Benchmark Instructional Guide
Connecting Benchmarks/Horizontal Alignment
Terms from the K-12 Glossary
Purpose and Instructional Strategies
The purpose of this benchmark is to build on the work of grade 1 by telling and writing time to a more precise measurement in increments of 5 minutes. Instruction at this grade level also makes a connection to fractional terms to express portions of an hour.
- Instruction includes the purpose of the minute and hour hand in analog clocks.
- Instruction includes the understanding that a.m. is used to reference the time from 12:00
midnight to 12:00 noon, and p.m. is used to reference the time from 12:00 noon to 12:00
- Instruction includes the reinforcement of a time line and its connection to a number line.
Common Misconceptions or Errors
- Students may incorrectly identify the minute and the hour hand.
- Students may think that when the hour hand is pointing between two numbers, the hour
corresponds to the larger number.
- Students may incorrectly skip count by 5s.
- Students may have difficulty identifying the time when the hour hand is approaching the
Strategies to Support Tiered Instruction
- Teacher provides a blank clock for students to draw and label the parts and use visual supports to help remember the names of each part.
- For example, students label the inside of the minute and hour hand as shown to provide a mental picture. It may be helpful to show this illustration with the minute and hour hands in various positions.
- Instruction includes the teacher removing the minute hand from a clock and guides students to notice if the hour hand is pointing before, on, or after a number encouraging students to use approximations such as, “It’s just past 2 o’clock” when pointing after the 2, or “It’s almost 4 o’clock” when pointing before the 4.
- Instruction includes relating counting minutes on a clock to skip counting sets of 5 by using manipulatives or representations, noting each group of five as a set. Teacher makes connections to the number line and how this relates to the way a clock is like a circular number line.
- For example, groups of 5 can be made using twelve 1 by 5 grid paper arrays. Teacher arranges the arrays in a horizontal line, having students color every other array, skip counting the rows aloud, and recording the skip counts below each array. Number each set of 5 with a number above the end of each array.
- Students arrange the 12 sets of 1 by 5 arrays into a circular pattern, labeling each set and skip count. Teacher guides students to notice how the units of time are represented on a real clock and on their skip count model; each square is 1 minute, each array is 5 minutes, and all 12 arrays together make 1 hour.
Instructional Task 1 (MTR.5.1)
Provide students with individual clocks and various times. [Teacher note: Examples provided should include opportunities for students to rename given times using fractional terms as necessary.]
- Part A. Using the clock provided, show and tell the given time to the nearest five minutes.
- Part B. Using the clock provided, what are all of the ways you can say the time shown?
Instructional Item 1
Which of the following is another way to express the time shown on the clock?
- a. Twelve minutes past the hour
- b. Half past twelve
- c. Quarter past twelve
- d. Quarter till one
*The strategies, tasks and items included in the B1G-M are examples and should not be considered comprehensive.