Standard #: SC.912.P.12.9


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Recognize that time, length, and energy depend on the frame of reference.


General Information

Subject Area: Science
Grade: 912
Body of Knowledge: Physical Science
Standard: Motion -

A. Motion can be measured and described qualitatively and quantitatively. Net forces create a change in motion. When objects travel at speeds comparable to the speed of light, Einstein's special theory of relativity applies.

B. Momentum is conserved under well-defined conditions. A change in momentum occurs when a net force is applied to an object over a time interval.

C. The Law of Universal Gravitation states that gravitational forces act on all objects irrespective of their size and position.

D. Gases consist of great numbers of molecules moving in all directions. The behavior of gases can be modeled by the kinetic molecular theory.

E. Chemical reaction rates change with conditions under which they occur. Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic state in which forward and reverse processes occur at the same rates.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/08
Content Complexity Rating: Level 1: Recall - More Information
Date of Last Rating: 05/08
Status: State Board Approved

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Related Resources

Lesson Plans

Name Description
Motion: Speed and Velocity

In this lesson students should be able to :

  • Identify appropriate SI units for measuring speed.
  • Compare and contrast average speed and instantaneous speed.
  • Interpret position-time graphs.
  • Calculate the speed of an object using slopes.
Acceleration

In this lesson students will learn to:

  1. Identify changes in motion that produce acceleration.
  2. Describe examples of objects moving with constant acceleration.
  3. Calculate the acceleration of an object, analytically, and graphically.
  4. Interpret velocity-time graph, and explain the meaning of the slope.
  5. Classify acceleration as positive, negative, and zero.
  6. Describe instantaneous acceleration.
Ramp It Up

Using inquiry techniques, students, working in groups, are asked to design and conduct experiments to test the Law of Conservation of Energy and the Law of Conservation of Momentum. Upon being provided with textbooks, rulers, measuring tapes, stopwatches, mini-storage containers, golf balls, marbles, rubber balls, steel balls, and pennies, they work cooperatively to implement and revise their hypotheses. With limited guidance from the teacher, students are able to visualize the relationships between mass, velocity, height, gravitational potential energy, kinetic energy, and total energy as well as the relationships between mass, velocity, and momentum.

Distance and Displacement.
  • In this lesson students, will be able to identify frames of reference and describe how they are used to measure motion.
  • Identify appropriate SI units for measuring distances.
  • Distinguish between distance and displacement.
  • Calculate displacement using vector addition.
Animating Motion A lesson plan inclusive of three lesson challenges, which encompass space science, engineering, physics and math. Students apply knowledge of object motion by animating sequences of pictures that model a set of physical conditions such as the orbital motion, gravitational force, and relative motion.

Lesson Study Resource Kit

Name Description
Motion and Forces This Lesson Study Resource Kit was adapted from a 2013 BioScopes physical science summer institute. It features a STEM-integrated unit plan that consists of resources and activities aligned to a unit of instruction on that employs Vernier LabQuest probeware in an investigation of Newton's Laws.

Text Resource

Name Description
Is Time Travel Real? Physicists Say It Happens All The Time

This informational text is intended to support reading in the content area. This article is about the physics of time travel, including basic explanations of Einstein's relativity theories. The text investigates the plausibility of both "forward" and "backward" time travel using current scientific knowledge.

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