Standard #: SC.912.L.16.1


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Use Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment to analyze patterns of inheritance.


General Information

Subject Area: Science
Grade: 912
Body of Knowledge: Life Science
Standard: Heredity and Reproduction -

A. DNA stores and transmits genetic information. Genes are sets of instructions encoded in the structure of DNA.

B. Genetic information is passed from generation to generation by DNA in all organisms and accounts for similarities in related individuals.

C. Manipulation of DNA in organisms has led to commercial production of biological molecules on a large scale and genetically modified organisms.

D. Reproduction is characteristic of living things and is essential for the survival of species.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/08
Date of Last Rating: 05/08
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes

Test Item Specifications

    Also Assesses:

    SC.912.L.16.2 Discuss observed inheritance patterns caused by various modes of inheritance, including dominant, recessive, codominant, sex-linked, polygenic, and multiple alleles.

    Clarification :

    Students will use Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment to analyze patterns of inheritance.

    Students will identify, analyze, and/or predict inheritance patterns caused by various modes of inheritance.

    Content Limits :

    Items referring to general dominant and recessive traits may address but will not assess the P and F1 generations.

    Items addressing dihybrid crosses or patterns that include codominance, incomplete dominance, multiple alleles, sex-linkage, or polygenic inheritance may assess the P and F1 generations.

    Stimulus Attributes :

    Inheritance outcomes may be expressed in percent, ratios, or fractions.

    Scenarios may refer to codominance or incomplete dominance but not both codominance and incomplete dominance.

    Punnett squares may be used to predict outcomes of a cross.

    Response Attributes :
    Options may include codominance or incomplete dominance but not both.
    Prior Knowledge :
    Items may require the student to apply scientific knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge of SC.7.L.16.1 and SC.7.L.16.2.


Sample Test Items (1)

Test Item # Question Difficulty Type
Sample Item 1 Hemophilia is a sex-linked, recessive trait. Which of the following describes the probability of hemophilia in the offspring of a man who does not have hemophilia and a woman who is a heterozygous carrier? N/A MC: Multiple Choice


Related Courses

Course Number1111 Course Title222
2000310: Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000320: Biology 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000430: Biology Technology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
3027010: Biotechnology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000370: Botany (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000440: Genetics Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002400: Integrated Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002410: Integrated Science 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002420: Integrated Science 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002430: Integrated Science 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2000800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7920015: Access Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
7920025: Access Integrated Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
2000315: Biology 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002405: Integrated Science 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))
2002425: Integrated Science 2 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))


Related Access Points

Access Point Number Access Point Title
SC.912.L.16.In.1 Identify that genes are sets of instructions that determine which characteristics are passed from parent to offspring.
SC.912.L.16.Su.1 Recognize characteristics (traits) that offspring inherit from parents.
SC.912.L.16.Pa.1 Recognize similar characteristics (traits) between a child and parents, such as hair, eye, and skin color, or height.


Related Resources

Lesson Plans

Name Description
STEM Genetics Board Game

This is a STEM challenge to assist in teaching the probability of traits being passed down from parents to offspring by creating and playing a board game. 

 

Genetics, Genetics, and More Genetics

Students will use appropriate tools (Punnett squares) and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data.Students will explore various modes of inheritance through a hands-on activity creating offspring of a fictitious organism. Students will complete Punnett Squares for various genetic crosses, and analyze and interpret the results of those crosses. Students will be able to predict the genotype and phenotype of P1 and F1 generations using Punnett Squares. Students will be able to identify complex patterns of inheritance such as co-dominance and incomplete dominance.

Got Bull?

This MEA is a genetics based lesson for upper level biology students. Students will review the data on several bulls and help a client choose the best bulls to begin a new cattle operation.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Mendelian Genetics - Dihybrid Crosses

This lesson allows for students to solve dihybrid crosses by applying their knowledge of Mendelian genetics. Students should already be familiar with monohybrid crosses prior to attempting this lesson.

Eggenetic Baby

Students will apply their knowledge of genetics and predicting heredity to synthesize an original model of traits.

Mendelian Genetics

A full lesson plan on teaching Mendelian Genetics and how to use and understand Punnett squares.

Dragon Genetics In this lab, Dragon Genetics: Principles of Mendelian Genetics, students learn the principles of Mendelian genetics by using Popsicle sticks, each of which represents a pair of homologous chromosomes with multiple genetic traits. Pairs of students use their sets of Popsicle sticks to represent a mating and then identify the genetic makeup and phenotypic traits of the resulting baby dragon.
Genotype and Phenotype Activity This is a hands-on activity that will help students distinguish between genotype and phenotype.

