Standard #: SC.7.P.11.4


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Observe and describe that heat flows in predictable ways, moving from warmer objects to cooler ones until they reach the same temperature.


General Information

Subject Area: Science
Grade: 7
Body of Knowledge: Physical Science
Big Idea: Energy Transfer and Transformations -

A. Waves involve a transfer of energy without a transfer of matter.

B. Water and sound waves transfer energy through a material.

C. Light waves can travel through a vacuum and through matter.

D. The Law of Conservation of Energy: Energy is conserved as it transfers from one object to another and from one form to another.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/08
Date of Last Rating: 05/08
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes

Test Item Specifications

    Item Type(s): This benchmark may be assessed using: MC item(s)
    Also Assesses
    SC.7.P.11.1
    Recognize that adding heat to or removing heat from a system may result in a temperature change and possibly a change of state.

    Clarification :
    Students will describe how heat flows in predictable ways.

    Students will explain that adding heat to or removing heat from a system may result in a temperature change and possibly a change of state.
    Content Limits :
    Items will not address chemical changes.

    Items will not require calculations.

    Items will not assess the concepts of conductors and insulators or examples of either in isolation.

    Items will not require the use or memorization of formulas or values of specific heat, heat of fusion, or heat of vaporization for substances.

    Items may assess the concept of specific heat.
    Stimulus Attributes :
    Scenarios addressing methods of heat transfer (conduction, convection, radiation) will not use an Earth Science context.

    Temperature will only be shown in degrees Celsius (°C).
    Response Attributes :
    Temperature will only be shown in degrees Celsius (°C).
    Prior Knowledge :
    Items may require the student to apply science knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.3.P.9.1, SC.3.P.11.1, SC.4.P.11.1, and SC.4.P.11.2.


Sample Test Items (1)

Test Item # Question Difficulty Type
Sample Item 1 Mrs. Aldaco added a copper (Cu) cube that is at room temperature and an aluminum (Al) cube that she just removed from the freezer to a beaker of boiling water.

she left the cubes in the water for three hours. which of the following describes a heat flow that took place during those three hours?
N/A MC: Multiple Choice


Related Courses

Course Number1111 Course Title222
2002070: M/J Comprehensive Science 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002080: M/J Comprehensive Science 2, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2003010: M/J Physical Science (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2003020: M/J Physical Science, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7820016: Access M/J Comprehensive Science 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
2002085: M/J Comprehensive Science 2 Accelerated Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2003030: M/J STEM Physical Science (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))


Related Access Points

Access Point Number Access Point Title
SC.7.P.11.Pa.1 Recognize that a hot object can make a cold object warm when they touch.
SC.7.P.11.In.3 Identify examples of the predictable movement of heat, such as hot air rises and heat transfers from hot to cold objects.
SC.7.P.11.Su.3 Identify that heat rises.


Related Resources

Lesson Plans

Name Description
STEM-Designing an Organ Transport Container

This is a STEM-Engineering Design Challenge lesson. Students will go through the process of creating an organ transport container using their knowledge of human body systems, heat flow, and volume.

Investigating How Heat Flows

Students will conduct an investigation in which they will infer the flow of heat between two containers of hot and cold water.

Who will have the hottest lunch?

The scientific method has not only helped scientists but also helped engineers create a design process to solve problems. Within this lesson students will be introduced to the idea that there is not a single design process that is better or more useful that another. Although the process goes by many names, the essential elements are the same, and using a design process to solve problems helps us achieve an optimal solution. A design process should encourage the students to consider as many of the possible solutions. Students will evaluate design processes and will use them to guide their actions.

Heat Transfer

This lesson incorporates a power point and student activity sheets to teach heat flow. It is a 45 minute lesson.

How is Energy Transferred?

This lesson will differentiate the three forms of energy transfer. Students will learn about radiation, convection and conduction. Students will learn about different examples for each type of energy transfer. Students will create a foldable in their process of learning the information. Students will be assessed in small groups.

This Jar is TOO Difficult to Open!!

