ELA.K12.EE.2.1

Read and comprehend grade-level complex texts proficiently.

Clarifications

See Text Complexity for grade-level complexity bands and a text complexity rubric.
General Information
Subject Area: English Language Arts (B.E.S.T.)
Grade: K12
Strand: Expectations
Date Adopted or Revised: 08/20
Status: State Board Approved

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
1200310: Algebra 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1200320: Algebra 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1200330: Algebra 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1200340: Algebra 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1200370: Algebra 1-A (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1200380: Algebra 1-B (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1202300: Calculus Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1200400: Foundational Skills in Mathematics 9-12 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1202340: Precalculus Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1210300: Probability and Statistics Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1205010: M/J Grade 6 Mathematics (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1205020: M/J Accelerated Mathematics Grade 6 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1205040: M/J Grade 7 Mathematics (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1205050: M/J Accelerated Mathematics Grade 7 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1205070: M/J Grade 8 Pre-Algebra (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1206310: Geometry (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1206320: Geometry Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5012020: Grade Kindergarten Mathematics (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5012030: Mathematics - Grade One (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5012040: Mathematics - Grade Two (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5012050: Grade Three Mathematics (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5012060: Mathematics - Grade Four (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5012070: Grade Five Mathematics (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5020010: Science - Grade K (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5020020: Science Grade One (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5020030: Science - Grade Two (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5020040: Science - Grade Three (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5020050: Science - Grade Four (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5020060: Science - Grade Five (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002040: M/J Comprehensive Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002050: M/J Comprehensive Science 1, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002070: M/J Comprehensive Science 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002080: M/J Comprehensive Science 2, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002100: M/J Comprehensive Science 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002110: M/J Comprehensive Science 3, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2001010: M/J Earth/Space Science (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2001020: M/J Earth/Space Science, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000010: M/J Life Science (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000350: Anatomy and Physiology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000360: Anatomy and Physiology Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2001350: Astronomy Solar/Galactic (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2020910: Astronomy Solar/Galactic Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000310: Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000320: Biology 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000330: Biology 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000430: Biology Technology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
3027010: Biotechnology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000370: Botany (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2003340: Chemistry 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2003350: Chemistry 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2003360: Chemistry 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2001310: Earth/Space Science (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2001320: Earth/Space Science Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000380: Ecology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2001340: Environmental Science (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002480: Forensic Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2017, 2017 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002490: Forensic Sciences 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2017, 2017 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000440: Genetics Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002400: Integrated Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002410: Integrated Science 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002420: Integrated Science 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002430: Integrated Science 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002440: Integrated Science 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002450: Integrated Science 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002500: Marine Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002510: Marine Science 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002520: Marine Science 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002530: Marine Science 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2020710: Nuclear Radiation Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2003310: Physical Science (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2003320: Physical Science Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2003380: Physics 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2003390: Physics 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2003410: Physics 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2003600: Principles of Technology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002540: Solar Energy Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000410: Zoology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000020: M/J Life Science, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2003010: M/J Physical Science (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2003020: M/J Physical Science, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1204000: M/J Foundational Skills in Mathematics 6-8 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000220: M/J Science Transfer (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2003800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Chemistry 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000990: Science Transfer (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002340: Experimental Science 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002350: Experimental Science 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002360: Experimental Science 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002370: Experimental Science 4 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5015000: Elementary Adaptive Physical Education IEP or 504 Plan (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1500000: M/J Adaptive Physical Education IEP or 504 Plan (MC) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1500220: M/J Physical Education Transfer (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1501300: Personal Fitness (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1501310: Fitness Lifestyle Design (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1501320: Fitness Issues for Adolescence (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1501340: Weight Training 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1501350: Weight Training 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1501360: Weight Training 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1501390: Comprehensive Fitness (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1501410: Power Weight Training 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1502300: Gymnastics 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1502310: Gymnastics 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1502400: Paddleball/Racquetball/Handball (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1502410: Individual and Dual Sports 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1502420: Individual and Dual Sports 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1502430: Individual and Dual Sports 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1502460: Self Defense Activities (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1502470: Recreational Activities (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1502480: Outdoor Education (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1502490: Care and Prevention of Athletic Injuries (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1502500: Sports Officiating (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1503300: Track and Field (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1503310: Basketball (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1503320: Soccer (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1503330: Softball (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1503350: Team Sports 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1503360: Team Sports 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1503400: Aerobics 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1503410: Aerobics 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1503420: Aerobics 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1504400: Golf 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1504460: Swimming 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1504470: Swimming 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1504490: Water Safety (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1504500: Tennis 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1504510: Tennis 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1504520: Tennis 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1505430: Racquetball 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1505440: Racquetball 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1505500: Volleyball 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1505510: Volleyball 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1505520: Volleyball 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1505550: Wrestling 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1505560: Wrestling 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1506320: HOPE-Physical Education Variation (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
3026010: HOPE-Core (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0800000: M/J Health Grade 6 Year (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0800010: M/J Health Grade 7 Year (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0800015: M/J Health & Career Planning Grade 7 Year (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0800020: M/J Health Grade 8 Year (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0800025: M/J Health & Career Planning Grade 8 Year (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0800030: M/J Health Grade 6 Semester (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0800040: M/J Health Grade 7 Semester (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0800050: M/J Health Grade 8 Semester (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0800220: M/J Health Transfer (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0800300: Health 1-Life Management Skills (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0800310: Health 2-Personal Health (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0800320: First Aid and Safety (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0800330: Personal, Social, and Family Relationships (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0800350: Adolescent Health Problems (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0800360: Health Explorations Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0800370: Parenting 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0800380: Parenting 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0800390: Health for Expectant Parents (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0800990: Health Transfer (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5008020: Health - Kindergarten (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5008030: Health - Grade 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5008040: Health - Grade 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5008050: Health - Grade 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5008060: Health - Grade 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5008070: Health - Grade 5 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1508000: M/J Fitness - Grade 6 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2100010: M/J United States History (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2100015: M/J United States History & Career Planning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2100020: M/J United States History Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2100025: M/J United States History Advanced & Career Planning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2100030: M/J Florida History (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2103010: M/J World Geography (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2103015: M/J World Geography (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2103016: M/J World Geography & Career Planning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2103020: M/J World Geography, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2103030: M/J Geography: Asia, Oceania, Africa (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2104000: M/J Social Studies (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2105020: M/J World Cultures (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2105025: M/J World Cultures & Career Planning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2105030: M/J Advanced World Cultures (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2106015: M/J Civics (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2106016: M/J Civics & Career Planning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2106020: M/J Civics, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2106025: M/J Civics, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2106026: M/J Civics, Advanced & Career Planning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2106030: M/J Law Studies (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2109010: M/J World History (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2109020: M/J World History, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2100220: M/J Social Studies Transfer (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2101300: Anthropology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2120710: Anthropology Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2102310: Economics (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2102320: Economics Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2102390: The American Economic Experience: Scarcity and Choice Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2100320: United States History Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2100340: African-American History (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2100350: Florida History (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2100360: Latin American History (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2100370: Eastern and Western Heritage (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2017, 2017 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2100380: Visions and Their Pursuits:An American Tradition-U.S.History to 1920 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2100400: The History of The Vietnam War (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2100470: Visions & Their Pursuits:An AmerTrad-U.S. Hist to 1920 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2100480: Visions and Countervisions: Europe, U.S. and the World from 1848 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2102800: Florida’s Preinternational Baccalaureate Comparative Economics With Financial Literacy (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2103300: World Cultural Geography (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2104300: Introduction to the Social Sciences (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2104320: Global Studies (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2104330: Voluntary School/Community Service (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2104340: Women's Studies (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2104600: Multicultural Studies (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2105310: World Religions (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2105340: Philosophy (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2105860: Philosophy 1 International Baccalaureate (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2120910: Philosophy Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2120915: Philosophy Honors 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2106310: United States Government (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2106320: United States Government Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2106340: Political Science (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2106350: Law Studies (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2106355: International Law (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2106360: Comparative Political Systems (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2106370: Comprehensive Law Studies (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2106375: Comprehensive Law Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2106380: Legal Systems and Concepts (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2106390: Court Procedures (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2106440: International Relations (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2106445: International Relations 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2106460: The American Political System: Process and Power Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2106468: Constitutional Law Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2106800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate United States Government (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2107300: Psychology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2107310: Psychology 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2108300: Sociology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2109310: World History (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2109320: World History Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2109330: African History (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2109350: Contemporary History (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2109410: Jewish History (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2109430: Holocaust Education (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2109810: Florida’s Preinternational Baccalaureate World History (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2100990: Social Studies Transfer (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0200220: M/J Computer Education Transfer (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5007000: Elementary French (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5007010: Elementary German (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5007020: Elementary Spanish (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5007040: Elementary Italian (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5007050: Elementary Chinese (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5007060: Elementary Greek (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5007070: Elementary Haitian Creole (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5007080: Elementary Portuguese (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5010020: Basic Skills in Reading-K-2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021, 2021 and beyond)
5010030: Functional Basic Skills in Communications-Elementary (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5013010: Elementary Chorus (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5013020: Elementary Band (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5013030: Elementary Orchestra (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5022000: Study Hall-Elementary (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5100520: District Head Start (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2016, 2016 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5100530: District Title 1 Prekindergarten (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5100560: Prekindergarten Other (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5100570: School Readiness (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5100580: Voluntary Prekindergarten Education- school year program (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5100590: Voluntary Prekindergarten Education- summer program (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0300000: M/J Dance 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0300010: M/J Dance 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0300020: M/J Dance 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0300030: M/J Dance 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0300220: M/J Dance Transfer (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400000: M/J Theatre 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400010: M/J Theatre 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400020: M/J Theatre 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400030: M/J Theatre 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400110: M/J Technical Theatre: Design and Production (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400220: M/J Drama Transfer (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0500000: M/J Personal, Career, and School Development Skills 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0500002: M/J Personal, Career, School Development Skills 1 & Career Planning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0500010: M/J Personal, Career, and School Development Skills 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0500012: M/J Personal, Career, School Development Skills 2 & Career Planning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0500020: M/J Personal, Career, and School Development Skills 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0500022: M/J Personal, Career, School Development Skills 3 & Career Planning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0701000: M/J French, Beginning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0701010: M/J French, Intermediate (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0701020: M/J French, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0702000: M/J German, Beginning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0702010: M/J German, Intermediate (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0702020: M/J German, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0705000: M/J Italian, Beginning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0705010: M/J Italian, Intermediate (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0705020: M/J Italian, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0706000: M/J Latin, Beginning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0706010: M/J Latin, Intermediate (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0706020: M/J Latin, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0708000: M/J Spanish, Beginning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0708010: M/J Spanish, Intermediate (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0708020: M/J Spanish, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0709000: M/J Spanish for Spanish Speakers, Beginning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0709010: M/J Spanish for Spanish Speakers,Intermediate (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0709020: M/J Spanish for Spanish Speakers, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0711000: M/J Japanese Beginning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0711010: M/J Japanese Intermediate (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0711020: M/J Japanese Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0710000: M/J Foreign Language Humanities for International Studies 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0710010: M/J Foreign Language Humanities for International Studies 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0710020: M/J Foreign Language Humanities for International Studies 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1000010: M/J Intensive Reading 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021, 2021 and beyond)
1000020: M/J Intensive Reading and Career Planning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2021, 2021 and beyond)
1001010: M/J Language Arts 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1001020: M/J Language Arts 1 Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1001040: M/J Language Arts 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1001050: M/J Language Arts 2 Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1001070: M/J Language Arts 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1001080: M/J Language Arts 3 Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1002000: M/J Language Arts 1 Through ESOL (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1002010: M/J Language Arts 2 Through ESOL (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1002020: M/J Language Arts 3 Through ESOL (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1006000: M/J Journalism 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021, 2021 and beyond)
1006010: M/J Journalism 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1007000: M/J Speech and Debate 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2021, 2021 and beyond)
1007010: M/J Speech and Debate 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2021, 2021 and beyond)
1007020: M/J Speech and Debate 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2021, 2021 and beyond)
1009000: M/J Creative Writing 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1009010: M/J Creative Writing 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1009020: M/J Creative Writing 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1009030: M/J Writing 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1009040: M/J Writing 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1100000: M/J Library Skills/Information Literacy (MC) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1100220: M/J Library/Media Transfer (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1300000: M/J Music Theory 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1300010: M/J Music Theory 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1301030: M/J Keyboard 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1301040: M/J Keyboard 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1301050: M/J Keyboard 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1301060: M/J Guitar 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1301070: M/J Guitar 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1301080: M/J Guitar 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1301090: M/J Exploring Music 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1301100: M/J Exploring Music 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1301110: M/J Exploring Music 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302000: M/J Band 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302010: M/J Band 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302020: M/J Band 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302030: M/J Band 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302040: M/J Orchestra 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302050: M/J Orchestra 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302060: M/J Orchestra 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302070: M/J Orchestra 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302080: M/J Instrumental Techniques 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302090: M/J Instrumental Techniques 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302100: M/J Instrumental Techniques 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302110: M/J Instrumental Ensemble 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302120: M/J Instrumental Ensemble 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302130: M/J Instrumental Ensemble 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302140: M/J Band 2 and Career Planning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302142: M/J Band 3 and Career Planning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1303000: M/J Chorus 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1303010: M/J Chorus 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1303020: M/J Chorus 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1303030: M/J Chorus 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1303070: M/J Vocal Techniques 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1303080: M/J Vocal Techniques 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1303100: M/J Vocal Ensemble 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1303110: M/J Vocal Ensemble 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1303120: M/J Vocal Ensemble 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1300220: M/J Music Transfer (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1400000: M/J Peer Counseling 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1400010: M/J Peer Counseling 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1700000: M/J Research 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1700010: M/J Research 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1700020: M/J Research 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1700060: M/J Career Research and Decision Making (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1700100: M/J Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Learning Strategies (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5015020: Physical Education - Grade Kindergarten (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5015030: Physical Education - Grade 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5015040: Physical Education - Grade 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5015050: Physical Education - Grade 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5015060: Physical Education - Grade 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5015070: Physical Education - Grade 5 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2500200: Temporary Instructional Placement (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0100310: Introduction to Art History (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0100320: Art in World Cultures (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0100330: Art History and Criticism 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0101300: Two-Dimensional Studio Art 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0101310: Two-Dimensional Studio Art 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0101320: Two-Dimensional Studio Art 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0101330: Three-Dimensional Studio Art 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0101340: Three-Dimensional Studio Art 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0101350: Three-Dimensional Studio Art 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0102300: Ceramics/Pottery 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0102310: Ceramics/Pottery 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0102320: Ceramics/Pottery 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0104340: Drawing 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0104350: Drawing 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0104360: Drawing 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0104370: Painting 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0104380: Painting 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0104390: Painting 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0104410: Figure Drawing (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0107410: Film 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0107420: Film 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0107430: Film 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0107440: Visual Technology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0107450: Visual Technology 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0107460: Visual Technology 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0108310: Creative Photography 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0108320: Creative Photography 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0108330: Creative Photography 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0109310: Portfolio Development: Drawing-Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0109320: Portfolio Development: Two-Dimensional Design Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0109330: Portfolio Development: Three-Dimensional Design Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0110300: Printmaking 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0111310: Sculpture 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0111320: Sculpture 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0111330: Sculpture 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0114800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Art 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0114810: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Art 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0100990: Art Transfer (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0200990: Computer Education Transfer (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0300300: World Dance (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0300310: Dance Techniques 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0300320: Dance Techniques 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0300330: Dance Techniques 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0300340: Ballet 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0300350: Ballet 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0300360: Ballet 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0300370: Ballet 4 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0300380: Dance Choreography/Performance 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0300390: Dance Choreography/Performance 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0300400: Dance Repertory 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0300410: Dance Repertory 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0300420: Dance Repertory 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0300430: Dance Repertory 4 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0300450: Dance History and Aesthetics 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0300480: Dance Kinesiology and Somatics 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0300650: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Dance (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0300990: Dance Transfer (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400300: Introduction to Drama (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400310: Theatre 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400320: Theatre 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400330: Theatre 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400340: Theatre 4 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400350: Theatre History and Literature 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400360: Theatre History and Literature 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400370: Acting 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400380: Acting 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400390: Acting 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400400: Acting 4 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400410: Technical Theatre Design & Production 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400420: Technical Theatre Design & Production 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400430: Technical Theatre Design & Production 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400440: Technical Theatre Design & Production 4 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400500: Theatrical Direction and Stage Management 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400510: Theatrical Direction and Stage Management 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400540: Voice and Diction (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400620: Theatre Improvisation (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400660: Theatre, Cinema and Film Production (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400990: Drama Transfer (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0101010: M/J Two-Dimensional Studio Art 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0101020: M/J Two-Dimensional Studio Art 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0101040: M/J Three-Dimensional Studio Art 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0101050: M/J Three-Dimensional Studio Art 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0102040: M/J Creative Photography 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0102050: M/J Creative Photography 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0103000: M/J Digital Art & Design 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0103010: M/J Digital Art & Design 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0100220: M/J Art Transfer (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0704000: M/J American Sign Language - Beginning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0704010: M/J American Sign Language - Intermediate (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0704020: M/J American Sign Language - Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0700220: M/J Foreign Language Transfer (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0707000: M/J Chinese - Beginning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0707010: M/J Chinese - Intermediate (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0707020: M/J Chinese - Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0500300: Executive Internship 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0500310: Executive Internship 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
0500320: Executive Internship 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
0500330: Executive Internship 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
0500370: Voluntary Public Service (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
0500500: Personal, Career, and School Development Skills 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
0500510: Personal, Career, and School Development Skills 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
0500520: Personal, Career, and School Development Skills 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
0500530: Personal, Career, and School Development Skills 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
