MA.3.AR.1.1

Apply the distributive property to multiply a one-digit number and two-digit number. Apply properties of multiplication to find a product of one-digit whole numbers.

Examples

The product 4×72 can be found by rewriting the expression as 4×(70+2) and then using the distributive property to obtain (4×70)+(4×2) which is equivalent to 288.

Clarifications

Clarification 1: Within this benchmark, the expectation is to apply the associative and commutative properties of multiplication, the distributive property and name the properties. Refer to K-12 Glossary (Appendix C).

Clarification 2: Within the benchmark, the expectation is to utilize parentheses. 

Clarification 3: Multiplication for products of three or more numbers is limited to factors within 12. Refer to Properties of Operations, Equality and Inequality (Appendix D).

General Information
Subject Area: Mathematics (B.E.S.T.)
Grade: 3
Strand: Algebraic Reasoning
Date Adopted or Revised: 08/20
Status: State Board Approved

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
5012050: Grade Three Mathematics (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7712040: Access Mathematics Grade 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5012055: Grade 3 Accelerated Mathematics (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5012015: Foundational Skills in Mathematics 3-5 (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.
MA.3.AR.1.AP.1: Apply the commutative property of multiplication to find a product of one-digit whole numbers.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Formative Assessments

Using the Associative Property of Multiplication:

Students are asked to find the product of three numbers and are observed to see if they use the Associative Property to find the product more easily.

Type: Formative Assessment

Break Apart and Put Together:

Students are given two arrays, one representing the equation 7 x 9 = 63 and the other representing the equation (5 + 2) x 9 = 63, to see if they recognize a relationship between the two.

Type: Formative Assessment

Meeting the Reading Goal:

Students are given two problems to solve, one represented by the equation 4 x 6 = 24 and the other by the equation 6 x 4 = 24, to see if they recognize the answer to the second problem based on the Commutative Property.

Type: Formative Assessment

Lesson Plans

Making Sense of Multiplication to Build Fluency of 6's, 7's, 8's, and 9's:

This lesson will help students multiply numbers with factors of 6, 7, 8, or 9 through decomposing numbers in an array and applying the distributive property. Many times, these factors are difficult for students to recall from memory. Teaching students how to use an array can give them a visual representation of the final product. This visual can also help students to make the connection that multiplying whole numbers is a sum of equal groups. Decomposing the numbers and using the distributive property is a strategy for students to use who are having trouble solving these higher factor multiplication facts.

Type: Lesson Plan

Zero on a Hero (Exploring the Zero Property of Multiplication):

Students will explore the Zero Property of Multiplication using array and equal-group models for multiplication. Students will model story problems, translate problems into multiplication facts, and identify patterns in a set of multiplication facts to develop understanding of the Zero Property of Multiplication.

Type: Lesson Plan

One with a Bun (Exploring the Multiplicative Identity Property of 1):

In this lesson students will explore the Multiplicative Identity Property of 1, using array and equal-group models for multiplication. Students will model story problems, translate problems into multiplication equations, and identify patterns in a set of multiplication facts to develop understanding of the Multiplicative Identity Property of 1.

Type: Lesson Plan

Multiply by Multiples of 10 with Number Cubes:

In this lesson students will use various strategies to multiply one-digit numbers by multiples of 10 within the range of 10-90. The strategies will encompass the Distributive, Commutative, and Associative properties, place value, number lines, base-ten blocks, diagrams, hundreds chart. Students will play a game with number cubes to practice this multiplication.

Type: Lesson Plan

Efficient Multiplication:

Students will engage with questions to evaluate the students' abilities to select and apply multiplication strategies with fluency and efficiency. The focus of the lesson is decomposing numbers to multiply using the Distributive property and understanding and applying the Commutative property. Then, students will reinforce decomposing of factors while playing Decomposition of Factors. The lesson concludes with a real world application problem on an Exit Slip.

Type: Lesson Plan

Fall Fun and Games! (Exploring the Commutative Property of Multiplication):

In this lesson, students will build and manipulate a variety of arrays in the context of creating games for a Fall Festival. They will practice using the Commutative Property of Multiplication to find related multiplication facts.

Type: Lesson Plan

Amazing Arrays:

This is a hands-on lesson for introducing and practicing building arrays to create models that represent the distributive property of multiplication, and then using those arrays to draw models of the equations they represent.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorial

Monkeying Around with Multiplication: Commutative Property:

Learn strategies, like the commutative property, to help you become better at multiplying in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

MFAS Formative Assessments

Break Apart and Put Together:

Students are given two arrays, one representing the equation 7 x 9 = 63 and the other representing the equation (5 + 2) x 9 = 63, to see if they recognize a relationship between the two.

Meeting the Reading Goal:

Students are given two problems to solve, one represented by the equation 4 x 6 = 24 and the other by the equation 6 x 4 = 24, to see if they recognize the answer to the second problem based on the Commutative Property.

Using the Associative Property of Multiplication:

Students are asked to find the product of three numbers and are observed to see if they use the Associative Property to find the product more easily.

Original Student Tutorials Mathematics - Grades K-5

Monkeying Around with Multiplication: Commutative Property:

Learn strategies, like the commutative property, to help you become better at multiplying in this interactive tutorial.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorial

Monkeying Around with Multiplication: Commutative Property:

Learn strategies, like the commutative property, to help you become better at multiplying in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.