Standard #: SS.912.A.1.4


This document was generated on CPALMS - www.cpalms.org



Analyze how images, symbols, objects, cartoons, graphs, charts, maps, and artwork may be used to interpret the significance of time periods and events from the past.


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Related Access Points

Access Point Number Access Point Title
SS.912.A.1.In.d Interpret pictures, cartoons, graphs, artwork, artifacts, or writings to obtain information about a time period and events from the past.
SS.912.A.1.Su.d Use pictures, cartoons, graphs, artwork, artifacts, or writings to obtain information about a time period and events from the past.
SS.912.A.1.Pa.d Recognize pictures, cartoons, or artifacts about the past.


Related Resources

Lesson Plans

Name Description
Symbolic Gateways in Clay

Inspired by monumental artworks from around the world and across time, students will combine a variety of clay hand-building techniques including modeling, slab-construction, incising, and relief for this open-ended creative problem. Students will symbolize meaningful experiences from their lives or dreams for their future. This lesson is appropriate for Middle or High School students and can be modified for students with exceptional needs. 

 

The New Room: Place as a Primary Source

In this lesson plan, student will analyze as primary sources the objects and furnishings in George Washington's "New Room" at his Mount Vernon estate. Take a virtual tour of the New Room at

Students will attempt to answer the question: "What message did George and Martha Washington want to convey to their guests in the New Room?"

Japanese American Internment: Evaluating Primary Sources

This web resource from the Library of Congress supports student use of primary sources to understand the Japanese American experience of internment during World War II. The resource includes graphic organizers for students to use online or through printed copies, and primary source photos and interviews along with procedures for teaching the lesson.

Picturing World Wars: The Great War & The Greatest Generation at War

This 3-day lesson focuses on helping students analyze propaganda posters from both world wars to better understand how the U.S. government used propaganda to acquire civilian support. Students will analyze the images and phrases used in the posters, the purpose for each poster, any biases exhibited, and even generate questions about each poster that can be used for additional research. Through analysis of the posters students will be introduced to some of the challenges America faced by going to war. For the end of lesson assessment, students will write an explanatory essay about the government's use of propaganda in these wars. The posters, graphic organizers, answer keys, and a rubric to assess student writing have been included with the lesson.

The Cuban Missile Crisis In this lesson, students will determine to what extent the Cuban Missile Crisis changed the Cold War as they analyze primary and secondary documents, including letters and telegrams from President Kennedy First Secretary Khrushchev, regarding events that brought the United States and the Soviet Union to the brink of nuclear war.
Reading Like a Historian: Women in the 1950s

In this lesson, students analyze primary and secondary source documents in an effort to answer the central historical question: Is the image of the "happy 1950s housewife" accurate? The teacher first introduces the time period and some of its features: the baby boom, the GI Bill, suburbia, Leave it to Beaver. The teacher then shows images of the "happy housewife" from 50s-era publications. In groups, students analyze 2 documents: a Harper's magazine article on suburbia and a passage from Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique. They complete a graphic organizer that includes a hypothesis: does the stereotype seem true? Students then do the same with 2 more documents: secondary source analyses by Joanne Meyerowitz and Alice Kessler-Harris. The class completes the graphic organizer and shares final hypotheses in a group discussion: Should we believe the stereotype? How about the experience of minority women?

Reading Like a Historian: Anti-Vietnam War Movement

In this lesson, students analyze primary source documents in an effort to answer the central historical question: Why did many Americans oppose the Vietnam War? First, students view 2 anti-war images and a timeline of anti-war events. They fill out a graphic organizer and formulate a hypothesis that answers the central question; discussion follows. Students then read 2 documents: a speech by Martin Luther King, Jr. and John Kerry's testimony before Congress. For both, they complete questions on a graphic organizer. Final class discussion: Why did anti-war sentiment grow? Did only college kinds participate? How do you think supporters of the war might have responded?

Reading Like a Historian: Atomic Bomb

In this lesson, students analyze primary source documents in an effort to answer the central historical question: How should we remember the dropping of the atomic bomb? First, students are told that they will choose an appropriate photo to accompany a U.N. website commemorating the dropping of the bomb. Students are then introduced to 2 narratives about WWII: "Hiroshima as Victimization" (the Japanese point of view) vs. "Hiroshima as Triumph" (the American point of view). The class is then divided into 2 halves, each of which looks at a variety of source documents-anecdotes, letters, and data-through its side's point of view only. Students then form groups of 4 to choose which image should be used in the "website." Each group shares its image and explains why they chose it. In a final discussion, the class talks about whether the bomb should have been dropped and whether they can second-guess a decision like Truman's.