0700300: Haitian Creole for Haitian Creole Speakers 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0700310: Haitian Creole for Haitian Creole Speakers 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0701320: French 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0701330: French 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0701340: French 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0701350: French 4 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0701360: French 5 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0701800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate French 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0701810: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate French 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0701820: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate French 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0702320: German 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0702330: German 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0702340: German 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0702350: German 4 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2013 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0702800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate German 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0702810: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate German 2 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0703320: Greek 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0703330: Greek 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0703340: Greek 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0703350: Greek 4 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0704300: Hebrew 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0704310: Hebrew 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0704320: Hebrew 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0704330: Hebrew 4 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0705320: Italian 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0705330: Italian 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0705340: Italian 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0705350: Italian 4 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0706300: Latin 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0706310: Latin 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0706320: Latin 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0706330: Latin 4 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0706340: Latin 5 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0706800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Latin 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0706810: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Latin 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0707300: Russian 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0707310: Russian 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0707320: Russian 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0707330: Russian 4 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0708340: Spanish 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0708350: Spanish 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0708360: Spanish 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0708370: Spanish 4 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0708380: Spanish 5 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0708390: Spanish 6 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0709300: Spanish for Spanish Speakers 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0709310: Spanish for Spanish Speakers 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0709320: Spanish for Spanish Speakers 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0709330: Spanish for Spanish Speakers 4 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0710300: Arabic 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0710310: Arabic 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0711300: Chinese 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0711310: Chinese 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0711320: Chinese 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0711330: Chinese 4 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0900300: Humanities Survey (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0900310: Humanities 1 (to 1500) Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0900320: Humanities 2 (since 1500) Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0900990: Humanities Transfer (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1100990: Library/Media Transfer (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1300300: Music Theory 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1300310: Music Theory 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1301320: Guitar 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1301330: Guitar 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1301340: Guitar 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1301350: Guitar 4 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1301360: Keyboard 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1301370: Keyboard 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1301380: Keyboard 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1301390: Keyboard 4 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302340: Band 5 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302350: Band 6 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302360: Orchestra 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302370: Orchestra 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302380: Orchestra 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302390: Orchestra 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302400: Orchestra 5 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302410: Orchestra 6 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302420: Instrumental Techniques 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302430: Instrumental Techniques 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302440: Instrumental Techniques 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302450: Instrumental Techniques 4 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302460: Instrumental Ensemble 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302470: Instrumental Ensemble 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302480: Instrumental Ensemble 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302490: Instrumental Ensemble 4 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302500: Jazz Ensemble 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302510: Jazz Ensemble 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302520: Jazz Ensemble 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302530: Jazz Ensemble 4 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1303300: Chorus 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1303310: Chorus 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1303320: Chorus 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1303330: Chorus 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1303340: Chorus 5 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1303350: Chorus 6 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1303360: Chorus Register-specific 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1303370: Chorus Register-specific 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1303380: Chorus Register-specific 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1303390: Chorus Register-specific 4 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1303400: Vocal Techniques 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1303410: Vocal Techniques 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1303420: Vocal Techniques 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1303430: Vocal Techniques 4 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1303440: Vocal Ensemble 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1303450: Vocal Ensemble 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1303460: Vocal Ensemble 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1303470: Vocal Ensemble 4 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1304300: Music Technology and Sound Engineering 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1304310: Music Technology and Sound Engineering 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1305300: Eurhythmics 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1305310: Eurhythmics 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1305320: Eurhythmics 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1305330: Eurhythmics 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1300990: Music Transfer (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1400300: Peer Counseling 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1400310: Peer Counseling 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1400320: Peer Counseling 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1400330: Peer Counseling 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1700300: Research 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1700310: Research 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1700320: Research 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1700370: Critical Thinking and Study Skills (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1700380: Career Research and Decision Making (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1700390: Advancement Via Individual Determination 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1700400: Advancement Via Individual Determination 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1700410: Advancement Via Individual Determination 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1700420: Advancement Via Individual Determination 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1800300: Aerospace Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1800310: Aerospace Science 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1800320: Aerospace Science 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1800330: Aerospace Science 4: Leadership Development (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1800340: Advanced Aerospace Science (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1800350: Aerospace Science 4:Transportation (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1800360: Aerospace Science 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1800400: Leadership Education 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1800410: Leadership Education 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1801300: Army: Leadership Education and Training 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1801310: Army: Leadership Education and Training 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1801320: Army: Leadership Education and Training 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1801330: Army: Leadership Education and Training 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1802300: Naval Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1802310: Naval Science 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1802320: Naval Science 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1802330: Naval Science 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1803300: Leadership Education 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1803310: Leadership Education 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1803320: Leadership Education 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1803330: Leadership Education 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1800990: Military Training Transfer (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2400300: Leadership Skills Development (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2400310: Leadership Techniques Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2016, 2016 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2200300: NC Study Hall 1 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2200310: NC Study Hall 2 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2200320: NC Study Hall 3 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2200330: NC Study Hall 4 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2500510: Temporary Instructional Placement (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0712300: Japanese 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0712310: Japanese 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0712320: Japanese 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0712330: Japanese 4 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0712810: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Japanese 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0712820: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Japanese 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0713300: Portuguese 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0713310: Portuguese 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0713320: Portuguese 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0713330: Portuguese 4 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0713340: Portuguese for Portuguese Speakers 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0713350: Portuguese for Portuguese Speakers 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0714300: Foreign Language Humanities for International Studies 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0714310: Foreign Language Humanities for International Studies 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0714320: Foreign Language Humanities for International Studies 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0714330: Foreign Language Humanities for International Studies 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0717300: American Sign Language 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0717310: American Sign Language 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0717312: American Sign Language 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0717314: American Sign Language 4 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0700980: World Language Transfer 1 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0700990: World Language Transfer 2-Second Year Same Language (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0701980: World Language Transfer 3-Third Year Same Language (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0701990: World Language Transfer 4-Fourth Year Same Language (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0702980: World Language Transfer 5-First Year Additional Language (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0702990: World Language Transfer 6-Second Year Additional Language (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0703980: World Language Transfer 7-Third Year Additional Language (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0791920: World Language Waiver (Local Documentation Required) (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1001320: English Honors 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1001350: English Honors 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1001380: English Honors 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1001410: English Honors 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1001460: Applied Communications 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1001470: Applied Communications 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1001480: Communications Methodology Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1001800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate English 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1001810: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate English 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1002300: English 1 Through ESOL (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1002310: English 2 Through ESOL (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1002320: English 3 Through ESOL (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1002520: English 4 Through ESOL (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1004300: Semantics and Logic Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2021, 2021 and beyond)
1005300: World Literature (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021, 2021 and beyond)
1005310: American Literature (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021, 2021 and beyond)
1005330: Contemporary Literature (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1005340: Classical Literature (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021, 2021 and beyond)
1005350: Literature and the Arts 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1005360: Literature and the Arts 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1005365: Literature in the Media Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1020810: American Literature Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1020830: Classical Literature Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1020840: Contemporary Literature Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1020850: World Literature Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1020860: Great Books Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1006300: Journalism 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2021, 2021 and beyond)
1006310: Journalism 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2021, 2021 and beyond)
1006320: Journalism 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1006330: Journalism 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1006331: Journalism 5 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1006332: Journalism 6 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1006333: Journalism 7 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1006334: Journalism 8 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1007300: Speech 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1007310: Speech 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1007330: Debate 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2021, 2021 and beyond)
1007340: Debate 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1007350: Debate 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1007360: Debate 4 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1007370: Debate 5 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1007380: Debate 6 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1007390: Debate 7 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1009300: Writing 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1009310: Writing 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1009320: Creative Writing 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021, 2021 and beyond)
1009330: Creative Writing 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2021, 2021 and beyond)
1009331: Creative Writing Honors 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1009332: Creative Writing 4 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1009350: Play Writing (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1300800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Music 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1300810: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Music 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1700360: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Inquiry Skills (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1001310: English 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1001340: English 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1001370: English 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1001400: English 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2100310: United States History (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5021020: Social Studies Grade K (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
5021030: Social Studies Grade 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
5021040: Social Studies Grade 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
5021050: Social Studies Grade 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
5021060: Social Studies Grade 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
5021070: Social Studies Grade 5 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
5010041: Language Arts - Kindergarten (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021, 2021 and beyond)
5010042: Language Arts - Grade One (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021, 2021 and beyond)
5010043: Language Arts - Grade Two (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021, 2021 and beyond)
5010044: Language Arts - Grade Three (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5010045: Language Arts - Grade Four (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5010046: Language Arts - Grade Five (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7712020: Access Mathematics Grade 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7712015: Access Mathematics - Grade Kindergarten (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7712030: Access Mathematics Grade 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7712040: Access Mathematics Grade 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7712050: Access Mathematics Grade 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7712060: Access Mathematics Grade 5 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7812015: Access M/J Grade 6 Mathematics (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7812020: Access M/J Grade 7 Mathematics (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7812030: Access M/J Grade 8 Pre-Algebra (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7912070: Access Mathematics for Liberal Arts (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7912080: Access Algebra 1A (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7912090: Access Algebra 1B (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1001405: English 4: Florida College Prep (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1501380: Personal Fitness Trainer (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7710011: Access Language Arts - Kindergarten (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7710012: Access Language Arts - Grade 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7710013: Access Language Arts - Grade 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7710014: Access Language Arts - Grade 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
7710015: Access Language Arts - Grade 4 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
7710016: Access Language Arts - Grade 5 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
7810011: Access M/J Language Arts 1  (Specifically in versions: 2013 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
7810012: Access M/J Language Arts 2  (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
7810013: Access M/J Language Arts 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1009370: Writing for College Success (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2103017: M/J World Geography and Digital Technologies (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2104010: M/J Engaged Citizenship through Service Learning 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2104020: M/J Engaged Citizenship through Service Learning 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2106029: M/J Civics and Digital Technologies (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2100315: United States History for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2102315: Economics for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2102335: Economics with Financial Literacy (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2102340: Economics with Financial Literacy for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2102345: Economics with Financial Literacy Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2106315: United States Government for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2109315: World History for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2002055: M/J Comprehensive Science 1 Accelerated Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002085: M/J Comprehensive Science 2 Accelerated Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2105355: Philosophy Honors: Ethics (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2000315: Biology 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000500: Bioscience 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2000510: Bioscience 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2000520: Bioscience 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2003345: Chemistry 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0300338: Dance Celebration for Students of Mixed Mobilities (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400025: M/J Theatre 3 and Career Planning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0100060: M/J Introduction to Art History (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0101025: M/J Two-Dimensional Studio Art 2 & Career Planning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0103020: M/J Digital Art and Design 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1300340: Music of the World (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1302355: Marching Band (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400407: Technical Theatre: Design and Production for Scenery and Props (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400409: Technical Theatre: Design and Production for Costume, Makeup, and Hair (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400700: Musical Theatre 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400710: Musical Theatre 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400720: Musical Theatre 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0101355: Creating Two-Dimensional Art (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0101365: Creating Three-Dimensional Art (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0101440: Fine Craft Studio Art 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0101450: Fine Craft Studio Art 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1200315: Algebra 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0108370: Digital Art Imaging 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0108380: Digital Art Imaging 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1200375: Algebra 1-A for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1200385: Algebra 1-B for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1206315: Geometry for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5003010: Dance - Grade Kindergarten (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5003020: Dance - Grade 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5003030: Dance-Grade 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5003040: Dance-Intermediate 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5003050: Dance-Intermediate 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5003060: Dance - Intermediate 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0300025: M/J Dance 3 and Career Planning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0300090: M/J Dance Celebration for Students of Mixed Mobilities (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0300334: Dance Techniques 4 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5001010: Art – Grade Kindergarten (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5001020: Art - Grade 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5001030: Art - Grade 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5001040: Art – Intermediate 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5001050: Art – Intermediate 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5001060: Art - Intermediate 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0100070: M/J Art in World Cultures (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5013060: Music - Grade Kindergarten (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5013070: Music - Grade 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5013080: Music - Grade 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5013090: Music - Intermediate 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5013100: Music - Intermediate 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5013110: Music - Intermediate 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1001315: English 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1001345: English 2 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1001375: English 3 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1001402: English 4 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1002181: M/J Developmental Language Arts Through ESOL (Reading) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0711800: Florida’s Preinternational Baccalaureate Mandarin Chinese 1 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0711810: Florida’s Preinternational Baccalaureate Mandarin Chinese 2 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0711812: Florida’s Preinternational Baccalaureate Mandarin Chinese 3 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0708800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Spanish 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0708810: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Spanish 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0708820: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Spanish 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0705390: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Italian 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0705391: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Italian 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0705392: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Italian 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0716300: Turkish 1 - Novice Low – Novice High (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0716310: Turkish 2 - Intermediate Low – Intermediate Mid (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0716320: Turkish 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0716330: Turkish 4 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0712000: M/J Turkish, Beginning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0712010: M/J Turkish, Intermediate (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0712020: M/J Turkish, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0101005: M/J Exploring Two-Dimensional Art (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0101026: M/J Two-Dimensional Studio Art 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0101035: M/J Exploring Three-Dimensional Art (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0101060: M/J Three-Dimensional Studio Art 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1305400: Music Ensemble 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0102340: Art Collaboration: Designing Solutions for Art, Work, and Life Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1305410: Music Ensemble 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5013035: Elementary Special Ensemble (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1303150: M/J Music Technology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1303200: M/J Music Ensemble 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1303210: M/J Music Ensemble 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1303220: M/J Music Ensemble 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1303230: M/J Music Techniques 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1305420: Music Ensemble 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1305430: Music Ensemble 4 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1305500: Music Techniques 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2003500: Renewable Energy 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
0108390: Digital Art Imaging 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0712825: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Japanese 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1006375: Social Media 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021, 2021 and beyond)
2104350: Engaged Citizenship through Service-Learning 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2104360: Engaged Citizenship through Service-Learning 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1009050: M/J Writing 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1002381: Developmental Language Arts Through ESOL (Reading) (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1006020: M/J Journalism 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2100045: M/J United States History & Civics (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
0715305: Language and Literature for International Studies 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0715315: Language and Literature for International Studies 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0715325: Language and Literature for International Studies 3 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0715335: Language and Literature for International Studies 4 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1503315: Basketball 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0717316: American Sign Language 5 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0717318: American Sign Language 6 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0715355: Language and Literature for International Studies 6 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0715365: Language and Literature for International Studies 7 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0715345: Language and Literature for International Studies 5 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000999: CTE Industry Certification Science Substitution (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2100460: Eastern and Western Heritage Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2017, 2017 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0703990: World Language Transfer 8-Fourth Year Additional Language (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7912065: Access Geometry (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1007305: Speech 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2021, 2021 and beyond)
1007315: Speech 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0900305: Humanities 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0104335: Drawing 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0104365: Painting 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0102305: Ceramics/Pottery 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0900315: Humanities 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0708100: M/J Exploratory Spanish, Beginning (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2100335: African-American History (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
0719300: Creek 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0719310: Creek 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7912075: Access Algebra 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2003030: M/J STEM Physical Science (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002200: M/J STEM Environmental Science (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2001025: M/J STEM Astronomy and Space Science (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000025: M/J STEM Life Science (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400040: M/J Acting 1 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1007025: M/J Speech and Debate (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400045: M/J Acting 2 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400100: M/J Introduction to Technical Theatre (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1009025: M/J Creative Writing (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2021, 2021 and beyond)
1300025: M/J Basic Music Theory (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1300030: M/J Understanding Music (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1300080: M/J Exploring Music Performance (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0101100: M/J Visual Art 1 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0101110: M/J Visual Art 2 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0101120: M/J Visual Art 3 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0300100: M/J Introduction to Dance Techniques (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5007090: Elementary Latin (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400035: M/J Basic Theatre (MC) (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Theatre 1 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400805: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Theatre 2 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0720300: Elaponke 1 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0720310: Elaponke 2 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0300305: Introduction to Dance (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0701005: M/J Exploratory French, Beginning (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0708110: M/J Exploratory Spanish, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2104040: M/J Emerging Leaders (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1005312: Modern Literature (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2100336: African-American History Honors (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2100405: Holocaust Education Honors (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2102372: Personal Financial Literacy (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2102374: Personal Financial Literacy Honors (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2100365: African History Honors (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0708105: M/J Exploratory Spanish, Intermediate (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2003836: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Physics 1 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1400340: Peers as Partners in Learning (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2400320: Leadership Strategies Honors (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2400330: Approaches to Leadership Honors (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
7912095: Access Algebra 2 (Specifically in versions: 2016 - 2018, 2018 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5011000: Library Skills/Information Literacy Kindergarten (Specifically in versions: 2016 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
5011010: Library Skills/Information Literacy Grade 1 (Specifically in versions: 2016 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
5011020: Library Skills/Information Literacy Grade 2 (Specifically in versions: 2016 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
5011030: Library Skills/Information Literacy Grade 3 (Specifically in versions: 2016 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
5011050: Library Skills/Information Literacy Grade 5 (Specifically in versions: 2016 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
5011040: Library Skills/Information Literacy 4 (Specifically in versions: 2016 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2109015: M/J World History and Career Planning (Specifically in versions: 2016 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2109025: M/J World History, Advanced and Career Planning (Specifically in versions: 2016 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2001341: Environmental Science Honors (Specifically in versions: 2016 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2001330: Meteorology Honors (Specifically in versions: 2016 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5020070: STEM Lab Kindergarten (Specifically in versions: 2016 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5020080: STEM Lab Grade 1 (Specifically in versions: 2016 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5020090: STEM Lab Grade 2 (Specifically in versions: 2016 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5020100: STEM Lab Grade 3 (Specifically in versions: 2016 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5020110: STEM Lab Grade 4 (Specifically in versions: 2016 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5020120: STEM Lab Grade 5 (Specifically in versions: 2016 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5002010: Introduction to Computer Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2016 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
5002020: Introduction to Computer Science 2 (Specifically in versions: 2016 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400200: M/J Musical Theatre 1 (Specifically in versions: 2016 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400205: M/J Musical Theatre 2 (Specifically in versions: 2016 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0400210: M/J Musical Theatre 3 (Specifically in versions: 2016 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7910135: Access English 4 (Specifically in versions: 2017 - 2018, 2018 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2104050: M/J Introduction to Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (JROTC) (Specifically in versions: 2017 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
0704100: M/J Hebrew Beginning (Specifically in versions: 2017 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0704110: M/J Hebrew Intermediate (Specifically in versions: 2017 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0704120: M/J Hebrew Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2017 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0713000: M/J Portuguese Beginning (Specifically in versions: 2017 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0713010: M/J Portuguese Intermediate (Specifically in versions: 2017 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0713020: M/J Portuguese Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2017 - 2020, 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2100345: Great Men and Women of Color Who Shaped World History (Specifically in versions: 2017 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2104310: Examining the African American Experience in the 20th Century (Specifically in versions: 2017 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2104315: Exploring Hip Hop as Literature (Specifically in versions: 2017 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0707100: M/J Russian Beginning (Specifically in versions: 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0707110: M/J Russian Intermediate (Specifically in versions: 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0707120: M/J Russian Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1508080: M/J Wellness Education Grade 8 (Specifically in versions: 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1020870: Ancient Literature Honors (Specifically in versions: 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1005320: British Literature (Specifically in versions: 2018 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
0200305: Computer Science Discoveries (Specifically in versions: 2018 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0200000: M/J Computer Science Discoveries (Specifically in versions: 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0200010: M/J Computer Science Discoveries 1 (Specifically in versions: 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0200020: M/J Computer Science Discoveries 2 (Specifically in versions: 2018 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0200315: Computer Science Principles (Specifically in versions: 2018 - 2019, 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1508010: M/J Education Gymanstics/Educational Dance - Grade 6 (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1508020: M/J Team Sports - Grade 7 (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1508030: M/J Outdoor Pursuits/Aquatics - Grade 7 (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1508040: M/J Extreme/Alternative Sports - Grade 8 (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1508050: M/J Individual/Dual Sports - Grade 8 (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1508060: M/J Comprehensive Physical Education Grade 6/7 (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1508070: M/J Comprehensive Physical Education Grade 7/8 (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5012055: Grade 3 Accelerated Mathematics (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5012065: Grade 4 Accelerated Mathematics (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1400025: M/J Peers as Partners in Learning (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2104060: M/J Introduction to Personal Financial Literacy (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
0800005: M/J Health & Career Planning Grade 6 Year (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2106410: Humane Letters 1 History (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1005345: Humane Letters 1 Literature (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2100362: Latin American Studies Honors (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2100355: History and Contributions of Haiti in a Global Context (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
5004200: Theatre Grade Kindergarten (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5004210: Theatre Grade 1 (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5004220: Theatre Grade 2 (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5004230: Theatre Intermediate 1 (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5004240: Theatre Intermediate 2 (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5004250: Theatre Intermediate 3 (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1000012: M/J Intensive Reading 2 (Specifically in versions: 2021 and beyond)
1000014: M/J Intensive Reading 3 (Specifically in versions: 2021 and beyond)
1000412: Intensive Reading 1 (Specifically in versions: 2021 and beyond)
1000414: Intensive Reading 2 (Specifically in versions: 2021 and beyond)
5010024: Basic Skills in Reading 3-5 (Specifically in versions: 2021 and beyond)
5010022: Functional Reading Skills K-2 (Specifically in versions: 2021 and beyond)
5010026: Functional Reading Skills 3-5 (Specifically in versions: 2021 and beyond)
1000416: Intensive Reading 3 (Specifically in versions: 2021 and beyond)
1000418: Intensive Reading 4 (Specifically in versions: 2021 and beyond)
5012005: Foundational Skills in Mathematics K-2 (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5012015: Foundational Skills in Mathematics 3-5 (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
0800035: M/J Health Grade 6 Semester and Career Planning (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1210305: Mathematics for College Statistics (Specifically in versions: 2022 and beyond (current))
1207350: Mathematics for College Liberal Arts (Specifically in versions: 2022 and beyond (current))
1212300: Discrete Mathematics Honors (Specifically in versions: 2022 and beyond (current))
1200388: Mathematics for Data and Financial Literacy Honors (Specifically in versions: 2022 and beyond (current))
1700600: GEAR Up 1 (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1700610: GEAR Up 2 (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1700620: GEAR Up 3 (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1700630: GEAR Up 4 (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5010100: Introduction to Debate Kindergarten (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5010101: Introduction to Debate Grade 1 (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5010102: Introduction to Debate Grade 2 (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5010103: Introduction to Debate Grade 3 (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5010104: Introduction to Debate Grade 4 (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5010105: Introduction to Debate Grade 5 (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1804300: United States Coast Guard Leadership and Operations 1 (Specifically in versions: 2021 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1804310: United States Coast Guard Leadership and Operations 2 (Specifically in versions: 2021 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1804320: United States Coast Guard Leadership and Operations 3 (Specifically in versions: 2021 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1804330: United States Coast Guard Leadership and Operations 4 (Specifically in versions: 2021 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1005346: Humane Letters 1 Literature Honors (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1005347: Humane Letters 2 Literature (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1005348: Humane Letters 2 Literature Honors (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1005351: Humane Letters 3 Literature (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1005352: Humane Letters 3 Literature Honors (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1005353: Humane Letters 4 Literature (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
1005354: Humane Letters 4 Literature Honors (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2109342: Humane Letters 2 History (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
2109343: Humane Letters 2 History Honors (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022, 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)
5010011: English for Speakers of Other Languages Kindergarten (Specifically in versions: 2021 and beyond)
5010012: English for Speakers of Other Languages Grade 1 (Specifically in versions: 2021 and beyond)
5010013: English for Speakers of Other Languages Grade 2 (Specifically in versions: 2021 and beyond)
5010014: English for Speakers of Other Languages Grade 3 (Specifically in versions: 2022 and beyond (current))
5010015: English for Speakers of Other Languages Grade 4 (Specifically in versions: 2022 and beyond (current))
5010016: English for Speakers of Other Languages Grade 5 (Specifically in versions: 2022 and beyond (current))
2109344: Humane Letters 3 History (Specifically in versions: 2021 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2109345: Humane Letters 3 History Honors (Specifically in versions: 2021 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2109346: Humane Letters 4 History (Specifically in versions: 2021 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2109347: Humane Letters 4 History Honors (Specifically in versions: 2021 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1303305: Fundamentals of Chorus (Specifically in versions: 2021 and beyond)
1300305: Fundamentals of Music Theory (Specifically in versions: 2021 and beyond)
1302365: Fundamentals of Orchestra (Specifically in versions: 2021 and beyond)
1006305: Fundamentals of Journalism (Specifically in versions: 2021 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
1700305: Fundamentals of Research (Specifically in versions: 2021 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
5007100: Elementary Hebrew (Specifically in versions: 2021 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2109435: Holocaust Education (Specifically in versions: 2023 and beyond)
2109440: Holocaust Education Honors (Specifically in versions: 2023 and beyond)
1200384: Mathematics for Data and Financial Literacy (Specifically in versions: 2022 and beyond (current))
7912120: Access Mathematics for Data and Financial Literacy (Specifically in versions: 2022 and beyond (current))
1200710: Mathematics for College Algebra (Specifically in versions: 2022 and beyond (current))
2106415: Humane Letters 1 History Honors (Specifically in versions: 2022 - 2023 (current), 2023 and beyond)