Original Student Tutorial

Name Description
Analyzing Patterns of Inheritance

Learn strategies to help you solve genetics problems by applying your knowledge of inheritance patterns. You’ll encounter a few “mystery cases” that you’ll solve through your genetics analysis in this interactive tutorial.

Student Center Activity

Name Description
Dihybrid Cross Problem Set In this problem set, multiple choice problems are displayed one at a time. If students answer correctly, they are shown a short explanation. If their answer is incorrect, a tutorial will follow, and the students will be given another chance to answer.

Tutorials

Name Description
Punnet Square Fun

This Khan Academy video explains and demonstrates how to use Punnett Squares for monohybrid crosses and dihybrid crosses. The video also shows how to use Punnett Squares for inheritance patterns such as codominance, incomplete dominance, and multiple alleles.

Some Genes are Dominant

This tutorial will help you to understand how Mendel, the father of genetics, planned and crossed the pure-bred pea plant to understand the process of genetics. With the help of the animation, you should be able to understand how the alleles are transferred from one generation to another.

Video/Audio/Animation

Name Description
Lab: Mendelian Inheritance
  • Provides a historical background about Gregor Mendel, the father of Genetics
  • Lists the rules of inheritance
  • Contains an interactive activity for making a pedigree

Virtual Manipulative

Name Description
Genetics This tutorial explores the work of Gregor Mendel and his foundational genetics experiments with pea plants. It provides practice opportunities to check your understanding of inheritance patterns including single gene recessive traits and sex linked traits. The tutorial also covers more complex patterns of inheritance such those resulting from multiple alleles. Note: This resource is part of a larger collection of information regarding Genetics. Users may view information before and after the specific genetics components highlighted here.

Worksheets

Name Description
The Biology Corner This resource for biology teachers includes a lesson plan section which contains classroom activities, labs and worksheets. The activity sheets are categorized by Science and Literacy, Anatomy, Scientific Method, Cells, Phyla, Evolution and Taxonomy, Genetics, Ecology, and Plants.
Dragon Genetics -- Independent Assortment and Gene Linkage This is a lab/activity that uses dragons as "research subjects" for genetics research. It highlights independent assortment as well as gene linkage. Students will do the first part of the activity using independent assortment (genes on different chromosomes). The second part of the activity looks at genes on the same chromosome, and how linkage plays a part in allele assortment. It can be used to show how crossing over allows increased variation when involving linked genes.

Worksheets are available in both Word and PDF formats, for both teacher and student. There is an additional dragon genetics lab that illustrates the principles of Mendelian genetics as a whole.

Student Resources

Original Student Tutorial

Name Description
Analyzing Patterns of Inheritance:

Learn strategies to help you solve genetics problems by applying your knowledge of inheritance patterns. You’ll encounter a few “mystery cases” that you’ll solve through your genetics analysis in this interactive tutorial.

Student Center Activity

Name Description
Dihybrid Cross Problem Set: In this problem set, multiple choice problems are displayed one at a time. If students answer correctly, they are shown a short explanation. If their answer is incorrect, a tutorial will follow, and the students will be given another chance to answer.

Tutorials

Name Description
Punnet Square Fun:

This Khan Academy video explains and demonstrates how to use Punnett Squares for monohybrid crosses and dihybrid crosses. The video also shows how to use Punnett Squares for inheritance patterns such as codominance, incomplete dominance, and multiple alleles.

Some Genes are Dominant:

This tutorial will help you to understand how Mendel, the father of genetics, planned and crossed the pure-bred pea plant to understand the process of genetics. With the help of the animation, you should be able to understand how the alleles are transferred from one generation to another.

Video/Audio/Animation

Name Description
Lab: Mendelian Inheritance:
  • Provides a historical background about Gregor Mendel, the father of Genetics
  • Lists the rules of inheritance
  • Contains an interactive activity for making a pedigree

Virtual Manipulative

Name Description
Genetics: This tutorial explores the work of Gregor Mendel and his foundational genetics experiments with pea plants. It provides practice opportunities to check your understanding of inheritance patterns including single gene recessive traits and sex linked traits. The tutorial also covers more complex patterns of inheritance such those resulting from multiple alleles. Note: This resource is part of a larger collection of information regarding Genetics. Users may view information before and after the specific genetics components highlighted here.


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