Reading Like a Historian: Prohibition

In this lesson, students analyze primary source documents in an effort to answer the central historical question: Why was the 18th Amendment adopted? Students first read the text of the amendment and answer brief guiding questions. Then, the teacher streams a video clip from Discovery Education about the temperance movement. Students then analyze, in small groups, 4 documents: 1) a statement by the National Temperance Council, 2) a New York Times article, 3) a propaganda poster, "Alcohol and Degeneracy," and 4) another such poster, "Children in Misery." For each, they answer detailed guiding questions. A final class discussion evaluates the strategies of temperance advocates: are their arguments convincing?

Reading Like a Historian: Battle of Lexington

In this lesson, students will study the first outbreak of violence in the American Revolution in an effort to answer the central historical question: What happened at the Battle of Lexington? Through sourcing and contextualization questions students will study a textbook passage on the battle, two primary source documents (one from a British soldier and one from a group of minutemen), and two paintings of the battle. As a final assessment, students will rewrite the textbook's account, taking into account the new perspectives they have learned.

Reading Like a Historian: Examining Passenger Lists

This lesson requires students to look at 2 passenger manifests of English colonists headed to the New World: one to the Chesapeake and the other to New England. From the passengers' names, ages, and occupations, students must infer information about the "average" colonist who settled each region.

Reading Like a Historian: Irish Immigration

In this lesson, students analyze primary source documents in an effort to answer the central historical question: Were the Irish considered "white" in the 19th century? The teacher introduces the topic with background information on anti-Irish hostility. Students are then split into groups of 4 and given 2 political cartoons (one by Thomas Nast), a primary source except from a Know-Nothing newspaper, and a secondary source by historian David Roediger. For each, they answer guiding questions, and then, using all 4 documents, compare evidence that Irish were/were not considered "white." A final class discussion addresses the racially ambiguous status of the Irish.

Reading Like a Historian: Jacob Riis and Immigrants

In this lesson, students analyze primary sources in an effort to answer the central historical question: What was life like in American cities during the Industrial Era? The teacher introduces progressive photojournalist Jacob Riis and projects 2 of his photos; discussion questions ask students if the pictures are trustworthy (posed) and what they might tell us about Riis's audience. Students then read excerpts from Riis's book How the Other Half Lives: ugly stereotypes of ethnic Italians, Chinese, and Jews. Students answer guiding questions on the documents, and a final class discussion explores what Riis's work really tells about American urban life at this time.

Reading Like a Historian: Japanese Segregation in San Francisco

In this lesson, students analyze primary sources in an effort to answer the central historical question: Why did Teddy Roosevelt oppose the segregation of San Francisco's public schools? The teacher first informs students of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and the resultant attempted segregation of Japanese students. Students then read 4 source documents-letters and public speeches-in which President Roosevelt discusses his reasons for opposing the law, as well as a political cartoon addressing the issue. For each, students answer questions on a graphic organizer: Why do you think TR opposed the issue? What can you infer about the U.S. in 1906? Finally, the class goes over a timeline of relevant events, enabling the teacher to show how reading contextually lets students learn historical context from documents. Students then respond in writing, using all evidence to reach a conclusion of their own.

Reading Like a Historian: Manifest Destiny

In this lesson, students analyze maps, art, and primary source documents in an effort to answer the central historical question: How did Americans justify westward expansion? To begin the lesson, students will examine a painting entitled "American Progress. "Students will compare 2 maps of the U.S.: a political map from 1872 and an electoral map from 1816. Next, students examine another 1816 map; the map is unusual in that it depicts the U.S. stretching to the Pacific—decades before this actually happened! Students will read 2 passages by John O'Sullivan, coiner of the phrase "Manifest Destiny," and answer guiding questions. A final class discussion reviews students' answers and touches on the subject of American Exceptionalism.

Reading Like a Historian: Mapping the New World

This lesson plan requires students to compare/contrast two maps, one from 1636 and the other from 1651, of early colonial Virginia. Students will think about how and why maps change over time, including how maps might be affected by changing historical events.