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Lesson Plans

Slither Not in the Everglades! Python MEA:

This MEA will ask students to work in teams to help their client, The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, to decide which Burmese python traps manufacturing company to buy traps from. The traps will be placed along the Florida Keys and the Everglades to help prevent the growth of invasive Burmese Python population. The students will implement their knowledge of how plants, animals, and humans impact the environment, use mathematical and analytical problem-solving strategies, and be able report their finding in an organized, descriptive manner.

Type: Lesson Plan

Best Vegetable Garden:

The students will plan a vegetable garden, deciding which kinds of vegetables to plant, how many plants of each kind will fit, and where each plant will be planted in a fixed-area garden design. Then they will revise their design based on new garden dimensions and additional plant options.  Students will explore the concept of area to plan their garden and they will practice solving 1 and 2-step real-world problems using the four operations to develop their ideas.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

Pop, Pop, Pop!:

Students will research the effects of sugary drinks on their health.  They will interpret data on a variety of beverages presented in the form of bar graphs and decide which beverages should be included in school vending machines to ensure students have healthy drink options.

Type: Lesson Plan

Getting the Top Mini-Fridge not a Small Deal:

In this MEA, students will create a procedure to rank five mini-refrigerators to determine which one should be purchased for the school by the PTA based on size, type, features, energy usage, and cost.  In the process, students will solve real-world problems involving the multiplication of multi-digit numbers with decimals to the hundredths, including using money.  Students will also determine the volume of a rectangular prism using a formula.

Type: Lesson Plan

Traveling With Clifford:

In this MEA lesson plan, students will work on their map skills while they practice collecting data in categories, representing data using pictographs, and interpreting data in pictographs to solve a problem. Students will read and/or listen to the story Clifford Takes a Trip. After discussing the story, they will then plan a trip for Clifford to visit the great state of Florida.

Type: Lesson Plan

To Oregon by Wagon:

Students work in teams to plan the contents of a covered wagon for a family relocating from Missouri to Oregon. Students must calculate the weight and cost of the wagon by adding, subtracting, and multiplying with decimals.

Type: Lesson Plan

Bill of Rights Billboard:

This MEA will deepen students' knowledge of the Bill of Rights through collaborative problem solving. Students are required to analyze data in order to recommend three Amendments to celebrate during a community festival.  They will perform operations with fractions and mixed numbers to recommend advertising options for the festival within a budget.

Type: Lesson Plan

Preserving Our Marine Ecosystems:

The focus of this MEA is oil spills and their effect on the environment. In this activity, students from a fictitious class are studying about the effects of an oil spill on marine ecosystems and have performed an experiment in which they were asked to try to rid a teaspoon of corn oil from a baking pan filled with two liters of water as thoroughly as possible in a limited timeframe and with limited resources. By examining, analyzing, and evaluating experimental data related to resource usage, disposal, and labor costs, students must face the tradeoffs that are involved in trying to preserve an ecosystem when time, money, and resources are limited.

Type: Lesson Plan

Kites for Education MEA:

Kites for Education is a Modeling Eliciting Activity which presents students with an engineering challenge in which they must analyze data sets and develop a procedure for ranking different kite models. The product ranked as best by the students will hypothetically be sold to customers and the profit used to purchase school textbooks and supplies for school age children impacted by Haiti's devastating earthquake.

Type: Lesson Plan

Water Troubles:

This Model Eliciting Activity (MEA) presents students with the real-world problem of contaminated drinking water.  Students are asked to provide recommendations for a non-profit organization working to help a small Romanian village acquire clean drinking water.  They will work to develop the best temporary strategies for water treatment, including engineering the best filtering solution using local materials.  Students will utilize measures of center and variation to compare data, assess proportional relationships to make decisions, and perform unit conversions across different measurement systems.

Type: Lesson Plan

Wondrous Water Parks:

This activity requires students to apply their knowledge of unit conversions, speed calculation, and comparing fractions to solve the problem of which water park their class should choose to go on for their 5th grade class trip.

Type: Lesson Plan

Florida Hurricanes:

The governor of Florida needs your students' help in distributing funds among Florida cities. Students will be asked to share a sum of money for hurricane preparedness systems among Florida cities. Students will be given a data set to help them develop a procedure for doing so. In their teams, they will write a letter to the governor of Florida giving their procedures and explanation of the strategy they used. Rubrics are included to help grade students on their writing.

Type: Lesson Plan

Cookies and Treats:

Fourth graders will help Cookies and Treats find cost-effective and eco-friendly packaging for its cookies. Students will organize data and compare prices using decimal notation in order to develop a procedure for choosing packaging for cookies.  Students will use multiplication and division of whole numbers to plan for how many packages to order.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

"Paul Revere's Ride": How Longfellow Creates a Hero in a Long Poem:

In this lesson, students will identify examples of metaphor, simile, personification, hyperbole, and imagery in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s poem, “Paul Revere’s Ride.” Students will analyze how figurative language contributes to meaning in the text and explain how the different figurative language devices work together to depict Paul Revere as a historical hero.

Type: Lesson Plan

Arthur's Directorial Debut: A Thanksgiving MEA:

In the story Arthur's Thanksgiving, Arthur is chosen to direct the school's Thanksgiving play, but he has a hard time deciding who should play each part. In this MEA, the students will work in teams to help Arthur choose the perfect person for each part in the play. Then the students will write a letter to Arthur explaining their casting decisions and their decision making process. During the lesson, students will also have to reconsider their casting decisions and help Arthur solve the problem in the story when no one wants to dress up as the most important part in the play, the turkey!

Type: Lesson Plan

Lesson 1: Introduction to Oceanography & Remote Sensing:

This lesson covers:

•How the ocean moves and why it is important to all life on Earth

•Different geologic features in the ocean and how they impact currents

•How the Earth and ocean are studied by satellites and remote sensing

•How to use a web based program to interpret real world satellite data

Type: Lesson Plan

Lesson 2: Currents and Temperature:

This lesson covers:

  • How wind influences ocean currents
  • How currents transport heat and water around the world
  • Florida specific currents and oceanography
  • How currents connect the world’s climate

Type: Lesson Plan

Lesson 3: Productivity:

 This lesson covers:

•Why microalgae are important to all life on Earth

•How nutrients enter the ocean

•The relationship between microalgae, nutrients, and productivity

Type: Lesson Plan

Lesson 4: Interannual Variability- El Nino & La Nina:

 This lesson covers:

•The El Niño-Southern Oscillation cycle

•How El Niño/La Niña events affect Florida

•How El Niño/La Niña events affect productivity off the coast of Peru

Type: Lesson Plan

Lesson 5: Harmful Algal Blooms:

 This lesson covers:

•What harmful algal blooms are

•How harmful algal blooms occur

•Different types of harmful algal blooms and where they occur in Florida

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorials

How Text Sections Convey an Author’s Purpose:

Explore excerpts from the extraordinary autobiography Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, as you examine the author's purpose for writing and his use of the problem and solution text structure. By the end of this tutorial, you should be able to explain how Douglass uses the problem and solution text structure in these excerpts to convey his purpose for writing.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing an Author’s Use of Juxtaposition in Jane Eyre (Part Two):

In Part Two of this two-part series, you'll continue to explore excerpts from the Romantic novel Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë. In this tutorial, you'll examine the author's use of juxtaposition, which is a technique of putting two or more elements side by side to invite comparison or contrast. By the end of this tutorial, you should be able to explain how the author’s use of juxtaposition in excerpts from the first two chapters of Jane Eyre defines Jane’s perspective regarding her treatment in the Reed household.

Make sure to complete Part One before beginning Part Two. Click HERE to view Part One. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Identifying Rhetorical Appeals in "Eulogy of the Dog" (Part Two):

Continue to study George Vest's "Eulogy of the Dog" speech and his use of rhetorical appeals. In Part Two of this two-part series, you'll identify his use of ethos and pathos throughout his speech.

Make sure to complete Part One before beginning Part Two. Click HERE to launch Part One.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Identifying Rhetorical Appeals in "Eulogy of the Dog" (Part One):

Read George Vest's "Eulogy of the Dog" speech in this two-part interactive tutorial. In this series, you'll identify and examine Vest's use of ethos, pathos, and logos in his speech. In Part One, you'll identify Vest's use of logos in the first part of his speech. In Part Two, you'll identify his use of ethos and pathos throughout his speech. 

Make sure to complete both part of this series! Click HERE to launch Part Two.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

That's So Epic: How Epic Similes Contribute to Mood (Part Two):

Continue to study epic similes in excerpts from The Iliad in Part Two of this two-part series. In Part Two, you'll learn about mood and how the language of an epic simile produces a specified mood in excerpts from The Iliad.

Make sure to complete Part One before beginning Part Two. Click HERE to view "That's So Epic: How Epic Similes Contribute to Mood (Part One)."

Type: Original Student Tutorial

That's So Epic: How Epic Similes Contribute to Mood (Part One):

Learn about how epic similes create mood in a text, specifically in excerpts from The Iliad, in this two-part series.

In Part One, you'll define epic simile, identify epic similes based on defined characteristics, and explain the comparison created in an epic simile.

In Part Two, you'll learn about mood and how the language of an epic simile produces a specified mood in excerpts from The Iliad. Make sure to complete both parts!

Click HERE to view "That's So Epic: How Epic Similes Contribute to Mood (Part Two)." 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing Sound in Poe's "The Raven" :

Identify rhyme, alliteration, and repetition in Edgar Allan Poe's "The Raven" and analyze how he used these sound devices to affect the poem in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

In the Driver's Seat: Character Interactions in Little Women:

Study excerpts from the classic American novel Little Women by Louisa May Alcott in this interactive English Language Arts tutorial. Using excerpts from chapter eight of Little Women, you'll identify key characters and their actions. You'll also explain how interactions between characters contributes to the development of the plot. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

What it Means to Give a Gift: How Allusions Contribute to Meaning in "The Gift of the Magi":

Examine how allusions contribute to meaning in excerpts from O. Henry's classic American short story “The Gift of the Magi." In this interactive tutorial, you'll determine how allusions in the text better develop the key story elements of setting, characters, and conflict and explain how the allusion to the Magi contributes to the story’s main message about what it means to give a gift.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing Imagery in Shakespeare’s "Sonnet 18":

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Comparing Universal Themes in Shakespeare’s "Sonnet 18":

Study William Shakespeare's "Sonnet 18" to determine and compare two universal themes and how they are developed throughout the sonnet. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

How Form Contributes to Meaning in Shakespeare’s "Sonnet 18":

Explore the form and meaning of William Shakespeare's “Sonnet 18.”  In this interactive tutorial, you’ll examine how specific words and phrases contribute to meaning in the sonnet, select the features of a Shakespearean sonnet in the poem, identify the solution to a problem, and explain how the form of a Shakespearean sonnet contributes to the meaning of "Sonnet 18."

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing Universal Themes in "The Gift of the Magi":

Analyze how O. Henry uses details to address the topics of value, sacrifice, and love in his famous short story, "The Gift of the Magi." In this interactive tutorial, you'll also determine two universal themes of the story. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

How Story Elements Interact in “The Gift of the Magi" – Part Two:

Explore key story elements in more excerpts from the classic American short story “The Gift of the Magi” by O. Henry.

In Part Two of this two-part series, you'll analyze how important information about two main characters is revealed through the context of the story’s setting and events in the plot. By the end of this tutorial, you should be able to explain how character development, setting, and plot interact in "The Gift of the Magi."

Make sure to complete Part One before beginning Part Two. Click HERE to launch Part One. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

How Story Elements Interact in “The Gift of the Magi" -- Part One:

Explore key story elements in the classic American short story “The Gift of the Magi” by O. Henry. Throughout this two-part tutorial, you'll analyze how important information about two main characters is revealed through the context of the story’s setting and events in the plot. By the end of this tutorial series, you should be able to explain how character development, setting, and plot interact in excerpts from this short story.

Make sure to complete both parts! Click HERE to view "How Story Elements Interact in 'The Gift of the Magi' -- Part Two."

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Archetypes – Part Two: Examining Archetypes in The Princess and the Goblin:

Read more from the fantasy novel The Princess and the Goblin by George MacDonald in Part Two of this three-part series. By the end of this tutorial, you should be able to compare and contrast the archetypes of two characters in the novel.

Make sure to complete all three parts of this series in order to compare and contrast the use of archetypes in two texts.

Click HERE to view "Archetypes -- Part One: Examining an Archetype in The Princess and the Goblin."

Click HERE to view "Archetypes -- Part Three: Comparing and Contrasting Archetypes in Two Fantasy Stories." 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Archetypes – Part One: Examining an Archetype in The Princess and the Goblin:

Learn to determine the important traits of a main character named Princess Irene in excerpts from the fantasy novel The Princess and the Goblin by George MacDonald. In this interactive tutorial, you’ll also identify her archetype and explain how textual details about her character support her archetype.  

Make sure to complete all three parts of this series in order to compare and contrast the use of archetypes in two texts.

Click HERE to view "Archetypes -- Part Two: Examining Archetypes in The Princess and the Goblin."

Click HERE to view "Archetypes -- Part Three: Comparing and Contrasting Archetypes in Two Fantasy Stories." 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Power to Cure or Impair: The Importance of Setting in "The Yellow Wallpaper" -- Part One:

Learn to identify aspects of setting and character as you analyze several excerpts from “The Yellow Wallpaper," a chilling short story by Charlotte Perkins Gilman that explores the impact on its narrator of being confined to mostly one room. You'll also determine how the narrator’s descriptions of the story’s setting better reveal her emotional and mental state.

This interactive tutorial is Part One in a two-part series. By the end of Part Two, you should be able to explain how the narrator changes through her interaction with the setting. Click below to launch Part Two.

The Power to Cure or Impair: The Importance of Setting in 'The Yellow Wallpaper' -- Part Two 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Power to Cure or Impair: The Importance of Setting in "The Yellow Wallpaper" -- Part Two:

Continue to examine several excerpts from the chilling short story “The Yellow Wallpaper” by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, which explores the impact on its narrator of being confined to mostly one room. In Part Two of this tutorial series, you'll determine how the narrator’s descriptions of the story’s setting reveal its impact on her emotional and mental state. By the end of this tutorial, you should be able to explain how the narrator changes through her interaction with the setting.

