Evaluate how key elements enhance or add layers of meaning and/or style in a literary text.
: Key elements of a literary text are setting, plot, characterization, conflict, point of view, theme, and tone.Clarification 2
: For layers of meaning, any methodology or model may be used as long as students understand that text may have multiple layers and that authors use techniques to achieve those layers. A very workable model for looking at layers of meaning is that of I. A. Richards:
Layer 1) the literal level, what the words actually mean
Layer 2) mood, those feelings that are evoked in the reader
Layer 3) tone, the author’s attitude
Layer 4) author’s purpose (interpretation of author’s purpose as it is often inferred)
Clarification 3: Style is the way in which the writer uses techniques for effect. It is distinct from meaning but can be used to make the author’s message more effective. The components of style are diction, syntax, grammar, and use of figurative language. Style helps to create the author’s voice.