Reading Like a Historian: Philippine War Political Cartoons

In this lesson, students analyze political cartoons in an effort to answer the central historical question: Why did the United States annex the Philippines after the Spanish-American War? The teacher first uses a timeline to review basic information about the war, then distributes Rudyard Kipling's poem "The White Man's Burden," which students analyze in pairs. Then, students are split into 6 groups and receive 2 different cartoons each: 1 from a pro-imperial magazine like Judge or Puck, and 1 from an anti-imperial magazine like Life or The World. Using a graphic organizer, students examine the cartoons and then present 1 of them to the class, explaining how the cartoonist makes his point. A final class discussion contextualizes the cartoons and the events of the late 1890s.

Reading Like a Historian: Political Bosses

In this lesson, students analyze primary sources in an effort to answer the central historical question: Were political bosses corrupt? The teacher begins by explaining progressives' complaints about political machines and graft and then shows a political cartoon criticizing Tammany Hall. Students then read and analyze 2 documents: 1) a book excerpt by muckraker Lincoln Steffens, and 2) a "talk" by political boss George Plunkitt. For each, they answer guiding questions on a graphic organizer (the teacher models this extensively with the first document in the lesson). For HW, students write a dialogue between the 2 writers in which Steffens tries to convince Plunkitt to practice honest government.

Reading Like a Historian: Populism and the Election of 1896

In this lesson, students analyze primary sources in an effort to answer the central historical question: Why did the Populist Party attract millions of supporters? The teacher begins with a PowerPoint which reviews the struggles of farmers and the emergence of political populism. Students then read a speech by populist speaker Mary Elizabeth Lease and annotate it. They then answer guiding questions about William Jennings Bryan's "Cross of Gold" speech (excerpt). A final class discussion attempts to explain populism's appeal-then and now.

Reading Like a Historian: Salem Witch Trials

In this lesson, students investigate and answer the central historical question: What caused the Salem Witch Crisis of 1692? After brainstorming and learning some background context for the witch trials, pairs of students read and answer sourcing questions for 2 primary sources: a Cotten Mather speech and the testimony of Abigail Hobbs, a teenager accused of witchcraft. After they draw preliminary conclusions, students are then given 2 more documents—a chart and a map—which ground the witch trials in an economic and geographic context. Students ultimately draw on all 4 documents to explain the witch trials' cause in writing, and then share their conclusions with the class.

Reading Like a Historian: The 1898 North Carolina Election

In this lesson, students analyze primary source documents in an effort to answer the central historical question: Why did the Democrats defeat the Fusion ticket in the 1898 North Carolina election? The teacher first recaps Southern politics and Populism, and then goes over a timeline. Students, in groups, analyze 3 documents-an account of a speech by Senator Ben Tillman, a proclamation by Governor Daniel Russell, and a race-baiting political cartoon-and answer guiding questions. A final class discussion attempts to explain why Democrats won in 1898.

Reading Like a Historian: Thomas Nast’s Political Cartoons

In this lesson, students analyze the political cartoons of Thomas Nast in an effort to answer the central historical question: How did Northern attitudes toward freed African Americans change during Reconstruction? The teacher first shows students a contemporary political cartoon (not included) and explains how cartoons can teach us about the context of their time. Students then answer sourcing questions about Nast and analyze 2 of his cartoons: 1 from 1865 (in favor of black suffrage) and another from 1874 (dubious of the same). A final class discussion synthesizes students' opinions.

Original Student Tutorials

Name Description
The War at Home: World War II Poster Propaganda

In this interactive tutorial, you'll analyze dozens of World War II propaganda posters in order to understand how Americans on the home front experienced the war years. The U.S. government commissioned propaganda to convince Americans to support the war in a variety of ways. You'll learn how these posters reveal U.S. domestic policy during the 1940s, as well as how the government tried to expand the involvement of different groups of Americans, including women and minorities, during WWII.

War and Peace? Part 2 (of 2)

In Parts 1 and 2 of this interactive tutorial series, learn about the end of World War I and the Paris Peace Conference that followed, from the point of view of the United States and President Woodrow Wilson.  You'll learn about the Treaty of Versailles that ended the war with Germany, about the League of Nations, and about Wilson's failure to make the U.S. a part of the newly created international organization.  

CLICK HERE to open Part 1.