Make sure to complete Part One before beginning Part Two. Click HERE to launch "The Power to Cure or Impair: The Importance of Setting in 'The Yellow Wallpaper' -- Part One." 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Mystery of the Past: How the Form of a Villanelle Contributes to Meaning in "The House on the Hill":

Explore the mysterious poem “The House on the Hill” by Edwin Arlington Robinson in this interactive tutorial. As you explore the poem's message about the past, you’ll identify the features of a villanelle in the poem. By the end of this tutorial, you should be able to explain how the form of a villanelle contributes to the poem's meaning.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

A Giant of Size and Power – Part Two: How the Form of a Sonnet Contributes to Meaning in "The New Colossus":

Continue to explore the significance of the famous poem “The New Colossus” by Emma Lazarus, lines from which are engraved on the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty. 

In Part Two of this two-part series, you’ll identify the features of a sonnet in the poem "The New Colossus." By the end of this tutorial, you should be able to explain how the form of a sonnet contributes to the poem's meaning. 

Make sure to complete Part One before beginning Part Two.

Click HERE to launch "A Giant of Size and Power -- Part One: Exploring the Significance of 'The New Colossus.'"

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing the Beginning of The Red Umbrella – Part Two: How Setting Influences Characters:

Continue to examine how setting influences characters in excerpts from The Red Umbrella by Christina Diaz Gonzalez with this interactive tutorial.

This is part 2 in a two-part series. Make sure to complete Part One first. Click HERE to launch "Analyzing the Beginning of The Red Umbrella -- Part One: How Setting Influences Events." 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

A Giant of Size and Power -- Part One: Exploring the Significance of "The New Colossus":

In Part One, explore the significance of the famous poem “The New Colossus” by Emma Lazarus, lines from which are engraved on the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty. 

This famous poem also happens to be in the form of a sonnet. In Part Two of this two-part series, you’ll identify the features of a sonnet in the poem. By the end of this tutorial series, you should be able to explain how the form of a sonnet contributes to the poem's meaning. Make sure to complete both parts!

Click HERE to launch "A Giant of Size and Power -- Part Two: How the Form of a Sonnet Contributes to Meaning in 'The New Colossus.'"

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing the Beginning of The Red Umbrella – Part One: How Setting Influences Events:

Explore excerpts from the beginning of the historical fiction novel The Red Umbrella by Christina Diaz Gonzalez in this two-part series. In Part One, you'll examine how setting influences events. In Part Two, you'll examine how setting influences characters.

Make sure to complete both parts! Click HERE to launch Part Two.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Reading into Words with Multiple Meanings:

Explore Robert Frost's poem "Mending Wall" and examine words, phrases, and lines with multiple meanings. In this interactive tutorial, you'll analyze how these multiple meanings can affect a reader’s interpretation of the poem.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

From Myth to Short Story: Drawing on Source Material – Part Two:

Examine the topics of transformation and perfection as you read excerpts from the “Myth of Pygmalion” by Ovid and the short story “The Birthmark” by Nathaniel Hawthorne. By the end of this two-part interactive tutorial series, you should be able to explain how the short story draws on and transforms source material from the original myth. 

This tutorial is the second in a two-part series. Click HERE to launch Part One.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

From Myth to Short Story: Drawing on Source Material – Part One:

Examine the topics of transformation and perfection as you read excerpts from the “Myth of Pygmalion” by Ovid and the short story “The Birthmark” by Nathaniel Hawthorne. By the end of this two-part interactive tutorial series, you should be able to explain how the short story draws on and transforms source material from the original myth.  

This tutorial is the first in a two-part series. Click HERE to launch Part Two.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing Word Choice in Emerson's "Self-Reliance": Part 2:

Explore excerpts from Ralph Waldo Emerson's essay "Self-Reliance" in this two-part series. This tutorial is Part Two. In this tutorial, you will continue to examine excerpts from Emerson's essay that focus on the topic of traveling. You'll examine word meanings and determine the connotations of specific words. You will also analyze the impact of specific word choices on the meaning of this portion of the essay.

Make sure to complete Part One first. Click HERE to launch Part One.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing Word Choice in Emerson's "Self-Reliance": Part 1:

Explore excerpts from Ralph Waldo Emerson's essay "Self-Reliance" in this two-part interactive tutorial series. You will examine word meanings, examine subtle differences between words with similar meanings, and think about the emotions or associations that are connected to specific words. Finally, you will analyze the impact of specific word choices on the meaning of these excerpts.

Make sure to complete both parts! Click HERE to launch Part Two.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing Figurative Meaning in Emerson's "Self-Reliance": Part 2:

Explore excerpts from Ralph Waldo Emerson's essay "Self-Reliance" in this interactive two-part tutorial. This tutorial is Part Two. In this two-part series, you will learn to enhance your experience of Emerson's essay by analyzing his use of the word "genius." You will analyze Emerson's figurative meaning of "genius" and how he develops and refines the meaning of this word over the course of the essay.

Make sure to complete Part One before beginning Part Two. Click HERE to view Part One.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing Figurative Meaning in Emerson's "Self-Reliance": Part 1:

Explore excerpts from Ralph Waldo Emerson's essay "Self-Reliance" in this interactive two-part tutorial. In Part One, you’ll learn to enhance your experience of a text by analyzing its use of a word’s figurative meaning. Specifically, you'll examine Emerson's figurative meaning of the key term "genius." In Part Two, you’ll learn how to track the development of a word’s figurative meaning over the course of a text. 

Make sure to complete both parts of the tutorial! Click HERE to launch Part Two.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing Word Choices in Poe's "The Raven" -- Part Two:

Practice analyzing word choices in "The Raven" by Edgar Allan Poe, including word meanings, subtle differences between words with similar meanings, and emotions connected to specific words. In this interactive tutorial, you will also analyze the impact of specific word choices on the meaning of the poem.

This is Part Two of a two-part series. Part One should be completed before beginning Part Two. Click HERE to open Part One.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing Word Choices in Poe's "The Raven" -- Part One:

Practice analyzing word choices in "The Raven" by Edgar Allan Poe in this interactive tutorial. In this tutorial, you will examine word meanings, examine subtle differences between words with similar meanings, and think about emotions connected to specific words. You will also analyze the impact of specific word choices on the meaning of the poem.

This tutorial is Part One of a two-part series on Poe's "The Raven." Click HERE to open Part Two.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Voices of Jekyll and Hyde, Part Two:

Get ready to travel back in time to London, England during the Victorian era in this interactive tutorial that uses text excerpts from The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. This tutorial is Part Two of a three-part series. You should complete Part One before beginning this tutorial. In Part Two, you will read excerpts from the last half of the story and practice citing evidence to support analysis of a literary text. In the third tutorial in this series, you’ll learn how to create a Poem in 2 Voices using evidence from this story. 

Make sure to complete all three parts! Click to HERE launch Part One. Click HERE to launch Part Three. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Voices of Jekyll and Hyde, Part One:

Practice citing evidence to support analysis of a literary text as you read excerpts from one of the most famous works of horror fiction of all time, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. 

This tutorial is Part One of a three-part tutorial. In Part Two, you'll continue your analysis of the text. In Part Three, you'll learn how to create a Poem in 2 Voices using evidence from this story. Make sure to complete all three parts! 

Click HERE to launch Part Two. Click HERE to launch Part Three. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Drones and Glaciers: Eyes in the Sky (Part 2 of 4):

Learn how to identify the central idea and important details of a text, as well as how to write an effective summary in this interactive tutorial. This tutorial is the second tutorial in a four-part series that examines how scientists are using drones to explore glaciers in Peru. 

This tutorial is part two of a four-part series. Click below to open the other tutorials in this series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Drones and Glaciers: Eyes in the Sky (Part 1 of 4):

Learn about how researchers are using drones, also called unmanned aerial vehicles or UAVs, to study glaciers in Peru. In this interactive tutorial, you will practice citing text evidence when answering questions about a text.

This tutorial is part one of a four-part series. Click below to open the other tutorials in this series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Text Resources

Earth's Tectonic Plates Won't Slide Forever:

This text is intended to support reading in the content area. The text describes future possible outcomes for the tectonic plates and the movement of the Earth’s crust. Using computer models, the article first discusses when crustal plate movement is thought to have begun. Then, it provides the reader with an account of some of the ways the Earth has changed due to the movement of plate tectonics. It then continues to use computer models to produce a simulation to show that these plate movements may stop millions of years from now.

Type: Text Resource

A Green Sea Slug Steals Power from Algae:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Researchers are gaining more insight into how Elysia chlorotica can survive for months without food in a well-lit laboratory. It is well known that the slug can store plastids from the algae it consumes. However, scientists questioned how the organelles remained active for several months in the slug's gut even after a drug was given to shut down photosynthesis. Using fluorescent DNA markers, scientists were able to find a gene that allows the slug to keep the chloroplasts working. It is the first known case of gene transfer from one multicellular organism to another.

Type: Text Resource

Nobel Awarded for Unveiling How Cells Recycle Their Trash:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article highlights the work of cell biologist, Yoshinori Ohsumi, who won the Nobel Prize for physiology for his research on how cells recycle unused materials in order to maintain homeostasis. Ohsumi studied what the cell did if it started to "starve." He noticed how the cell would start "eating" some of the parts it didn't really need in order to survive. This process is called autophagy. Scientists hope that Ohsumi’s discovery will help find a cure for diseases like Alzheimer's, which is caused by cell trash buildup in the brain.

Type: Text Resource

When Humans Begin Colonizing Other Planets, Who Should Be in Charge?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article asks the reader to ponder the ethical issues that may arise as we travel to and colonize the rocky inner planets in our solar system. The article questions what country or organization will make the guidelines that answer these ethical questions.

Type: Text Resource

Yellowstone Ecosystem Needs Wolves and Willows, Elk and...Beavers?:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses the effects of the wolf population in Yellowstone National Park, as well as how other organisms are linked in this food web. As the wolf population decreases, the elk population increases due to lack of predation. The larger elk population decimates the willow population, a prime source of food and building for the beaver. As beaver population decreases, streams no longer deposit enough sediments. This then changes the willow population, because they are no longer able to take root in the stream.

Type: Text Resource

Against the Tide: Fish Quickly Adapt to Lethal Levels of Pollution:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article describes the evolution of a type of fish who can survive in a human-altered, toxic environment. The text discusses possible reasons for this successful evolution and what the implications are for other species, including humans.

Type: Text Resource

This App Uses Facial Recognition Software to Help Identify Genetic Conditions:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article describes a new tool (Face2Gene) that is being used by geneticists to help identify genetic disorders. The app uploads a picture and searches databases for specific facial measurements and characteristics common to specific genetic conditions. The app sends out a list of possible conditions, as well as a metric of their likelihood.

Type: Text Resource

The Invasive Squirrel That Wasn't:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. This article describes the discovery of evidence that contradicts the notion that a specific species of squirrel was introduced to an Alaskan ecosystem. It further discusses the implication of the new evidence and challenges the current meaning of invasive species.

Type: Text Resource

Gut Check: Mandrills Sniff Poop to Avoid Peers with Parasites:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text describes a mechanism of behavioral avoidance to help maintain health between mandrills. Mandrills use their olfactory senses in order to determine which of their peers to avoid due to parasitic infections.

Type: Text Resource

Some Genes Remain "Alive" for Days After the Body Dies:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Researchers from the University of Washington, led by microbiologist Peter Nobel, found that hundreds of genes reawaken and function in mice and fish for up to four days. Nobel also discovered that these genes are responsible for responding to stress and regulating the immune system. There were also others that are important for a developing embryo being used and these shouldn’t be needed after birth. In addition, the genes may also be linked to increased cancer in organ transplants and scientists are hoping to use the information in forensic science to better estimate a time of death.

Type: Text Resource

Languages Are Still a Major Barrier to Global Science:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article describes a Google Scholar survey, focusing on environmental issues, as the basis for presenting an argument that language is a barrier to global communication in the scientific community. The recognized barriers are two-fold: the limitation of knowledge transfer and the inability of local policy makers to make decisions based on existing knowledge. The article provides possible solutions to the problem, including the "multilingualization" of texts through changes in journal requirements.

Type: Text Resource

The Mystery of Human Blood Types:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Blood types such as the ABO group have been inherited for at least 20 million years. Despite how ancient blood groups are, scientists are still unclear as to their purpose. The ABO blood group, the most well-known of the blood groups, has enabled scientists to understand a link between blood groups and the immune system; discoveries over the last century suggest a link between blood groups and disease. Even with these findings, scientists are still unclear as to why such blood antigens evolved in the first place.

Type: Text Resource

Algae Embedded in Sea Ice Drive the Arctic Food Web:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Species that live in the open ocean may suffer as sea ice disappears. As sea ice disappears, the algae embedded and living in the sea ice will be reduced. This article explores the evidence collected to show the role of algae in driving the Arctic food web.

Type: Text Resource

Text Resource: Sneaky! Virus Sickens Plants, but Helps Them Multiply:

This informational text (intended to support reading in the content area) describes how one common virus takes a sneaky route to success. It doesn’t kill its leafy hosts, instead, it makes infected plants smell more attractive to bees. This ensures the virus will have a new generation of the plants to host it in the future.

Type: Text Resource

These Itsy-Bitsy Herbivores Could Stage a Huge Coral Reef Rescue:

This informational text resource supports reading in the content area. The article implies that human interactions that raise the global temperature (climate change) can have disastrous effects on coral reefs (coral bleaching). The article explains how a discovery of other organisms filling a previously occupied niche may help to rebuild and sustain coral reefs.

Type: Text Resource

Belly up to the Bamboo Buffet: Pandas vs. Horses:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. In parts of China, pandas are threatened by horses. The pandas have a specific diet - bamboo that grows on the gently sloping areas far from human populations. But some farmers allow their horses to roam free and graze upon bamboo, taking away the only source of food for pandas.

Type: Text Resource

Scientists Discover Stinging Truths About Jellyfish Blooms in the Bering Sea:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes how jellyfish populations in the Bering Sea have been impacted by different limiting factors like temperature and food availability. Scientists suspect that increasing water temperatures affect the development of polyps in multiple ways. In addition, the study is a multi-disciplinary effort between experts in marine ecology, statistics, and the mathematical geosciences. It is thought such models may be applied to other marine and land-based ecological studies and the spread of infectious diseases.

Type: Text Resource

Ebola, Dengue Fever, Lyme Disease: The Growing Economic Cost of Infectious Diseases:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses the rise of pandemic disease outbreaks across the globe and how these outbreaks can affect world economies. The article further describes how economic models were used to assess different strategies on their effectiveness. The strategy of identifying the underlying cause of the emerging disease was considered to be most cost-effective and beneficial long-term.

Type: Text Resource

Analysis of Fossilized Antarctic Bird's 'Voice Box' Suggests Dinosaurs Couldn't Sing:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Scientists have presented new findings on the fossilized voice box called a syrinx -- and its apparent absence in non-avian dinosaur fossils of the same age. This may indicate that other non-avian dinosaurs were not able to make noises similar to the bird calls we hear today.

Type: Text Resource

What is the Carbon Cycle?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text describes the carbon cycle and its dynamic nature. Carbon dioxide is recycled by plants and other autotrophs, considered "sinks." Animals and heterotrophs give off carbon dioxide as a by-product of the process of cellular respiration. In addition, human activity, accelerated by industrial activity, produces more carbon dioxide than autotrophs can handle, leading to global warming.

Type: Text Resource

Rabies Could Spread to Peru's Coast by 2020:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses how the rabies virus is likely to spread to the coast of Peru by the year 2020. It further discusses the technology used to determine that the male vampire bat is most likely the carrier of the rabies virus to different areas in Peru.

Type: Text Resource

Polar Bears Across the Arctic Face Shorter Sea Ice Season:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Polar bears are among the animals most affected by the seasonal and year-to-year decline in Arctic sea ice, because they rely on ice for essential activities such as hunting, traveling, and breeding. A new research study has confirmed this finding.

Type: Text Resource

The Microbiome: When Good Bugs Go Bad:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text describes current research being conducted on microbiota and the immune system. The text describes how bacteria, or the lack of bacteria, play a role in the immune system and keep autoimmune diseases at bay. There is currently a spike in autoimmune diseases like Crohn's disease and psoriasis that occur primarily in developed countries. This research emphasizes how important our symbiotic relationship is with bacteria.

Type: Text Resource

Born During a Drought: Bad News for Baboons:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses how a drought affected the savanna ecosystem found in southern Kenya during 2009. It further addresses how baboons are affected later in life based on the conditions when they are born and the social status they are born into. Based on the research on baboons, the implications on human health are discussed in the latter portion of the article.

Type: Text Resource

Antifreeze Proteins in Antarctic Fish Prevent Both Freezing and Melting:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The National Science Foundation article discusses research conducted in the Antarctic concerning the notothenioid fish, which contains "antifreeze" proteins. These proteins are essential because they prevent the fish from freezing in the cold waters of the Southern Ocean, but it was discovered that these same proteins prevent ice crystals from melting when temperatures warm.

Type: Text Resource

Virus Fingered as Top Suspect in West Coast Sea Star Wasting Disease:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The National Science Foundation article discusses research on the identification and the effects of the Sea Star Associated Densovirus. The article further explains the importance of research on this virus because of its impact on the tidal ecosystems on the Pacific West Coast.

Type: Text Resource

Cone Snail Venom Reveals Insulin Insights:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the context area. The text describes how cone snail venom, a simpler form of insulin than human insulin, works more rapidly. Diabetes is a disease that occurs when the body is no longer to control the glucose levels in the bloodstream. Cone snail venom could help scientists develop a better, more efficient way of treating diabetes.

Type: Text Resource

Hibernation Season Over, Will Disease-Ridden Bats Emerge from Caves and Mines This Spring?:

This informational text resource supports reading in the content area. The article discusses the spread of White Nose Syndrome in North American bats and how bat colonies are being affected in both size and number. The article also provides a comparison between European and North American bat colonies suffering with this disease.

Type: Text Resource

NIH Launches Early-stage Yellow Fever Vaccine Trial:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article discusses how yellow fever is becoming a health threat once again in parts of Africa and why it is necessary for a new vaccine for yellow fever to be developed. The article further discusses the process and experimental trials by which the vaccine is being tested for its effectiveness as well as its safety.

Type: Text Resource

NASA Moon Mission Shares Insights into Giant Impacts:

This informational text resource supports reading in the content area. The GRAIL mission is a research project tasked with studying large impact basins. Orientale basin is a giant, ringed impact crater on Earth's moon. Until now, how impact craters with rings form had not been well understood. Scientists have reconstructed Orientale's formation using data from NASA's GRAIL mission.

Type: Text Resource

The First Non-Browning GMO Apples Slated to Hit Shelves Next Month:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article discusses newly developed apples that have lower levels of PPO enzyme, thus keeping them from turning brown quickly.