In this lesson, students will review the basic ideas of heat, the direction it flows, and the results of this flow on the kinetic energy and expansion of the particles. Students will investigate this concept in a 5E lesson format using claim, evidence, reasoning in their conclusion. They will determine how different temperature water baths effects the ease/difficulty of opening jars with tight fitting lids and link these results to the knowledge that heat flows from warmer to cooler materials. Applying the knowledge that increasing the amount of heat of the matter will increase the kinetic energy of it's particles, will result in expansion of that matter. Because each type of matter has a different coefficient of expansion, the amount of expansion will vary in different materials. Students will realize that a jar with a tight fitting lid may loosen if hot water is applied.

Frozen Treats Storage Dilemma

In this MEA, students must work as a team to design a procedure to select the best storage cooler for their frozen treats. The main focus of the MEA is to apply scientific knowledge and describe that heat flows in predictable ways. Students will analyze data in order to arrive at a scientifically sound solution to the problem.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Too Hot to Handle

This activity brings heat to life. It is based on transferring of heat through conduction, convection, radiation. It is a 4-day lesson with a PowerPoint, 2 labs, and a computer activity. Students have real word experiences with these and are now able to relate them to their daily lives.

Thermal Energy Flow

This MEA provides students with the opportunity to explore the basis of heat transfer. The formative assessment exposes students to a quick heat transfer demonstration. The reading passages and data sets further engage students in real life application of heat transfer and energy efficiency

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Saving the Veggies!

Students exploring how light travels, how heat moves and how it all affects temperature will find this activity fun and exciting. They will have to determine which type of panel to choose for a fictitious greenhouse - glass or plastic and how much light, heat and moisture is best to let in - determined by whether the material is opaque, translucent or transparent. This is a fun challenge but applicable also to the environmental demands we are currently facing.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Socks and Temperature - A Heat Transfer Activity

In this lesson, students will predict if the temperature will rise inside of an empty sock compared to the air outside the sock then they will test their hypothesis. This lesson addresses heat transfer and variables.

Let's Heat Things Up!

How do things heat up? Help students relate thermal energy to their daily lives. This is a two-day entertaining lesson explaining thermal energy the transfer of energy between the phases of matter. It includes 2 activities for the students along with two-teacher demonstrations. Also included is a power point, and small quiz.

The Direction of Heat Flow Students will describe how heat flows from warmer objects to cooler ones until they reach the same temperature.

Content statement:
Heat flows from warmer objects to cooler objects until they are the same temperature.

Original Student Tutorial

Name Description
Heat Transfer

Heat moves from warm objects to cool objects! Learn more in this tutorial. 

Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Name Description
Heat Transfer in the Creation of Fused Glass Art

Your heart will melt as you watch a mother-daughter team explain how heat is used for glass artistry.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Teaching Ideas

Name Description
Degrees of Separation

In this collaborative activity students discover a quantitative model for measuring thermal energy. 

Sun and Temperatures Students consider the relationship of temperature to environmental conditions and then apply their understanding to a practical event.
Absolute Zero A PBS/NOVA lesson (with optional accompanying video) for which students will build and calibrate a thermometer, demonstrate the concept of temperature, measure temperature, and learn the history of the invention of the thermometer and the idea of absolute zero.

Unit/Lesson Sequence

Name Description
Middle School Chemistry Unit | Chapter 2 | Changes of State Students help design experiments to test whether the temperature of water affects the rate of evaporation and whether the temperature of water vapor affects the rate of condensation. Students look in detail at the water molecule to explain the state changes of water.

Student Resources

Original Student Tutorial

Name Description
Heat Transfer:

Heat moves from warm objects to cool objects! Learn more in this tutorial. 

Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Name Description
Heat Transfer in the Creation of Fused Glass Art:

Your heart will melt as you watch a mother-daughter team explain how heat is used for glass artistry.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.



Parent Resources

Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Name Description
Heat Transfer in the Creation of Fused Glass Art:

Your heart will melt as you watch a mother-daughter team explain how heat is used for glass artistry.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.



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