War and Peace? Part 1 (of 2)

In Parts 1 and 2 of this interactive tutorial series, learn about the end of World War I and the Paris Peace Conference that followed, from the point of view of the United States and President Woodrow Wilson.  You'll learn about the Treaty of Versailles that ended the war with Germany, about the League of Nations, and about Wilson's failure to make the U.S. a part of the newly created international organization.  

CLICK HERE to open Part 2.

 

Over Here: Americans at Home in World War I, Part 2 (of 2)

In Parts 1 and 2 of this interactive tutorial series, learn how Americans on the home front experienced World War 1 while helping the U.S.A win the war. You'll learn about war bonds and about the changes WWI brought to America's economy. You'll also learn how propaganda and new laws against wartime dissent curbed Americans' civil liberties. Finally, you'll learn how the war lead to increased opportunities for women and African Americans.

CLICK HERE to open Part 1.

Over Here: Americans at Home in World War I, Part 1 (of 2)

In Parts 1 and 2 of this interactive tutorial series, learn how Americans on the home front experienced World War 1 while helping the U.S.A win the war.  You'll learn about war bonds and about the changes WWI brought to America's economy.  You'll also learn how propaganda and new laws against wartime dissent curbed Americans' civil liberties.  Finally, you'll learn how the war lead to increased opportunities for women and African Americans.  

CLICK HERE to open Part 2.

World War II Begins: Part 2 (of 2)

In Parts 1 and 2 of this interactive tutorial series, learn how World War II began in Europe and Asia. You'll learn about the aggression of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan that threatened world peace, and you'll learn how the United States responded with isolationism...until the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 caused America to join the Allies.

CLICK HERE to open Part 1.

World War II Begins: Part 1 (of 2)

In Parts 1 and 2 of this interactive tutorial series, learn how World War II began in Europe and Asia. You'll learn about the aggression of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan that threatened world peace, and you'll learn how the United States responded with isolationism...until the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 caused America to join the Allies.  

CLICK HERE to open Part 2.

Coming to America: The Era of Mass Immigration

In this interactive tutorial, learn about the era of mass immigration from 1865 to 1914, when as many as 25 million immigrants entered the United States, many of them through Ellis Island.  You'll learn where immigrants came from, why they emigrated, how they adjusted to life in the U.S., and you'll compare the experiences of European and Asian immigrants.  

Captains of Industry: The Second Industrial Revolution

In this interactive tutorial, learn some of the differences between the First and Second Industrial Revolutions, as well as key developments that drove the Second Industrial Revolution. You'll also learn about some of the leaders of industry during this era, including John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, and J.P. Morgan, and examine how their development of major industries and business practices affected America’s economy during the Second Industrial Revolution.

Check out this related tutorial:  The Power of Innovation: Inventors of the Industrial Revolution.

Postwar Blues...and Reds

In this interactive tutorial, learn about the years immediately following World War I: 1919 and 1920.  These were dangerous years of economic depression, racial violence, and anti-immigrant nativism in the United States.  You'll learn about the Red Scare, the Palmer Raids, Sacco and Vanzetti, and the rise of the Ku Klux Klan.  

Teaching Idea

Name Description
20 Questions for Reading and Evaluating Objects

This resource from Mount Vernon provides students with a "20 questions" tool for analyzing historical objects. It also provides several Washington-related objects to analyze.

Tutorials

Name Description
The Living Room Candidate

In this resource, you will experience a blast from the past! Go on a journey through U.S. political history as you view various campaign ads from past presidential elections. From the earliest television ads aired in 1952 to ads from 2012, this is a one stop shop with over 300 political commercials available to watch. Each election year contains information to set the context for the collection of commercials, as well as information about the major candidates who ran, and a map that displays the final election results. Enjoy this journey into America's political past!

Sights and Sounds of the Roaring Twenties

In this tutorial, you will explore an interactive map featuring video and audio clips that help you explore the sights and sounds of New York City in the 1920s. During this time in American history, life for Americans was in a constant state of change - culturally, politically, socially, and economically. Things were booming, especially in New York City. Enjoy this interactive exploration through an exciting time in American history!

Student Resources

Original Student Tutorials

Name Description
The War at Home: World War II Poster Propaganda:

In this interactive tutorial, you'll analyze dozens of World War II propaganda posters in order to understand how Americans on the home front experienced the war years. The U.S. government commissioned propaganda to convince Americans to support the war in a variety of ways. You'll learn how these posters reveal U.S. domestic policy during the 1940s, as well as how the government tried to expand the involvement of different groups of Americans, including women and minorities, during WWII.