Type: Text Resource

Bee Tongues are Getting Shorter as Temperatures Warm:

This informational text resource supports reading in the content area. The text explains how bees have made an evolutionary adaptation of shorter tongues. This adaptation is due to their mutualistic relationship with their flower food source moving up a mountain as a result of climate change.

Type: Text Resource

It's Blackberry Season! Summer Fruits Depend on Pollinators. But Where Have All the Bees Gone?:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article introduces the reader to the importance and role of pollinators, factors contributing to their decline, and easy steps that can be taken to help pollinators.

Type: Text Resource

Bioremediation: Nature's Way to a Cleaner Environment:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. It is designed to introduce the ideas and the research history of bioremediation studies performed by the USGS scientists. This text begins with an environmental spill and moves into the progress gained in cost effective and safe cleanup of toxic substances from the environment using research completed by the USGS.

Type: Text Resource

Caribbean Bat Species Need 8 Million Years to Recover from Recent Extinction Waves:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article discusses how Caribbean bat species are ideal for understanding the implications of extinction and its effects on species. The article suggests that the geographic isolation of these species helps scientists to understand the causes of extinction and how long species may need to recover from natural and human impact.

Type: Text Resource

Climate Change Could Stall Atlantic Ocean Current:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article describes how climate change impacts ocean currents which, in turn, can affect the countries which lie along these currents. A description of a model is included to make a prediction of what will happen to the currents if climate change continues with increasing amounts of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere.

Type: Text Resource

Plants, Animals Adapt to City Living:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. It describes new research suggesting urban life creates evolutionary changes in plants and animals. Examples of changes to an urban growing plant (the white clover) and a Leapin' Lizard are presented as they evolve to suit their new environment.

Type: Text Resource

Too Much of a Good Thing: Human Activities Overload Ecosystems with Nitrogen:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Human activities, mainly the use of fertilizer, are overloading ecosystems with nitrogen. Nitrogen is a dynamic cycle that is mediated by bacteria. Humans have been contributing to the nitrogen cycle through synthetic nitrogen fixation. This has resulted in eutrophication of aquatic systems and greenhouse gas emissions. Methods to increase the efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer use are discussed.

Type: Text Resource

First-Ever Octopus Genome Sequenced:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses the information gained through the sequencing of the octopus' genome. This information will help scientists learn more about the function and development of the nervous system and can be applied to brain research.

Type: Text Resource

Zika Virus Raises Alarm as It Spreads in the Americas:

This resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes the emergence of the Zika virus and the threat it may pose to the United States. Information is provided about how the virus is transmitted, and the connection between Zika and microcephaly is explored.

Type: Text Resource

How New Zealand's Glaciers Shaped the Origin of the Kiwi Bird:

This resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses research conducted by scientists that proves there are more species and subspecies of kiwi birds than originally thought in New Zealand. The article discusses how scientists believe glaciers isolated populations and how new genetic lineages were discovered by analyzing the kiwi genome.

Type: Text Resource

One Carbon Metabolism on the Space Station:

This resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes how a genetic variation in enzymes associated with the one carbon metabolic pathway can cause vision problems in astronauts. The research may lead scientists to predict which astronauts will develop vision problems, as well as develop new treatments for existing medical problems on Earth.

Type: Text Resource

Zika's Accidental Ally: Miami's Luxury High-Rises:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses the problems that are being encountered in Miami Beach as health officials try to execute a mosquito management program. Because of the high rise buildings, the pesticides being sprayed are not necessarily reaching the intended areas. Not only are mosquitoes staying alive, but they may become resistant to the first-choice pesticides being used against them.

Type: Text Resource

What the New Superbug Means for the US:

This resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text describes how colistin-resistant bacteria have reached the United States, which is cause for great concern. There are currently some strains of bacteria that are resistant to all types of antibiotics. Scientists will have to develop new antibiotics if we are to continue our mostly successful fight against bacterial disease.

Type: Text Resource

Sun's Nearest Stellar Neighbor May Have Earth-Like Planet:

This resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text includes information on a newly discovered planet that orbits the nearest star to our sun. Proxima b, while close, is actually quite far—more than four light years from our sun—yet it shows potential for life, close enough for the planet to receive radiation and energy from its star. The article also discusses the possibility of sending robotic missions there using new technology that could perhaps reach the planet in twenty years.

Type: Text Resource

Earthworms: Can These Gardeners' Friends Actually Become Foes?:

This resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article describes new research on the ways Asian jumping worms are affecting American forests. Findings show they are much more of a problem than initially feared. Because Asian jumping worms have bigger appetites than other earthworms found in the U.S., they are much more successful at eating the debris on the forest floor. This exposes vulnerable areas that may bring more diseases and invasive plants. It can also prevent delicate seedlings from taking root.

Type: Text Resource

New Zealand Announces Plan to Wipe Out Invasive Predators:

This resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text explains the new Zealand government's plan to eliminate invasive predators from the country by 2050 and the challenges that may be involved in reaching this goal. The article also describes the effects the predators have had on the native wildlife to date.

Type: Text Resource

For the First Time, Bees Declared Endangered in the U.S.:

This resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes how for the first time bees have been declared endangered in the United States. Seven species of Hawaiian yellow-faced bees have been decimated by invasive species and habitat loss and are now federally protected. The text goes on to describe an innovative way scientists want to help the bees.

Type: Text Resource

Prairie Dogs Are Serial Killers That Murder Their Competition:

This  resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses the discovery of the white-tailed prairie dog murdering ground squirrels in cold blood in order to eliminate the competition for food. The article further highlights how the killings of the squirrels benefit the prairie dog offspring.

Type: Text Resource

What's Good for Crops Not Always Good for the Environment:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article describes a recent development that will allow scientists to help farmers determine the precise amount of nitrogen needed for their corn and soybean fields. The research was conducted by two scientists at the University of Illinois. If farmers can pinpoint the exact amount of fertilizer needed, reducing the amount that runs off or leaches into the water supply, the better for all living organisms on Earth.

Type: Text Resource

Cholera-Like Disease 'Piggybacking' on El Nino to Reach New Shores:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses the research conducted by scientists showing the correlation between El Niño events and the spread of infectious disease. The article discusses how the scientists believe Vibrio bacteria are being transported across the ocean and the impact this can have on public health.

Type: Text Resource

Researchers Make a Key Discovery in How Malaria Evades the Immune System:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses the research conducted by scientists to determine how the malaria parasite evades the human immune system and enters into red blood cells. It was determined the parasite is able to use the complement system to its own advantage rather than being negatively affected by it.

Type: Text Resource

GM Mosquitoes Succeed at Reducing Dengue, Company Says:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article describes a recent study that allowed researchers to prove the benefits of releasing GM mosquitoes in Brazil in order to decrease disease transmission. At first, research showed that the mosquito population had dropped, but then the research also showed that diseases like dengue fever had dropped dramatically in comparison to areas with conventional mosquito control.

Type: Text Resource

Ecologists Identify Potential New Sources of Ebola and Other Filoviruses:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses the research conducted by scientists who used machine learning methods to identify bats that were likely to be reservoirs for filoviruses. Scientists mapped out the geographical ranges of these bats and hope to be able to use this information to prevent future outbreaks.

Type: Text Resource

Why Artificial Sweeteners Can Increase Appetite:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes how researchers at the University of Sydney have discovered a correlation between artificial sweeteners, like sucralose, and an increased appetite. There are estimates that over 4,000 types of food contain sucralose. Billions of people around the world consume artificial sweeteners in hopes of losing weight, and until this study, little has been known about how these sweeteners affected the brain.

Type: Text Resource

Contamination in North Dakota Linked to Fracking Spills:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes how accidental wastewater spills from fracking have caused soil and water contamination in North Dakota. Researchers from Duke University have been able to prove the contamination comes directly from the North Dakota wells. The text also explains how almost 10,000 wells have been drilled in North Dakota over the past decade, and how the state began producing more than 1 million barrels of oil a day in 2014. Much of the increased production has come through hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling.

Type: Text Resource

Rangers Use Artificial Intelligence to Fight Poachers:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text discusses the design of an artificial intelligence (AI) technology called PAWS that was designed as a tool to help wildlife officials stop poachers. PAWS uses data about previous poaching activities and analyzes the data to create smart and efficient routes for wildlife officers to use while looking for poaching activity.

Type: Text Resource

Why People Oppose GMOs Even Though Science Says They Are Safe:

The informational text resource explains why the conventional wisdom of much of the public tends to be against GMOs: genetically modified organisms. Author Stefaan Blancke discusses why people feel hostile toward GMOs: because of emotions, intuitions, and essentialism. The author explains that science has found nothing unsafe about GMOs, but he does conclude that each GMO should be researched and admits that some GM applications could have unwanted effects.

Type: Text Resource

Antarctica Could Lose Most of Its Penguins to Climate Change:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses the research conducted on the status of the Adelie penguin population and what might happen to it by the end of the century. Using statistical models, researchers looked at current data and used future climate projections to determine the status of the Adelie’s habitat.

Type: Text Resource

Wildlife Species Provide Clues to Spread of Antibiotic Resistance in Africa:

The informational text resource describes how researchers from Virginia Tech and the University of Sydney tested for resistance to 10 antibiotics among 18 wildlife species and cattle in Botswana. The results from the tests showed that antibiotic resistance is being transferred to mostly carnivores at the top of the food web. Animals that show multi-drug resistance are crocodiles, leopards, hyenas, hippos, baboons, and warthogs. There also seems to be a correlation to drug resistance and aquatic life, but only certain species. Further research should be conducted in order to understand how the resistance moves across landscapes.

Type: Text Resource

Mercury-Laden Fog Swirls over Coastal California, Scientists Find:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses the research conducted on the amounts of methyl mercury found in fog samples. Two different studies were conducted, and both indicate that fog is a major contributor and source of the presence of methyl mercury in an inland environment.

Type: Text Resource

Who Is at Risk for Heart Disease?:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text, written by the National Institutes of Health, describes the many risk factors for heart disease. The text is broken into three areas: risk factors that can be controlled (like smoking, high blood pressure, and obesity), risk factors that cannot be controlled (like age and family history), and emerging risk factors.

Type: Text Resource

Which Emits More Carbon Dioxide: Volcanoes or Human Activities?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article answers the question of whether volcanic activity or human activities contribute more to global warming. With evidence and support, they easily conclude human activities are the heaviest contributor

Type: Text Resource

Dirt Mounds Made by Termites in Africa, South America, Asia Could Prevent Spread of Deserts:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses the impact termite mounds are having on semi-arid ecosystems and the surprising realization that scientists have come to in regards to the effects of these termite mounds. The text also describes the importance of scientific modeling to predict plant growth while having termite mounds present.

Type: Text Resource

Protecting the Honey-Bearers:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses the problem of declining honey bee populations in the United States and lists the possible factors involved. The text then describes the study on African honey bees to determine if there are genetic or physiological causes in their response to the Varroa parasite. Researchers are hoping the data they gather will help them improve breeding programs or management practices in U.S. bee populations.

Type: Text Resource

Research Spotlights a Previously Unknown Microbial 'Drama' Playing in the Southern Ocean:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article discusses the relationship between phytoplankton and different bacteria in the Southern Ocean. The text goes on to describe the results and how they changed previous ideas and assumptions about the needs of phytoplankton.

Type: Text Resource

All We Are is Dust in the Interstellar Wind:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article describes cosmic dust and the effects it leaves on the galaxy when it comes in contact with astronomical phenomenon. The interstellar dust can cause a distortion of astrological observations, called reddening. This can cause false data being reported because, for one, color is used to determine the age of a star. The article addresses how astronomers have produced a 3-D map of interstellar reddening for three-quarters of the visible sky.

Type: Text Resource

Rheumatoid Arthritis Mechanisms May Vary by Joint:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. New research indicates that rheumatoid arthritis mechanisms may vary by joint. These findings may point to developing specific therapies for individual patients that target precise locations.

Type: Text Resource

Bacterial DNA May Integrate into Human Genome More Readily in Tumor Tissue:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article describes how scientists have recently found that lateral gene transfer occurs more rapidly into cancer or tumor cells than in normal, healthy cells. Scientists are going to further their research to see if there is a link between lateral gene transfer from the microbes that live on or around us and cancer. They believe this will also lead to a more personalized type of medicine.

Type: Text Resource

Rewriting Genetic Information to Prevent Disease:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. CRISPR is an ancient immune response mechanism found in many bacteria that can locate and destroy the genome of an invader, such as a virus. Now researchers want to harness this natural system to control gene editing and regulation, and potentially correct harmful genetic mutations in humans. The ethical considerations of this technology are also discussed.

Type: Text Resource

New Role Identified for Scars at the Site of Injured Spinal Cord:

Recent research funded by the National Institutes of Health points to scar tissue being beneficial to nerve regrowth in spinal injury. Previously it was believed scar tissue prevented nerve regrowth, but this new research shows that astrocyte scars may actually be required for repair and regrowth following spinal cord injury.

Type: Text Resource

Field Fever, Harvest Fever, Rat Catcher's Yellows: Leptospirosis by Any Name Is a Serious Disease:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text describes current research into the factors that increase the rate of transmission of the bacterial disease Leptospirosis. Scientists are using research to provide tools to prevent future transmission. Scientists are studying three communities in Chile and determining what factors in each setting are contributing to the spread of the disease.

Type: Text Resource

Amazing Moons:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. This article from NASA addresses how our solar system’s moons may be a more interesting study than some of the planets because they show a possibility of harboring life due to their composition, atmospheres and presence of water.

Type: Text Resource

Peering into the Secret World of Life Beneath Winter Snows:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes a new field of researchers called winter ecologists who are examining the effects of warmer winters caused by climate change. The text describes how snow creates an insulating layer for the living organisms below the snow. When that insulating layer is thinner, due to increased global temperatures, the organisms suffer colder temperatures, stress, and even death. Winter ecologists are trying to learn more about this layer, which is called the subnivium, and how organisms are responding to these changes.

Type: Text Resource

Finding the Origins of Life in a Drying Puddle:

This text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article describes how researchers at Georgia Tech have discovered that polypeptides, which are the main component of proteins, can be formed by mixing amino and hydroxyl acids, and then simply putting them through wet and dry cycles. This would be a more plausible way for early prebiotic molecules to form. Previously, the only way to produce polypeptides involved boiling temperatures, which are not conducive to life.

Type: Text Resource

Warming Waters Contributed to the Collapse of New England's Cod Fishery:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article discusses the decline in the population of cod found in the Gulf of Maine. The author writes that fishery managers have set strict quotas on cod, with little positive change. Research indicates climate change has been a major factor in the steady decline of cod, and the text explains why.

Type: Text Resource

Ten things to know about Scott Kelly’s #YearInSpace:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article describes an ongoing NASA research project where astronaut Scott Kelly and cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko are being tested for the effects of a year-long spaceflight. However, the science of their mission spans three years: one year before they left, one year in space, and another upon their return. In addition, part of the research also includes the Twin Study; Scott’s identical twin brother, and a former astronaut, served as a human control on the ground during Scott’s year-long stay in space.

Type: Text Resource

Risk Assessment, for the Birds:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Bird migration patterns have shown to be much more complex than once thought. Birds change their patterns based on a variety of factors, recent research indicates. The article refers to this as risk assessment; it includes the availability of food, strength, and even weather. The research was completed using three different species of songbird. Researchers are hoping that understanding of these patterns will help us in our conservation efforts.

Type: Text Resource

Too Much Algae—and Too Many Microbes—Threaten Coral Reefs:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article describes a recent study that helped researchers prove a link between overfishing to increased growth of fleshy algae to microbialization. This increase in microbes causes a depletion of the amount of oxygen dissolved in the water. In addition, the increase in microbial growth can spread disease. In conclusion, microbialization is found to be a major contributing factor to the destruction and decline of coral reef health.

Type: Text Resource

Coral Reefs Defy Ocean Acidification Odds in Palau:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses the impact that ocean acidification typically has on coral reefs in water with low pH. The text goes on to describe the surprising results of a study done on coral reefs in Palau that are thriving despite living in water with low pH. Researchers must conduct further tests to determine why this is happening, but it gives them hope that some coral reefs might be able to withstand future levels of ocean acidification.

Type: Text Resource

Annual Antarctic Ozone Hole Larger and Formed Later in 2015:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text provides information about 2015's ozone hole, showing why it is larger this year and lasted longer than previous years. The article shows how the protective ozone layer changes with the seasons and is different each year. Although the hole is large this year, the practices that have been followed since the Montreal Protocol was enacted have allowed the ozone hole to slowly decrease, and it should be back to 1980 levels by 2070.

Type: Text Resource

Environmental Pressures at the Top of the Earth Produce Evolutionary Impacts:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text presents a picture of how and why animals and people living at the Arctic will start to change (due to changing climate with melting sea ice) in order to keep surviving.

Type: Text Resource

Metals: In Sickness and in Health:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article describes how certain elements (copper and zinc are highlighted) can affect human health in both positive and negative ways. Current research on these elements and possible treatments for the negative health effects associated with them is also discussed.

Type: Text Resource

What Causes Thunder and Lightning?:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes what causes lightning and examines the science behind cloud-to-ground lightning strikes. It also discusses what causes thunder and explains why we see the lightning before we hear the thunder. The last section of the text provides important rules about lightning safety and lists ways to stay safe during a lightning storm.

Type: Text Resource

Exploring the Heart of Matter:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Under the direction of the Department of Energy, the Jefferson Laboratory is making strides in its development of a new high-speed particle accelerator. This accelerator promises to operate at double the maximum speed of existing accelerators, and it will reveal more details about the forces which bind subatomic particles inside an atom, as well as the very nature of those particles. These discoveries will help us refine our ideas about atoms and nuclei.

Type: Text Resource

Invasive Lionfish Diet Could Impact Native Coral Reef Fishes:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article explains how lionfish, an invasive species in Atlantic waters, is threatening ecosystems there. The voracious diet of the lionfish will likely affect native species and the commercial fishing industry.

Type: Text Resource

Oil and the Environment:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. Oil is a natural resource of vital importance to nations around the world. This article outlines the benefits and burdens of responsible use of oil, including what needs to be considered when exploring and drilling, when using hydraulic fracturing, and when transporting oil. The article also briefly discusses actions the U.S. took after several major oil spills to help better protect the environment in the future.

Type: Text Resource

Text Resource: USGS Science for an El Niño Winter:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. El Niño is known to cause weather disturbances, however, its impact on winter storms causes a slew of additional complications when coupled with rising ocean levels instigated by global warming. The USGS reviews the effects, efforts to study the phenomena, and hints at ways to plan strategically for them in this timely article.

Type: Text Resource

NSF Awards Rapid Response Grants to Study Current El Niño, One of the Strongest on Record:

This informational text resource is is designed to support reading in the content area. The text briefly defines and describes El Niño, including outlining its impacts on fragile ecosystems and weather patterns. The author also reviews the type of grants NSF is awarding scientists to study El Niño and justifies the need for such funding.

