaching and demonstrating fractions. Fractional representations are modeled in wedges of circles ("pieces of pie") and parts of polygons. There are also clipart images of numerical fractions, both proper and improper, from halves to twelfths. Fraction charts and fraction strips found in this collection can be used as manipulatives and are ready to print for classroom use.

Type: Image/Photograph

Lesson Plans

Learning to Love Like Denominators:

Students engage in problem solving to explore the addition and subtraction of fractions with like denominators. Students make sense of the structure of addition and subtraction equations with like denominators and make generalizations to move from using manipulatives, pictures and number lines to simply adding or subtracting the numerator.

Type: Lesson Plan

Adding and Subtracting in the Real World with Unit Fractions:

Students will use unit fractions, and counting on or back by unit fractions, to solve addition and subtraction real world problems.

Type: Lesson Plan

Looking for Patterns in a Sequence of Fractions:

Students generate and describe a numerical pattern using the multiplication and subtraction of fractions.

Type: Lesson Plan

Problem-Solving Tasks

Peaches:

This task provides a context where it is appropriate for students to subtract fractions with a common denominator; it could be used for either assessment or instructional purposes. For this particular task, teachers should anticipate two types of solution approaches: one where students subtract the whole numbers and the fractions separately and one where students convert the mixed numbers to improper fractions and then proceed to subtract.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Plastic Building Blocks:

The purpose of this task is to have students add mixed numbers with like denominators. This task illustrates the different kinds of solution approaches students might take to such a task. Two general approaches should be anticipated: one where students calculate exactly how many buckets of blocks the boys have to determine an answer, and one where students compare the given numbers to benchmark numbers.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Tutorials

What Fraction of Spider Eyes are Looking at Me?:

This Khan Academy video uses authentic pictures to present addition of two fractions with common denominators.

Type: Tutorial

Figuring Out How Much of a Pizza is Left:

This Khan Academy video solves two word problems using visual fraction models.

Type: Tutorial

Adding Fractions:

In this web-based tutorial, students learn procedures for adding fractions with like and unlike denominators. The tutorial includes visual representations of the problems using pizzas, animations of the algorithm, and links to related lessons, worksheets, and practice problems.

Type: Tutorial

Virtual Manipulative

Fraction Game:

This virtual manipulative allows individual students to work with fraction relationships. (There is also a link to a two-player version.)

Type: Virtual Manipulative

MFAS Formative Assessments

Adding and Subtracting Mixed Numbers:

Students are given pairs of mixed numbers to either add or subtract.

Fraction Word Problems:

Students are asked to solve a word problem that involves subtracting fractions with like denominators. Students then analyze a word problem involving subtraction of unlike unit quantities.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Problem-Solving Tasks

Peaches:

This task provides a context where it is appropriate for students to subtract fractions with a common denominator; it could be used for either assessment or instructional purposes. For this particular task, teachers should anticipate two types of solution approaches: one where students subtract the whole numbers and the fractions separately and one where students convert the mixed numbers to improper fractions and then proceed to subtract.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Plastic Building Blocks:

The purpose of this task is to have students add mixed numbers with like denominators. This task illustrates the different kinds of solution approaches students might take to such a task. Two general approaches should be anticipated: one where students calculate exactly how many buckets of blocks the boys have to determine an answer, and one where students compare the given numbers to benchmark numbers.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Tutorials

What Fraction of Spider Eyes are Looking at Me?:

This Khan Academy video uses authentic pictures to present addition of two fractions with common denominators.

Type: Tutorial

Figuring Out How Much of a Pizza is Left:

This Khan Academy video solves two word problems using visual fraction models.

Type: Tutorial

Virtual Manipulative

Fraction Game:

This virtual manipulative allows individual students to work with fraction relationships. (There is also a link to a two-player version.)

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Image/Photograph

Clipart ETC Fractions:

Illustrations that can be used for teaching and demonstrating fractions. Fractional representations are modeled in wedges of circles ("pieces of pie") and parts of polygons. There are also clipart images of numerical fractions, both proper and improper, from halves to twelfths. Fraction charts and fraction strips found in this collection can be used as manipulatives and are ready to print for classroom use.

Type: Image/Photograph

Problem-Solving Tasks

Peaches:

This task provides a context where it is appropriate for students to subtract fractions with a common denominator; it could be used for either assessment or instructional purposes. For this particular task, teachers should anticipate two types of solution approaches: one where students subtract the whole numbers and the fractions separately and one where students convert the mixed numbers to improper fractions and then proceed to subtract.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Plastic Building Blocks:

The purpose of this task is to have students add mixed numbers with like denominators. This task illustrates the different kinds of solution approaches students might take to such a task. Two general approaches should be anticipated: one where students calculate exactly how many buckets of blocks the boys have to determine an answer, and one where students compare the given numbers to benchmark numbers.

Type: Problem-Solving Task