War and Peace? Part 2 (of 2):

In Parts 1 and 2 of this interactive tutorial series, learn about the end of World War I and the Paris Peace Conference that followed, from the point of view of the United States and President Woodrow Wilson.  You'll learn about the Treaty of Versailles that ended the war with Germany, about the League of Nations, and about Wilson's failure to make the U.S. a part of the newly created international organization.  

CLICK HERE to open Part 1.

War and Peace? Part 1 (of 2):

In Parts 1 and 2 of this interactive tutorial series, learn about the end of World War I and the Paris Peace Conference that followed, from the point of view of the United States and President Woodrow Wilson.  You'll learn about the Treaty of Versailles that ended the war with Germany, about the League of Nations, and about Wilson's failure to make the U.S. a part of the newly created international organization.  

CLICK HERE to open Part 2.

 

Over Here: Americans at Home in World War I, Part 2 (of 2):

In Parts 1 and 2 of this interactive tutorial series, learn how Americans on the home front experienced World War 1 while helping the U.S.A win the war. You'll learn about war bonds and about the changes WWI brought to America's economy. You'll also learn how propaganda and new laws against wartime dissent curbed Americans' civil liberties. Finally, you'll learn how the war lead to increased opportunities for women and African Americans.

CLICK HERE to open Part 1.

Over Here: Americans at Home in World War I, Part 1 (of 2):

In Parts 1 and 2 of this interactive tutorial series, learn how Americans on the home front experienced World War 1 while helping the U.S.A win the war.  You'll learn about war bonds and about the changes WWI brought to America's economy.  You'll also learn how propaganda and new laws against wartime dissent curbed Americans' civil liberties.  Finally, you'll learn how the war lead to increased opportunities for women and African Americans.  

CLICK HERE to open Part 2.

World War II Begins: Part 2 (of 2):

In Parts 1 and 2 of this interactive tutorial series, learn how World War II began in Europe and Asia. You'll learn about the aggression of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan that threatened world peace, and you'll learn how the United States responded with isolationism...until the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 caused America to join the Allies.

CLICK HERE to open Part 1.

World War II Begins: Part 1 (of 2):

In Parts 1 and 2 of this interactive tutorial series, learn how World War II began in Europe and Asia. You'll learn about the aggression of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan that threatened world peace, and you'll learn how the United States responded with isolationism...until the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 caused America to join the Allies.  

CLICK HERE to open Part 2.

Coming to America: The Era of Mass Immigration:

In this interactive tutorial, learn about the era of mass immigration from 1865 to 1914, when as many as 25 million immigrants entered the United States, many of them through Ellis Island.  You'll learn where immigrants came from, why they emigrated, how they adjusted to life in the U.S., and you'll compare the experiences of European and Asian immigrants.  

Captains of Industry: The Second Industrial Revolution:

In this interactive tutorial, learn some of the differences between the First and Second Industrial Revolutions, as well as key developments that drove the Second Industrial Revolution. You'll also learn about some of the leaders of industry during this era, including John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, and J.P. Morgan, and examine how their development of major industries and business practices affected America’s economy during the Second Industrial Revolution.

Check out this related tutorial:  The Power of Innovation: Inventors of the Industrial Revolution.

Postwar Blues...and Reds:

In this interactive tutorial, learn about the years immediately following World War I: 1919 and 1920.  These were dangerous years of economic depression, racial violence, and anti-immigrant nativism in the United States.  You'll learn about the Red Scare, the Palmer Raids, Sacco and Vanzetti, and the rise of the Ku Klux Klan.  

Tutorials

Name Description
The Living Room Candidate:

In this resource, you will experience a blast from the past! Go on a journey through U.S. political history as you view various campaign ads from past presidential elections. From the earliest television ads aired in 1952 to ads from 2012, this is a one stop shop with over 300 political commercials available to watch. Each election year contains information to set the context for the collection of commercials, as well as information about the major candidates who ran, and a map that displays the final election results. Enjoy this journey into America's political past!

Sights and Sounds of the Roaring Twenties:

In this tutorial, you will explore an interactive map featuring video and audio clips that help you explore the sights and sounds of New York City in the 1920s. During this time in American history, life for Americans was in a constant state of change - culturally, politically, socially, and economically. Things were booming, especially in New York City. Enjoy this interactive exploration through an exciting time in American history!



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