Type: Text Resource

Drag-and-Drop DNA: Novel Technique Aiding Development of New Cancer Drugs:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. It informs readers of how cutting edge nanotechnology is being combined with supercomputing and drug production. The new process it describes uses unique algorithms to search for DNA sequences that will self-assemble molecules tailored to locate, attach, and kill cancer cells. The passage also is a good example of how public agencies can support private-sector entities through various grants.

Type: Text Resource

Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article is provides background information on the different names for tropical cyclones, how hurricanes develop and weaken, and where in the world they are found. It also describes the technology used to study hurricanes and how hurricanes are categorized in terms of intensity.

Type: Text Resource

The Jet Stream:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The purpose of the article is to define and describe the jet stream. It explains how the earth's rotation and axis affect the movement of wind bands around the Earth. Interactions from variables such as locations of high and low pressure systems, warm and cold air, and seasonal changes are also discussed.

Type: Text Resource

Scientists Discover Fossil of Bizarre Groundhog-Like Mammal on Madagascar:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. This article describes a new research discovery of the fossil remains of a groundhog-like mammal found in Madagascar. The article details the methodology scientists employed to unearth the fossil skull and explains the insights it offers into early mammalian evolution in the Southern Hemisphere.

Type: Text Resource

The Amazing World Inside a Human Cell:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. This article describes some of the organelles in a cell and explains their functions. It takes students "inside" the cell, by "shrinking" the students and giving the students perspective to the size of these organelles by comparing them to familiar objects.

Type: Text Resource

Organic Fruit and Veggies Help This Farmer-Mom Save Money and Forests in Bangladesh:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes how people in Bangladesh are using homestead farming to provide for their families, while simultaneously contributing to preserving local forests. With the help of USAID, farmers are using higher-yielding seeds and cultivating crops using organic fertilizers and composting. The demand for food grown without pesticides and nourished by compost helps the homestead farmers to make enough money to improve their standard of living, while helping the environment at the same time.

Type: Text Resource

Astronomers Developed Technology While Studying Gliese 581:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The author describes research on identifying "habitable" planets and explains how failed attempts might actually open the doors to more thorough research. Scientists faced the challenge of collecting specific data in order to determine if readings pointed to the existence of a planet. When research revealed that their original hypotheses were incorrect, the scientists were able to take the new information and apply it to further investigations.

Type: Text Resource

Colorado High Peaks Losing Glaciers as Climate Warms:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes the results of a study that show declines in ice—glaciers, permafrost, subsurface ice, and lake ice—at the Niwot Ridge in the Rocky Mountains over the past thirty years. The text describes that the researchers attribute the declines in ice to climate change. Using the results of their study, the scientists also make a startling prediction that the Arikaree Glacier in the Rocky Mountains will disappear in twenty years.

Type: Text Resource

Gravitational Waves Detected 100 Years After Einstein's Prediction:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes the first observation of gravitational waves by scientists, confirming Albert Einstein's 100-year-old prediction. The article describes the phenomena of gravitational waves, the technology used to detect them, and the impact of this discovery on future scientific endeavors. The importance of this discovery as the culmination of 100 years of research is emphasized.

Type: Text Resource

Ancient Fossils Show Effect of Humans on Caribbean Wildlife:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article focuses on scientific data gathered in the Caribbean (specifically Abaco Island). The authors describe how wildlife is impacted by natural events and by humans, and why it is important for people to understand these interactions.

Type: Text Resource

Do Bigger Brains Make Smarter Carnivores?:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes an experiment that helps to confirm that larger brain size could indicate higher intelligence within carnivorous mammals. The experiment involved 140 animals and each was given the same task of retrieving food from a locked box within 30 minutes. The results of the test show that having a larger brain really does improve an animal’s ability to solve a problem it has never encountered before.

Type: Text Resource

In Grasslands, Longer Spring Growing Season Offsets Higher Summer Temperatures:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article describes the process the researchers use to develop a detailed model of how they predict climate change will occur in the future and what effect this will have on North American grasslands. The author explains how climate change impacts ecosystems while also providing an example of using models in science to predict future events/outcomes.

Type: Text Resource

Genetics Provide New Hope for Endangered Freshwater Mussels:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article explains the impact of scientists’ studies on a number of freshwater mussel species and their genetic makeup. The intent of the research was to find ways of protecting threatened and endangered species of mussels. The article explains that the genetic similarities of species that cohabitate a river could lead to development of new methods of protecting mussel species.

Type: Text Resource

Revealing the Ocean's Hidden Fertilizer:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text explains how scientists are working with the National Science Foundation (NSF) to explore the role of phosphorus, and specifically the phosphorus cycle, in marine ecosystems. The author explains what is known about the topic, what research was done, what conclusions were drawn, and the importance of the scientists' findings.

Type: Text Resource

Peru's Melting Glaciers Teach Community "to Be Strong in the Face of the Changes":

This informational text is resource designed to help support reading in the content area. The article discusses the impact of climate change (global warming) on the tropical glaciers in Peru. It focuses on providing a description of how Peruvians depend upon the glaciers and the impact that the melting of the glaciers could have in the future. The author also emphasizes USAID's role in working with Peruvians to help them develop plans to deal with the possible loss of the glaciers

Type: Text Resource

Where Do Rats Move in After Disasters?:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article describes how a mathematical model can be used to simulate how environmental changes affect populations of pathogen-carrying rodents. A "capture" program undertaken by researchers at Tulane University allowed them to capture rats in post-Katrina neighborhoods in order to determine how rats migrate after natural or man-made disasters.

Type: Text Resource

Lakes Around the World Rapidly Warming:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. This article describes the effect of climate change on the water supply and on ecosystems around the world. The article introduces research from a study spanning six continents that analyzed data to determine the rate at which Earth's lakes are warming. The author then uses this data to connect to the impacts on Earth's ecosystems and on human lives.

Type: Text Resource

Alaska: Marine Debris in the Wilderness:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text is a transcript of an interview with Peter Murphy, the Alaska Regional Coordinator of the NOAA Marine Debris Program. The interview highlights some of the challenges of removing marine debris in Alaska, specific projects, and goals for future work.

Type: Text Resource

Scientists Discover How Blue and Green Clays Kill Bacteria:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. This text describes how researchers unearthed a natural clay deposit with antibacterial characteristics. The text also discusses exactly how the two elements in the clay cause the destruction of the bacteria. The end of the article addresses how this discovery could provide possible solutions to bacteria that are antibiotic-resistant, like MRSA.

Type: Text Resource

Climate Change: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article describes the possible effects on the planet due to the rise in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, especially the implications for climate change.

Type: Text Resource

Jaguar Corridor Lights Up Eastern Colombia:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes how predation of domestic cattle by jaguars in Colombia was becoming increasingly common due in part to deforestation. A conservation program was implemented to create a corridor for jaguars to pass through, keeping the jaguars separated from the farms and livestock and allowing them a natural pathway to cross through the Andes Mountains to eastern Colombia.

Type: Text Resource

Chemistry in the Sunlight:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article explains that sunlight is an important aspect of ozone formation. The ozone layer forms in the stratosphere, which is located above the layer of the atmosphere that we breathe (the troposphere). There is ozone formation also occurring in the troposphere, which is very toxic to living organisms, naturally but mostly due to by-products from the burning of fossil fuels and other human activities. The text describes the different chemical processes of ozone formation in these two layers of the atmosphere.

Type: Text Resource

Geomagnetic Reversal: Understanding Ancient Flips and Flops in Earth's Polarity:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses how the National Science Foundation (NSF) has been using one of their ships to gather information which scientists can use to explore the process of geomagnetic reversal. The article explains the basic concept of geomagnetic reversal and how the information gathered can help in understanding it. Finally, the article discusses several different roles that scientists have taken on in the NSF's ongoing operations.

Type: Text Resource

Satellite Data Help Australian Ranchers Meet the Rising Demand for Meat in a Changing World:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article is provided by NASA and discusses how farmers in Australia are able to use digital data provided by U.S. satellites. These farmers are able to use this satellite data to monitor the condition of their land, and enables them to better manage their farms. The author also provides additional examples of how this data is used by countries throughout the world. The article helps demonstrate how space technology positively impacts the world. The text also discusses the impact of human activities on the environment.

Type: Text Resource

Southwest Sliding into a New Normal: Drier Conditions:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes a study on the climate of the southwestern United States. Using 35 years' worth of data, scientists believe a subtle shift in weather patterns is leading to drier conditions in the Southwest. The text goes on to explain the significance of this research and the challenge of connecting drier conditions in the region to climate change.

Type: Text Resource

Seeking Zika: Where and When Will Zika-Carrying Mosquitoes Strike Next?:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes current research into the mosquitoes that carry the Zika virus, with the ultimate goal of using the research to predict and possibly prevent future outbreaks. Scientists are studying three towns in Ecuador by collecting data to help them discover the socioeconomic and environmental factors that put people most at risk for diseases carried by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, including the Zika virus. The scientists are also examining how virus transmission by these mosquitoes may be affected by climate change.

Type: Text Resource

Low-Oxygen "Dead Zones" in North Pacific Linked to Past Ocean Warming:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text describes the results of a recent study that has found a link between past ocean warming and the onset of "dead zones" in the Pacific Ocean off Oregon and Washington.

Type: Text Resource

Clues to Future of Undersea Exploration May Reside Inside a Jellyfish-like Creature:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article relates the findings of a study by four scientists about siphonophores, a relatively little-studied organism related to jellyfish and corals. Their study focuses on this organism's ability to move through the water column in a coordinated fashion and how this knowledge may help humans propel themselves efficiently underwater.

Type: Text Resource

Parasites: Rulers of the Reef:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text informs readers about the influence of parasites on damselfish, a coral reef species. The author explains how his team determined the reason for the consistent behavior of damselfish leaving their aggressively guarded territory each morning to go to a cleaning station. Through the scientist describing how his research lead to new observations that lead to new questions and research, the text is a good example of how scientific investigations are conducted, including working collaboratively and communicating important results.

Type: Text Resource

Good News and Bad News for Coral Reefs:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. Through discussion of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument in the central Pacific, this text offers perspective on how political factors can greatly influence ecology. The article explains some of the benefits of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) like the Marine National Monument, which often include pristine coral reefs and exceptional biodiversity, using the example of MPAs in the Philippines. It also briefly describes global threats to MPAs.

Type: Text Resource

Why Don't I Fall Out When a Roller Coaster Goes Upside Down?:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. This short article was written to answer the question, "Why don't I fall out when a roller coaster goes upside down?" The answer to the question results in an interesting article that combines scientific information about the physics of roller coasters, along with some fun facts and photographs.

Type: Text Resource

Where Does Water Go When It Doesn't Flow?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article describes how scientific thoughts about the water cycle have changed over time, particularly due to information gathered in a recent study. The article gives a good representation of the scientific method and the importance of the water cycle.

Type: Text Resource

Climate Can Grind Down Mountains Faster Than They Can Rebuild:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article describes the relationship between plate tectonics and erosion in the formation of Earth's surfaces and discusses how scientists are measuring the impact of both of these processes. The article presents findings from a recent study that shows, through data from sediment cores, that erosion is occurring faster than mountain building by plate tectonics.

Type: Text Resource

Starving the Beast: New NSF-Funded Research Finds Way to Withhold Cancer Cells' Favorite Food:

This informational text resource supports reading in the content area. This text describes the findings of a scientific study to determine how cancer cell growth can be halted by reducing the amount of copper that is transported to the cell. The text also describes how the scientists used the scientific method to develop their experiment.

Type: Text Resource

Purple Haze: Ancient Pigment Reveals Secrets about Unusual State of Matter:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text explains how extreme cooling of an ancient pigment comprised of metallic compounds, as well as exposure to strong magnetic fields, converts the matter into a state called a Bose-Einstein condensate. In this state, the behavior of electrons within the pigment's atoms shifts and they form a single magnetic three dimensional structure. When the condensate is cooled even further in this case, the magnetic structure loses a dimension.

Type: Text Resource

Spider Venom Could Yield Eco-Friendly Insecticides:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. A biochemist is studying spider venom to see if it can be used to control agricultural pests. The venom is harmless to vertebrates but kills insects that may kill crops. If successful, the spider venom could be used to replace chemical pesticides that are harmful to humans, wildlife, and the environment. In addition, insects that destroy crops are becoming resistant to these chemical insecticides but would not be resistant to bioinsecticides.

Type: Text Resource

Zanzibar's Malaria Hunter:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article is about a woman, Habiba, who uses a motorbike to travel to families in the villages of Zanzibar to track, test, and treat malaria patients. After receiving a text message about the location of a malaria patient, she travels to the patient and tests the patient's family to see if other family members have malaria. Then, she treats any infected family members with medicine, giving them extra medicine and insecticide-treated mosquito nets, while educating them about prevention of the disease and its transmission.

Type: Text Resource

What are El Niño and La Niña?:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article explains what El Niño and La Niña are in terms of meteorology. It also explains the weather effects of both and a brief history of their names.

Type: Text Resource

The Mythology of Natural Selection:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text describes how natural selection occurs when mutations occur in an individual's DNA sequence. Two different populations can have two different genetic mutations yet end up with a similar phenotype.

Type: Text Resource

Coastal Blue Carbon:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes different ecosystems that store carbon, like forests, and goes into how carbon is stored more efficiently in coastal ecosystems. The text goes on to advocate for conserving and protecting our coastal ecosystems to keep the carbon stored and prevent the carbon from being released into the atmosphere to further impact the planet through climate change. The text also explores other benefits for conserving coastal ecosystems.

Type: Text Resource

It's Hot...Super Hot: Finding Answers Around the Sun:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes how researchers are using the Hinode satellite from Japan to uncover new explanations for the long-puzzled-after solution behind the searing temperature of the corona of the Sun.

Type: Text Resource

Gut Reaction: Digestion Revealed in 3-D:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article describes how villi in the small intestine and muscle contraction work together to digest food and provide nutrients to the body, using the metaphor of coral working with an ocean current to circulate nutrients in the sea. A team of scientists plans to use technology to create 3-D imaging of digestion, and their research is described in the article along with the specific physiology and function of the villi within the digestive tract.

Type: Text Resource

Three Miles High: Using Drones to Study High-Altitude Glaciers:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. This text describes new and creative technologies that are being used in climate research to study high-altitude glaciers and map how they are changing. The text describes the ways in which the use of drones with time-lapse thermal camera systems are being used to gather data over the Peruvian Andes more effectively than satellites or planes. The text also describes some of the researchers' early findings based on the data they have gathered through the use of these drones.

Type: Text Resource

Buried in Ash, Ancient Salvadoran Village Shows Images of Daily Life:

This informational text is designed to support reading in the content area. It describes the remains of a Salvadoran village preserved in volcanic ash, much like Europe's Pompeii. The unearthed village reveals artifacts that illustrate the daily lives of this ancient people. The authors use artifacts to infer religious, cultural and economic aspects of the Ceren village.

Type: Text Resource

How Cells Take Out the Trash:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text focuses on cellular waste and describes different ways a cell gets rid of waste. The text also briefly addresses how further study of the ways cells dispose of waste could lead to new approaches for preventing or treating disease.

Type: Text Resource

Shedding Light on Millipede Evolution:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The author tells of his success in locating and reclassifying a species of millipedes known as Motyxia bistipita. Until his rediscovery these millipedes were not known to show bioluminescence. Once he discovered this trait he was then also able to trace their evolutionary lineage and determine the reasons for the development of this ability in bipista's relatives. This article also discusses bioluminescence in other species and its important medical applications.

Type: Text Resource

Flying Lab to Investigate Southern Ocean's Appetite for Carbon:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes how scientists led by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) are set to launch a series of flights over the Southern Ocean in order to collect data on how the air and seas surrounding Antarctica exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide. It is hoped that this data will help us with future predictions about climate change, and maybe even lead to new insights on how the ocean works.

Type: Text Resource

Long-held Theory on Human Gestation Refuted:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This is a fine synopsis of a previously reported (and highly technical) study that shows the thought process behind challenging an existing theory. The subject is human evolution and the biology of childbirth. It encompasses basic anthropology concepts such as walking upright, as well as the biology of energy needs in pregnancy. Long-held views (that narrow birth canals are required for bipedalism) are debunked by careful analysis of how women with varying hip widths actually walk—and the authors found no difference.

Type: Text Resource

Avogadro: Voice in the Wilderness:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article explains how Avogadro's hypothesis, proposed prior to the publishing of Dalton's atomic theory, was initially rejected. But his hypothesis turned out to be the key to solving many problems facing chemistry in the 1800s. The article describes how the later acceptance of his original idea changed the subject forever and even allowed for the creation of the periodic table.

Type: Text Resource

Why Tau Trumps Pi:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The author tries to convince the reader that two pi, or tau, occurs more often in mathematics than pi by itself. The author provides several examples and indicates the history behind society's choice of pi rather than tau.

Type: Text Resource

Sample Size Calculation:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article describes the important process used when setting up trials for statistical investigation. The article explains each parameter that is needed to calculate the sample size, then provides examples and illustrates the process. This article will enhance an upper level math course's study of statistics after significance levels and basic inferential statistics concepts have been taught.

Type: Text Resource

Genetic Solution to Cancer, Diabetes?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text describes a rare form of dwarfism called Laron's Syndrome, which is associated with an unusually low incidence of cancer and diabetes. This combination of characteristics allows scientists to speculate on the relationship between all three conditions. It appears that a mutation that causes dwarfism protects against the common diseases of cancer and diabetes.

Type: Text Resource

Fear Matters:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Prey species exhibit a variety of behaviors to avoid getting eaten by predators. For example, some animals may run away, find shelter, or move to a safer area if they sense predators are near. This article describes the responses of two prey species in detail: tree frog tadpoles that hatch early when predators are close by, and elk that avoid eating in dangerous areas when wolves are present. Their responses to fear can affect not only the prey species, but the entire food web.

Type: Text Resource

The Money of Global Warming: Q&A with McKenzie Funk:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The climate on Earth is changing and there are individuals and companies positioning themselves to make money on these changes. For example, oil companies are acquiring leases in previously frozen regions, arid farmland is being purchased because the land may be better in the future for growing crops than it is now as a result of climate changes.

Type: Text Resource

For Already Vulnerable Penguins, Study Finds Climate Change Is Another Danger:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Survival for Magellanic penguins has always been a challenge due to predation and starvation, but the influence of climate change is now making survival even more difficult for them. The study cited in this article is one of the first to show a direct impact of climate change on the population of seabirds. Increased storm activity and warmer temperatures are two factors impacting penguin populations in Argentina.

Type: Text Resource

In the Valley of Wolves: Reintroduction of the Wolves:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The reintroduction of wolves into Yellowstone has resulted in many changes in the ecosystem. Before the wolves were reintroduced, large elk populations destroyed aspen and willow trees, preventing their reproduction. Since wolves were reintroduced, elk have had to change their browsing behavior, allowing some vegetation to recover in certain areas. This has affected many other species, including beavers, birds, fish and insects.

Type: Text Resource

Coral Reefs Show Remarkable Ability to Recover from Near Death:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. When corals are stressed, they release their algal partners and turn white, a phenomenon called coral bleaching. This occurs when they are under stress from warming waters or other environmental factors. Researchers monitored reefs in the Seychelles during and after coral bleaching events, and found that several factors, including depth of growth, branching shape, nutrient levels, and amount of fish grazing accurately predicted whether reefs were likely to recover from these events. Human impacts such as sediment or nutrient run-off also affect the corals' resiliency.

Type: Text Resource

World record for compact particle accelerator: Researchers ramp up energy of laser-plasma 'tabletop' accelerator:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Using one of the most powerful lasers in the world, researchers have accelerated subatomic particles to the highest energies ever recorded from a compact accelerator. The team used a specialized petawatt laser and a charged-particle gas called plasma to get the particles up to speed. The setup is known as a laser-plasma accelerator, an emerging class of particle accelerators that physicists believe can shrink traditional, miles-long accelerators to machines that can fit on a table.

Type: Text Resource

Frozen Continent Could be Key to Earth's Future:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Scientists from around the world and from many cultures visit Antarctica to conduct research on questions that matter to all mankind. There are a number of important lessons that can be learned through research in Antarctica, such as past carbon dioxide levels, ozone depletion, impacts of meteorites, air pollution, and sea level change.

Type: Text Resource

Does Sour Cream Cause Bike Accidents?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Many people are confused about the concept of correlation versus causation. To help demonstrate the misconception in a light and humorous way, this article describes the work of Tyler Vigen. The Harvard student graphs data that are highly correlated but clearly unrelated. The "spurious correlations" help debunk the myth that if there is a correlation, then there is a causal relationship. The article emphasizes that rational human thought is essential to process the relationships and is necessary for studying statistics.

Type: Text Resource

Water, Water, not Everywhere:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article describes the cause and effect of farming and agriculture on the groundwater reserve. The article explains the water cycle and how scientists used two satellites named Tom and Jerry to track the changes in the amount of groundwater on earth. The article also details how gravity played a role in helping satellites detect the changes in water level. Finally, the article explains how farming uses the groundwater reserve stored many years ago, and how it depletes this reserve as a result.

Type: Text Resource

Immune System:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The immune system's job is to defend against pathogens and keep our bodies healthy. There are a number of cell types, tissues, and organs that play a role in the immune process. The article discusses the three types of immunity: innate, adaptive, and passive. Finally, the article discusses various immune system disorders and diseases that are associated with each one.

Type: Text Resource

Maths Goes to the Movies:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text shows how math is used to create the life-like computer generated images seen in movies such as Jurassic Park and Lord of the Rings.

Type: Text Resource

Cloning Is Used to Create Embryonic Stem Cells:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article explains how cloning technology has achieved the long-desired goal of creating embryonic stem cells. It explores the science and morality of this complex issue.  

Type: Text Resource

Circulatory System:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area.  This article describes the role of the circulatory system in the human body. The text divides this system into three main parts: the heart, blood vessels, and blood. Each component of the system is explained in detail, including its makeup, how it works, and why it is important. The text concludes by addressing some diseases of the circulatory system. 

Type: Text Resource

Strange but True: The Largest Organism on Earth is a Fungus:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article details the discovery of the world's largest living organism, a humongous fungus in eastern Oregon. The text discusses the fungus itself, other sprawling fungi, and possible explanations for why such large sizes might be the norm for fungi. Also, the article describes the research methods scientists employed in order to determine that the fungus was in fact one single living organism.

Type: Text Resource

Atomic Theory:

This article is intended to support reading in the content area. The article provides a chronological description of the development of the atomic theory. Beginning with debates by Greek philosophers in the sixth century B.C., the various beliefs about atoms are explained. For around 2000 years, the subject lay dormant, until John Dalton developed his atomic theory in the 1800s. Delving into tests of Dalton's theory, the author explains how scientists, over time, developed what we now know as the modern day atomic theory.

Type: Text Resource

Explainer: How and Why Fires Burn:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article explains the science behind why and how fire burns. The article describes why fire is not considered matter and what is required for fire to burn, as well as how the atoms rearrange themselves during the combustion process. 

Type: Text Resource

The quake that shook up geology:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area.  

This article recounts the Great Alaskan Earthquake of 1964, a magnitude 9.2 event and the second strongest earthquake ever recorded. It also discuss how the earthquake helped shape the study of plate tectonics.

 

Type: Text Resource

Food Web Woes:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article describes two studies that show how the decline of large sharks has adverse effects on other organisms in their food web. The article explains that without apex predators like sharks, other large fish and rays tend to thrive and prey too heavily on shellfish populations.

Type: Text Resource

Respiratory System:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area.  This article describes the respiratory system, starting with the major functions. The article describes interactions that take place between the respiratory and other systems of the human body, especially the circulatory system. The article describes the respiratory tract and the many organs that complete it. Finally, the article gives an overview of the breathing process and concludes with explanations of various diseases and disorders that affect this system. 

Type: Text Resource

The Indian River Lagoon: An Estuary of National Significance:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. What is the Indian River Lagoon?  Why is the lagoon an estuary of “national significance?” What are some of the environmental challenges the lagoon faces? These questions represent interesting and relevant content explored in this informative text about one of Florida’s most important estuaries. The text also has the potential to be used as an anchor text to segue into further areas of inquiry such as the role of water management districts, restoration initiatives, and the death of wildlife on the Indian River Lagoon.

Type: Text Resource

The Logic of Drug Testing:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article explores the reliability of drug tests for athletes, using mathematics. The author attempts to address this issue by relating drug tests to conditional probability. Throughout the text, various numbers that affect the calculation of a reliable probability are discussed. Numbers such as test sensitivity, test specificity, and weight of evidence are related to Bayes' theorem, which is ultimately used to calculate the conditional probability.

Type: Text Resource

Caught in the Act:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. 

This article describes several fascinating examples of rapid evolution by natural selection. It explains research on three organisms, cichlids, crickets and sea urchins, that demonstrates how these creatures have quickly adapted to their changing environments. This is a very useful article for students beginning to explore the concepts of natural selection, evolution, and extinction.  

 

Type: Text Resource

Sun Sibling Spotted:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Scientists may have found a star created from the same nebula that produced our sun. The spectrograph composition data, the motion of the star through the Milky Way, and its age all suggest that it is a "sibling" to our Sun.

Type: Text Resource

Periodic Table of the Elements:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This simple text explains the basics of how the periodic table is organized and summarizes the information that the table includes about each element.

Type: Text Resource

Captured: The Moment Photosynthesis Changed the World:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Geologists have made an important discovery about the origins of photosynthesis. According to evidence in South African rocks, before organisms were using water as the electron source for photosynthesis, they were using manganese - these rocks formed in anoxic conditions, but contain oxidized manganese. This evolution of photosynthetic organisms, which released atmospheric oxygen, laid the groundwork for more complex life forms, such as animals, to come into existence.

Type: Text Resource

Is Large-Scale Production of Biofuel Possible?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Is large-scale production of biofuel possible? The author attempts to answer this key question. As the world seeks to decrease its dependence on petroleum fuel by genetically engineering certain crops, there is the potential to commercially produce biofuels. Plant sources for bioenergy, the harnessing of plant bioenergy, and the sustainability of the industry are all issues considered in this text. The article discusses both environmental and economic consequences.

Type: Text Resource

We Are Stardust:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This text examines how humans and all things around us are made of elements created in stars. The article references fusion, the powerful collision of enormous stars, and the intense explosion of supernovas. All of this is tied to the creation of heavier elements that hurtle through space, to be reassembled as distant solar systems.

Type: Text Resource

Climate's Troublesome Kids:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Did you know that climate has two not-so-nice children? Meet El Niño and La Niña, the "boy" and "girl" spawned by the global climate every 3-7 years. They can give the world a climate that's quite troublesome, depending on which one is causing the disturbance.

Type: Text Resource

Hitting Streaks Spread Success:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Although scientists haven't determined a specific reason why one baseball player's hitting streak improves his whole team's performance, they have observed a very real mathematical pattern. There may be many reasons for the phenomenon, but no one has found them out yet.

Type: Text Resource

Hurricane Andrew’s Legacy: "Like a Bomb" in Florida:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area.  This article gives an account of the events before, during, and after Hurricane Andrew’s assault on South Florida in August of 1992. The author describes why South Florida was unprepared for what became a category 5 hurricane, why certain areas suffered such extensive damage, and improvements that have been made in prediction and preparedness for future storms. 

Type: Text Resource

Where Do Chemical Elements Come From? :

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. What is that extremely bright light in the sky? It's a supernova: the result of a massive star collapsing in on itself. This explosion is more than just a pretty sight; it is the main source of the elements that make up our planets and all the other objects in the night sky.

Type: Text Resource

Ammonium Dichromate:

This article explains the uses and properties of ammonium dichromate, an "explosive" compound once common in children's chemistry sets, and the reasons why society has gradually moved away from using this compound.

Type: Text Resource

Burning to Learn:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article describes some of the research on fire being done by a variety of scientists. This research is leading to a greater understanding of how things burn and the effects of fire on humans and the environment. For example, fire research can be applied to maintaining ecosystems, human health and safety, and controlling or preventing large wildfires.

Type: Text Resource

Animals Under Antarctic Ice?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article describes an exciting series of experiments aimed at determining whether complex life could exist in the extremely harsh Antarctic environment of Lake Vostok. Researchers found some evidence of complex life from DNA analysis, but confirming such extraordinary findings would require substantial additional data and repeated confirmation. The text offers a great overview of the complex nature of the scientific process and what it takes to truly confirm an experimental finding.

Type: Text Resource

Fossil Forests:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Using fossilized trees, scientists can investigate how the Earth has changed over millions of years. Tree fossils in the Arctic show that this region was once considerably warmer and was home to large forests teeming with life. Chemical analyses can also show what the soil and water of these regions looked like millions of years ago. This information can help predict what the world might look like as the Earth warms once again.

Type: Text Resource

Introduced Species: The Threat to Biodiversity & What Can Be Done:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Invasive species are a global threat to biodiversity for many reasons. This article outlines the scope of the problem, explaining how invasive species are impacting native flora and fauna and offering potential solutions to prevent their spread.

Type: Text Resource

A Living Fossil:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. In 1996, a team of scientists discovered a species of rodent in Laos that was new to science. In a recent study, DNA analysis places the rodent in a mammal family that was previously thought to have gone extinct over 10 million years ago. Therefore, the rodent is a "living fossil."

Type: Text Resource

Ultracold Atoms:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Most students are familiar with the four most common states of matter, but what about the 5th state of matter, the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC for short)? This article explains what a BEC is and how researchers are exploring this unique state of matter.

Type: Text Resource

How the Outer Sun Gets So Hot:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article describes a theory explaining why the outer layer of the sun, the corona, is much hotter than some inner layers. The theory states that magnetic waves transport heat energy from the sun's center to its outer layers. They may be "shuttled" by gas jets that originate deeper within the sun.

Type: Text Resource

Dusty Remains from a Dead Star:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Scientists have been observing a supernova that first appeared in 1987. Specifically, they have measured a large amount of star dust that formed as a result of the supernova. This dust is thought to be the material that forms new stars and studying it may tell scientists something about how stars formed early in the history of the universe.

Type: Text Resource

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions -- Real-Life Implications:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Oxidation-reduction reactions are one of the main types of reactions students are taught in chemistry class, but what are some real-life examples of this often awe-inspiring reaction? This article looks at the science behind some real-life oxidation-reduction reactions, including explosions (in cars and trains), space shuttle fuel, and many uses of metals. The importance of these reactions in limiting systems is also covered.

Type: Text Resource

Vitamin Can Keep Electronics 'Healthy':

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. When electric charges build up on objects, static electricity can occur. Static electricity can be particularly harmful to electronic devices if there are small static discharges. Researchers have found that treating electronics with vitamin E can help reduce static electricity by removing free radicals that are attached to the charges.

Type: Text Resource

Cell Phone Ownership Hits 91% of Adults:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. A Pew Research Center survey indicates that cell phone ownership is at an all-time high, with 91% of Americans owning a cell phone in 2013. Statistical tests show that cell phone usage is significantly higher in men, college-educated people, the wealthy, and those living in urban/suburban areas. This rise in ownership is associated with a variety of positive impacts of cell phone use, but previous research shows there are several negative impressions and impacts of cell phones as well.

Type: Text Resource

Flu River:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article discusses how a drug widely used to flight influenza—Tamiflu—is contaminating bodies of water. It describes how this poses potential risks to humans and wildlife.

Type: Text Resource

Exoplanets Found Orbiting Former Extragalactic Star:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article describes scientists' discovery of the oldest habitable exoplanet that has been discovered. This planet formed outside our Milky Way and is about 11.5 billion years old. The planet looks like it could support water, has a rocky terrain, and is about five times bigger than Earth. Its proximity to its red dwarf star has led scientists to believe it could have supported life at one time.

Type: Text Resource

The Dark Side of the Universe:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article describes how scientists discovered dark energy and dark matter. The article details the role gravity and the study of supernova played in this scientific discovery. It also explains the problems that scientists encountered in the process and the conclusion they were able to reach. The article further explains WIMP, a weakly interacting massive particle and its connection to gamma rays. It also explains how studying supernova helped scientists estimate the age of the universe. Finally, the article summarizes that dark energy still remains a mystery.

Type: Text Resource

Peru Billboard Doubles Up as an Air Purifier:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Students at a university in Peru have erected a billboard near a construction site that filters air. It uses water to rid the air of pollutants like dust, bacteria, and even metal particles. This innovative billboard purifies the same amount of air as 12,000 trees! The billboard uses recycled air and takes little energy to work. The embedded video shows the impact on the construction workers who are near the billboard.

Type: Text Resource

Regenerating Plastic Grows Back After Damage:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article describes researchers' development of a material similar to plastic that regenerates or grows back after damage. Researchers have discovered that the material is similar to biologic regenerative functions in living organisms and works by bonding to the damaged area and filling the holes and cracks to repair itself.

Type: Text Resource

The Man Who Rocked Biology to its Core:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article is mostly a biography of Charles Darwin, including his studies and what drove him to be a biologist. The second half of the article discusses his theory of evolution by natural selection and his influences on the development of the theory. It gives a synopsis of how natural selection operates.

Type: Text Resource

Pythagoras Explained:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text describes a method for predicting the win-loss record for baseball teams based on runs scored and runs allowed, using the "Pythagorean Expectation" formula invented by Bill James. The text goes on to show the relationship of the prediction formula to the Pythagorean theorem, pointing out a very cool application of the theorem to the world of sports.

Type: Text Resource

Humans and Squid Evolved Same Eyes Using Same Genes:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text discusses the evolution of the eye across different types of organisms. Eyes have evolved independently several times (such as in squid vs. humans), though all animals with eyes share the Pax6 gene, which is responsible for organizing the formation of a simple eye. The evolution of the Pax6 gene, particularly in how its RNA product is spliced, is responsible for the diversity of eye types, such as the camera eye in squid.

Type: Text Resource

Building a Better Battery:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. It is challenging to build batteries that are small, hold a big charge, and can be recharged many times. Sulfur-based batteries represent a solution, but they are at risk of explosion because byproducts form when they recharge. Scientists think they have solved this problem by creating batteries out of titanium oxide-coated sulfur particles that allow for the storage of bad byproducts.

Type: Text Resource

How Do Scientists Determine the Age of Dinosaur Bones?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Scientists use radiometric dating to estimate the age of objects, including fossils and geological formations. Radiometric dating methods include measuring carbon-14 and uranium/potassium isotopes. This article details how these methods can be used to date a variety of objects, including the Earth itself.

Type: Text Resource

Whole Lotta Shakin' Goin' On: Busy Stretch for Large Earthquakes:

This article is intended to support reading in the content area. The text investigates whether the number of large magnitude earthquakes has significantly increased. The article explores the challenge of trying to determine why the amount and intensity of earthquakes can vary across time. The text also briefly explores the recent rise in man-made earthquakes.

Type: Text Resource

Patterns and Structures:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Patterns are an integral part of any system. One of the main functions of mathematics is to find patterns and create functions that generalize these patterns. There are many situations where patterns emerge and can be described by mathematics. For example, Fibonacci sequences can describe natural phenomena, quantic equations can describe repeated cases of symmetry, and there are even patterns in the occurrence of prime numbers.

Type: Text Resource

How Nuclear Power Works:

This informational text is intended to support reading in the content area. Nuclear power has become a suggested solution to the issue of energy dependence, but what exactly is nuclear power? This article focuses on the many aspects of nuclear power including how it's created through fission and harnessed for electricity. Discussion of the pros and cons of nuclear energy and storage methods is also covered.

Type: Text Resource

Jupiter's Long-Lasting Storm:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Most studies of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (a storm) predict that it should have disappeared long ago, and so its continued existence puzzles scientists. A new study that considers the vertical winds within the storm is able to explain why the spot has existed for over 200 years, and could even continue for hundreds of years longer.

Type: Text Resource

Gentoo Penguins Thrive, While Adelies and Chinstraps Falter in a Climate-Changed World:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article describes various species of penguins that are affected by warming climates in Antarctica. Tracing the penguins' genetic ancestry back to the last ice age suggests that some species' populations are increasing, while other species' populations are diminishing. This is likely due to the effects of climate change on the penguins' main food sources.

Type: Text Resource

Sun's Activity Triggers Lightning Strikes:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Researchers have found a correlation between solar wind and an increase in the number of lightning strikes near England, as much as 32% after a month-long period. They believe solar wind causes a greater number of strikes because it delivers streams of high-speed solar particles that strike Earth's atmosphere. This contrasts an earlier hypothesis that solar wind decreases lightning strikes because it deflects cosmic rays.

Type: Text Resource

What the Appendix is Good For:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The appendix has long been thought to be useless. However, new research suggests that the appendix actually can have a healthy function—to harbor bacteria beneficial to the immune system. This would have been vital early in humans' evolutionary history, when the chance of infection was much higher and medicine was lacking, and may still play that role for people in less developed parts of the world.

Type: Text Resource

Feathers Yield Mysteries of Pigment Chemistry to Spectroscopic Analysis:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The pigments in the feathers of bird specimens have been traditionally hard to analyze because it required destroying the feathers. Now, scientists have come up with a new, non-destructive way to explore the complex chemistry of bird feather pigments, using lasers and Raman spectroscopy.

Type: Text Resource

"Genius Materials" on the ISS:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Gorilla Glass on your phone? Magnetic fluid shocks in your car? With applications here on Earth, "smart" materials like these are being studied in the microgravity of space. The programmed rearrangement of particles on a molecular level enhances materials in new high-tech products.

Type: Text Resource

Cool Jobs: Repellent Chemistry:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Part of the Cool Jobs series, this article features examples of STEM careers. The text highlights research into super-repellent chemicals. Teams of scientists inspired by nature are working on solving problems that would enhance society. These innovations include ultra-repellent fabric, mesh to clean up oil spills, de-fogging surfaces, and coatings that reduce drag on ships.

Type: Text Resource

Gold Can Grow on Trees:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area.Tiny particles of gold have been found in the leaves of trees growing high above an underground supply of it. Biogeochemical prospecting uses living organisms to locate precious metals deep beneath the surface. From termite mounds to "roo poo" from a kangaroo, biological clues point prospectors in the right direction.

Type: Text Resource

Panel’s Warning on Climate Risk: Worst Is Yet to Come:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article describes a report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which summarizes the many environmental, climatic, social, and economic effects of global warming that are already occurring and will continue to take place. The report also predicts the environmental and socio-economic effects of climate change that will occur in the upcoming decades, especially those that will affect poorer countries.

Type: Text Resource

For Some Male Crickets, Silence Means Survival:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article discusses how crickets on two Hawaiian islands have evolved wings that make them silent in response to parasitoid flies that locate male crickets via sound (and eat them from the inside out!). The crickets on Kauai and Oahu evolved completely different silent wing types, which is evidence that these two cricket populations evolved their silent wings independently.

Type: Text Resource

Plant Detectives Dig into How Cells Grow:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Moss is being used as a model system that may hold the key to understanding how all plant and animal cells grow. This article shows how a deeper understanding of cell growth is being established: specifically, how the cytoskeleton directs growth.

Type: Text Resource

Heat-Resistant Makeup:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Scientists have developed a new type of camouflage "makeup" for soldiers that can help prevent burns from nearby explosions. They have chemically swapped out flammable materials for a new heat-resistant polymer to create a type of makeup with applications well beyond the military.

Type: Text Resource

Male Faces May Have Evolved to Be Punch-Resistant:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article describes new research suggesting that human ancestors, particularly males, evolved stronger jaws that were resistant to punches. (Females, perhaps less prone to fighting, do not show this same adaptation). This contradicts earlier hypotheses, which suggested that larger jaws evolved to better consume food resources.

 

Type: Text Resource

A Ghost Lake:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Through the author's personal experience and observations made by scientists, this article describes how the study of an extinct lake's history can be used to make predictions about how warming temperatures may affect the future of current lakes. From analyses of the shoreline, soil, algal growth, and minerals coated on rocks, the article offers evidence and clues that the desert was once under water.

Type: Text Resource

Many Human Ails are ‘Scars’ of Evolution:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The human evolution of bipedalism (walking upright) has resulted in a change in the morphology of the spine, feet, and other features of modern humans that are also present in fossils of our hominid ancestors. These changes have resulted in unintended consequences - body pains and injuries that our non-bipedal primate relatives do not experience.

Type: Text Resource

The Cell's Protein Factory in Action:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The ribosome, the site of protein synthesis, is the focus of this article. The text describes how a problem-some antibiotics are targeting the ribosomes of both harmful and beneficial bacteria-is being solved by studying the movement of ribosomes during translation.

Type: Text Resource

Black Holes :

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article describes black holes: what they are, how they are formed, where they are located, what evidence there is for their existence, and what scientists still do not know about them.

Type: Text Resource

History Of Chemistry/Famous Chemists:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article describes the history of chemistry through the scientific findings and major contributions of several important chemists. These chemists, including Joseph Priestly, Dmitri Mendeleev, and Niels Bohr, discovered properties of gases and other materials, developed the Law of Conservation of Mass and the periodic table, and contributed to the development of atomic theory.

Type: Text Resource

One Plus to Wearing Stripes:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article discusses current thinking and popular hypotheses for the function of zebra stripes. A recent study indicates that zebra stripes may protect the animals from fly bites, which are both a nuisance to the animals and a means of spreading infectious fatal diseases.

Type: Text Resource

Your Inner Neandertal:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Scientists used ancient bones to compare Neandertal DNA to that of modern humans from around the globe. The results are surprising: many of us are closer to Neandertals than previously thought. Once considered very unlikely, scientists now believe that humans and Neandertals may have interbred.

Type: Text Resource

What is Alchemy?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Alchemy is a pseudoscience dating back thousands of years. Though it contained scientific components, alchemy also involved untestable elements such as magic and mysticism, and it was based on a fundamental misunderstanding of what scientists now know to be true about chemistry and physics. This article describes alchemy and explores its history and its failure to explain natural phenomena.

Type: Text Resource

Phrenology-History of a Science and Pseudoscience:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article discusses phrenology, which is a pseudoscience that claims to be able to use bumps on human skulls to make inferences about personality traits. The article details why phrenology is not a true science, and reviews the history of phrenology, the role of phrenology in the debate about the organization of the brain, how phrenology came under scientific criticism, and modern iterations of the technique.

Type: Text Resource

Energy Companies Triggered Quakes, Study Says:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Scientists recently linked the injection of carbon dioxide into the ground with increased numbers of earthquakes in Texas. This may have consequences for plans to store CO2 underground to slow global warming or inject it during the process of oil mining.

Type: Text Resource

Ethical Issues in Genetic Engineering and Transgenics:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This thought-provoking article explores ethical issues and legal implications associated with genetic engineering and transgenics. It discusses the science behind genetic engineering, current research developments, and potential societal issues surrounding bioengineering of humans and other organisms.

Type: Text Resource

The Certainty of Climate Change:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Our Earth’s temperatures have increased over time and scientists are attributing this to human activities.

Type: Text Resource

Better Catalysts for the Petrochemical Industry:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Zeolites are catalysts necessary for the production of gasoline from crude oil. One problem with zeolites is that their pores can be clogged by reaction products. To solve this, scientists have recently created zeolites that are have greater pore connectivity, which turns out to be a better, and also cheaper, method of producing catalysts for the petrochemical industry.

Type: Text Resource

Cell Cycle and Cell Division:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The phases of the cell cycle are described, along with scientists' methods of studying the process. The proteins and cyclins involved in cell division are explained as well. The text ends by exploring future opportunities for discovery in this field.

Type: Text Resource

Tough Decisions on the Front Line of Nature Conservation:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article expresses its author's opinion about culling animals in zoos, which is reducing a population by selective slaughter. The argument supports the idea of culling as a way to control inbreeding and to control the breeding of animals that will not help the species stay adaptable and immune to diseases.

Type: Text Resource

Pesticides Spark Broad Biodiversity Loss:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article is about how agricultural pesticides are contributing to the biodiversity loss of invertebrates. Research teams examined streams in broad regions to study the effects of pesticides in those ecosystems. Up to 42% fewer species were discovered in streams that were highly contaminated. In another study, it was found that neonicotinoid insecticides accumulate in the soil at levels that kill soil invertebrates.

Type: Text Resource

Iron in Earth's Core Weakens Before Melting:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Researchers have created models that can be used to understand previously unexplained properties of the Earth's core. Previously, we have not been able to explain the behavior of seismic waves traveling through the core. However, a new model suggests that the iron in the core greatly weakens before melting, which slows the waves down.

 

Type: Text Resource

Heaviest Named Element is Official:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article describes the addition of copernicium, the heaviest named element, to the periodic table. It discusses the process of validation required for elements to be named and added to the periodic table.

Type: Text Resource

Report: Polluted Farm Runoff Linked to Toxic Green Algae Slime in U.S. Waters:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article describes the causes and potential effects of toxin cyanobacteria blooms that have occurred in bodies of water in the United States. The blooms are affecting water quality, killing wildlife, and threatening human health (including causing death and illness) across the United States.

Type: Text Resource

Debate over Genetically Modified Foods Continues amid Confusion:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This text highlights the controversy surrounding genetically modified foods and their labeling. The article explains GMOs and their implications for health according to science and industry.

Type: Text Resource

Does the Rotation of the Earth Affect Toilets and Baseball Games?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article examines the Coriolis effect-how the Earth's rotation affects moving objects-and its relationship to baseball, weather...and toilets. The author is concerned with dispelling some myths about the influence of the Coriolis effect on everyday things.

Type: Text Resource

Solving Bad Breath One Walnut at a Time:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The science fair project of two junior scientists in Nigeria may hold the key to ending "morning breath." Through experimentation, the two teenage girls determined that African walnuts were able to kill bacteria that cause bad breath. Their project was presented at the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair.

Type: Text Resource

Acids and Bases Are Everywhere:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This informational text on acids and bases takes difficult content and explains it clearly with the aid of several simple diagrams. It explains the pH scale and how the chemists Arrhenius, Bronsted, and Lowry have contributed to our understanding of acids as donors and bases as acceptors.

Type: Text Resource

Getting the Dirt on Carbon:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Carbon, an essential part of life on Earth, exists in a never-ending cycle. It is continually moving back and forth between living and non-living factors, as well as from organism to organism. Soil, with its ability to "lock up" carbon, plays a major role in the carbon cycle. Atmospheric CO2 levels are linked to climate change, so ways of keeping carbon locked in soil are of great interest to scientists.

Type: Text Resource

World’s Biggest Volcano is Hiding Under the Sea:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article explores scientists' identification of the largest volcano on Earth—Tamu Massif—which is found below the surface of the Pacific Ocean. Due to its underlying geology, the volcano is mostly found below the ocean floor at the edge of two tectonic plates. It formed when magma emerged as the plates pulled apart. The article compares Tamu Massif to other giant volcanoes on Earth and on other planets.

Type: Text Resource

Surprise! Fossils in a Flash:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. In this article, scientists explore the fossil of a dead fish whose cells were perfectly preserved from 100 million years ago. The remains led to further studies of decay and fossilization. Taphonomy, the study of what happens after plants and animals die, is discussed in detail, showing how studying fossilized animals can tell us about how they evolved.

Type: Text Resource

A Success for Designer Life:


This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article reveals how scientists have found a way to make a synthetic chromosome and insert it into yeast cells. Scientists discovered that this chromosome can alter or create new traits in an organism. This research could lead to creating an entirely synthetic genome, which scientists expect to accomplish in the next few years.

Type: Text Resource

Failed "Star" Found in Sun's Backyard:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. A brown dwarf, which is essentially a failed star, has been discovered close to our solar system. The brown dwarf is the coldest and one of the smallest yet discovered. Telescopic images and data helped scientists to find and characterize the failed star.

Type: Text Resource

Artistic Chemistry: A Beautiful Collaboration:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Chemistry can be an important part of creating art. This article discusses two examples of this: the presence of redox reactions in making Raku pottery, and the use of cleaning agents when creating stained glass. The process of making both types of art is described, along with the chemical reactions involved.

Type: Text Resource

In the Fog about Smog:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Smog began appearing in Los Angeles in the 1940s and became a problem for decades. Scientists were able to figure out the cause of smog only after intensive study of organic compounds in the air. After discovering that nitrogen oxides from car exhaust were a primary ingredient in smog, it took years of policy changes and industrial innovation to reduce air pollution and resolve the smog issue in LA and worldwide.

Type: Text Resource

Hurricane Forecasters: El Niño Could Mean Fewer Storms in Atlantic:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Scientific models predict that El Niño will cause fewer hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean—but more in the Pacific Ocean—in 2014. This is because El Niño events affect water temperatures and wind shear, which affect hurricane formation. The article gives the chances of named storms forming in both the Pacific and Atlantic.

 

 

Type: Text Resource

The Sun's Giant Heat Elevators:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article describes the discovery of mega-plumes of plasma within the sun. These long-lasting, larger than Earth heat elevators may be the reason the latitudes of the sun rotate at different speeds. Two different scientists have analyzed data that support this possible explanation.

Type: Text Resource

What Happens to Shipping Containers Lost at Sea?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article examines how the marine environment is affected by shipping containers that accidentally fall to the seafloor. It explores how the containers can be harmful but can also be a benefit to the ecosystem depending on factors such as what the containers are carrying and what the containers are made of.

Type: Text Resource

Watching Our Seas Rise:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The collective efforts of many scientists enable us to measure how fast Earth's sea levels are rising, past and present. Presently, satellites are measuring sea levels and have showed significant increases in the last 20 years due to glacial melting and the expansion of sea water. Evidence from the past shows sea levels have risen and fallen steadily with the ice ages, until a sudden spike around the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Coastal areas and islands are expected to be most affected by rising sea levels.

Type: Text Resource

Defying Gravity: Eye-Opening Science Adventures On a Weightless Flight:

This article describes a weightless flight taken by student researchers investigating several questions all centering on zero gravity. NASA's Reduced Gravity Education Flight Program uses flights by the commercial Zero Gravity Corporation to perform weightless science.

Type: Text Resource

Undead-End: Fungus that Controls Zombie-Ants has own Fungal Stalker:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Zombies may seem like science fiction, but that's exactly what scientists are calling the behavior in some species of ants. This article looks at the parasitic relationship between a form of fungus and carpenter ant that causes this zombie-like behavior. It also looks at a further complication to the process as the parasitic fungus has a parasite of its own.

Type: Text Resource

What Makes a Dog?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Studying dog DNA may have many applications including helping scientists to have a better understanding of canine origins and how dogs became domesticated. Understanding and locating certain genes has many breeding applications. Studying and understanding dog diseases may be able to further the study of human diseases.

Type: Text Resource

Warming Arctic May Be Causing Jet Stream to Lose Its Way:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text explains that changing weather patterns can be linked to a weakening of the jet stream. It is known that the jet stream is responsible for changeable weather patterns, and the weakening of the stream is causing weather conditions to stay in locations for longer periods of time. The article concludes that the fuel source of the jet stream (the differences in temperature between the tropics and the arctic) is becoming less dramatic, which in turn is weakening the winds.

Type: Text Resource

Light and Telescopes:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article explains the types of light on the electromagnetic spectrum that our eyes cannot detect; to make them visible, scientists use telescopes to take amazing photographs. Computers turn the data into color that the human eye can see, so the colors are actually "false colors." The article includes additional links, including the Hubble Space Telescope website gallery of photographs.

Type: Text Resource

Tropical Species at Great Risk from Climate Change: Study:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article describes a study that suggests tropical animals are in danger of extinction due to climate change—more so than animals living in polar climates. This is because these species are already at their thermal tolerance limits, and further increases in temperature could greatly lower their fitness.

Type: Text Resource

Chemistry Unearths the Secrets of the Terracotta Army:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. In 1974 a group of Chinese farmers digging a well came across a great discovery: the Terracotta Army from the tomb of the first emperor of China. Since the discovery, archaeologists have been researching many aspects of the artifacts. Recently, with the use of chemistry, they have been able to determine many details of the weapons of the Terracotta Army, including their chemical composition and production techniques.

Type: Text Resource

Florida Riding a Lucky Streak as Hurricane Season 2014 Opens:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article reports on the "lucky streak" Florida has had in hurricane seasons since 2005 and explains why the trend cannot last forever. The author also focuses on storm surge damage and explains the new computer programs that use interactive real-time maps to predict storm surges and the need for evacuations.

Type: Text Resource

Body's Immune System Kills Mutant Cells Daily:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article explores how scientists discovered that the immune system naturally suppresses cancer while they were researching how B cells change during the growth of lymphoma. The text explains how T cells work as an "immune surveillance" and can be a way of preventing blood cancers. Through experimentation, scientists discovered how vitally important those cells are to possibly suppressing other forms of cancer in the future.

Type: Text Resource

Seeing Double: New Study Explains Evolution of Duplicate Genes:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. A new study explains that about half of our genes are copies, made by error during DNA replication, that have escaped elimination by natural selection through the addition of methyl groups. Usually these copies would be susceptible to developing mutations, but it is newly understood that they are evolving new functions instead.

Type: Text Resource

By the Skin of Their Suits:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text discusses the two main factors that control the speed of a competitive swimmer: power and drag. The reader is then presented with mathematical formulas that determine these factors. The text also discusses the technological advances that have come about in the swimsuit industry. The text even entertains the idea of "technological doping" and allows the reader to question whether advanced swimsuits are hurting the competitiveness of swimming.

Type: Text Resource

The Most Popular Stars :

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article discusses how stars are classified, especially the different types of dwarf stars. It is still under debate how some star-like objects, like brown dwarfs, should be classified. The text also describes the life cycle of stars, explaining how they change in size and mass over time and eventually expand and die.

Type: Text Resource

Hurricane Sandy was New York's "Self-Inflicted Calamity":

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Hurricane Sandy was one of the biggest storms to hit New York City in recent history. Intense wind and rain caused major damage all over the city and surrounding areas. The storm exposed how over development of reclaimed land and lack of political action to protect the city has led to major flooding—and probably will again unless action is taken.

Type: Text Resource

Havard-Smithsonian Astrophysicist Discovers New Method to Weigh Some Distant Stars:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Astrophysicist David Kipping has discovered a new method for weighing distant stars without relying on computer models. For the method to work, a star must have a planet with an orbiting moon cross in front of it, a circumstance not yet known to scientists, but it shows promise for future solar discoveries.

Type: Text Resource

Brightest Stars: Luminosity & Magnitude:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This text briefly describes how astronomers have measured and quantified the apparent brightness and magnitude of stars as astrophysics has evolved over time. This article also discusses the limitations of absolute magnitude in terms of the technology tools utilized.

Type: Text Resource

Sound, Light, and Water Waves and How Scientists Worked Out the Mathematics :

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This text describes in a historical context how the wave equation quantifies scientific experimentation performed over a hundred years ago to explain how light behaves from the perspective of math and physics. The wave equation has also proved useful in understanding quantum mechanics.

Type: Text Resource

Molten Salts Could Improve Fuel Economy:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This text describes a new technology that might a boost car engine's efficiency by 2% by adding ionic liquids called "molten salts" to lubricating engine oil. The addition of the molten salts has the potential to reduce millions of barrels of oils from being imported into the United States annually.

 

Type: Text Resource

Raman Method Analyzes Live Cells Quickly and Accurately :

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology has developed a non-invasive process for analyzing living cells. This technique uses Raman spectroscopy and will be able to to identify cancer cells based upon their unique Raman spectra. Alternative applications include separating bone marrow from other tissues for transplantation.

Type: Text Resource

Will the World's Newest Lightest Material Be Instrumental in Cleaning Up Toxic Oil Spills?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Chinese researchers recently created a new "lightest solid," an aerogel of carbon nanotubes with a density of 0.16 mg/cm3. Unlike its aerogel predecessors, the substance has practical applications and may prove extremely helpful in cleaning up toxic oil spills.

Type: Text Resource

Some of Chocolate's Health Benefits May Trace to 'Bugs':

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Chocolate has been known to have health benefits for hundreds of years, but why? Because of the large size of the molecules found in chocolate, the body shouldn't be able to absorb their beneficial components. A team of scientists investigated to see if bacteria in the gut are responsible for breaking down these large molecules further, enabling the human body to absorb them and take advantage of chocolate's health benefits.

Type: Text Resource

The Oldest Place on Earth:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Evidence that supports how Earth's climate and the position of its continents have changed over time has been found in an unlikely place: Antarctica. Preserved plants and insects over 20 million years old, similar to specimens on other continents, have been discovered. These discoveries provide scientists with evidence to support the continental drift of the landmass once known as Gondwana.

Type: Text Resource

The Newest Superheavy in Town:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Russian and U.S. scientists have collaborated to create for the first time element 117: "ununseptium." The element was created inside a machine called a cyclotron when atoms of berkelium and calcium were smashed together. While the element decays quickly, the new discovery has scientists very excited, as it fills a gap in the periodic table.

Type: Text Resource