In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text by the National Institutes of Health that addresses the risk factors for heart disease. The text is broken into three areas: risk factors that can be controlled (like smoking, high blood pressure, and obesity), risk factors that cannot be controlled (like age and family history), and emerging risk factors. This lesson plan is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.
Subject(s): Science, English Language Arts
Grade Level(s): 9, 10
Document Camera, Computer for Presenter, Internet Connection, LCD Projector, Speakers/Headphones
Resource supports reading in content area:Yes
Keywords: heart, heart disease, risk factors, heart attack, stroke, smoking, cholesterol, diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, stress, depression, text complexity, informational text
Lesson Plan Template: General Lesson Plan
Learning Objectives: What should students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?
- Describe the risk factors for heart disease.
- Cite specific and relevant text evidence to support analysis of the text.
- Construct a written response that clearly establishes the main point(s), contains relevant textual evidence to support the main point, utilizes transitions to maintain flow, effectively uses domain-specific vocabulary, and provides an appropriate conclusion.
Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?
In regards to science skills:
- Students should have a basic knowledge of the circulatory system. This titled "The Circulatory System" (22:00, uploaded by user Dale Holadia) is an excellent review of the cardiovascular system.
- This interactive tutorial titled "What Makes Your Blood Flow?" from CPALMS (Resource ID #116899) and floridastudents.org can be used by students to review the cardiovascular system, as well.
- Depending on the needs of the students or how much time is allotted for this science standard in your curriculum, PBS offers "Circulatory System" review materials that could be used to help students prepare for the lesson.
- Basic knowledge of the two types of cholesterol will increase comprehension and learning. This 3-minute video titled "HDL and LDL: The Good and Bad Cholesterol" (2:53, uploaded by user Baptist Health Physician Partners) discusses both HDL and LDL cholesterol, how they are produced, and their effects on the cardiovascular system.
In regards to literacy skills:
- Students should be aware of text features that can help them locate and learn information when reading a text. The text features in the NIH heart disease article include a title and headings.
- Based on the writing rubric provided with the lesson, students should be able to respond to a writing prompt in a clear, organized manner that includes use of an introduction to establish the main point(s), a body paragraph(s) that support the main point(s) and includes relevant and specific textual evidence, and a conclusion that supports the main point(s).
- Students should have some awareness that use of transition words or phrases can help a piece of writing flow smoothly from one point or idea to the next. Teachers might wish to provide students with a sheet of transitions to help them. This site provides transitions teachers might provide.
Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?
- What is heart disease?
Heart disease is often called cardiovascular disease. This generally refers to narrowing of arteries, veins and blood vessels. This narrowing can lead to heart attack and stroke.
- What is a risk factor?
Certain traits, conditions, or habits that may increase your chances of developing, in this case, cardiovascular disease.
- What risk factors can be controlled?
Smoking, high blood cholesterol, high triglyceride levels, high blood pressure, diabetes, prediabetes, being overweight or obese, metabolic syndrome, use of birth control pills, lack of physical activity, an unhealthy diet, stress, depression, anemia and sleep apnea.
Teaching Phase: How will the teacher present the concept or skill to students?
- Begin the lesson by posing a general question to the class: What is the leading cause of death in the United States?
- Student answers will vary. Heart disease kills more people than any other disease, including cancer. This "Leading Causes of Death" lists current leading causes of death. After students share their answers, share with them the stats on heart disease from the CDC.
- Have students watch the video "What Is Heart Disease?" (4:00, HealthiNation). Tell them when the video is over they will be asked to write down a few things they learned.
- Ask students to pair up. As a pair, ask them to write down on a piece of paper several facts they learned while watching the video. Some important video points:
- The heart is the most important muscle in the body.
- The most common type of cardiovascular disease is CAD (Coronary Artery Disease).
- It develops over time and can start as early as childhood.
- It is caused by gradual build-up of plaque.
- Healthy arteries are clean, smooth, and can easily expand and contract.
- Plaque is composed of fat, cholesterol and calcium.
- Plaque build-up causes chest pain or pressure in the chest during any stressful activity.
- Shortness of breath is a symptom.
- Women can have different symptoms than men.
- Have each pair share with the class what they wrote down. Discuss as a class and identify any misconceptions during the discussion.
- End the discussion by informing students that they will be reading an article that will address who is at risk for heart disease. The article will inform readers of risk factors that can be controlled and those that cannot.
Guided Practice: What activities or exercises will the students complete with teacher guidance?
- Provide each student with a copy of the article "Who is at Risk for Heart Disease?" from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. For class discussions that will follow, it might be helpful to have students number each paragraph within each section. They can also number the sections. (Section 1 follows the title, section 2- "Risk Factors You Can Control," section 3- "Risk Factors You Can't Control," section 4- "Emerging Risk Factors.")
- Provide each student with a note-taking guide. Before students begin reading, direct them to pay attention to the text features of the article to help them learn and locate information. Point out the title and various headings throughout the article.
- Have students fill out the note-taking guide as they read the text. This can be done individually, in pairs, or in a small group. The teacher should monitor students as they work and provide support and guidance as needed.
Formative Assessment (How will teachers check for student understanding?):
- Teachers can check students' understanding by collecting students' completed note-taking guide, checking their work, providing written feedback, or grading the assignment. Or, teachers can have students share out their responses and the teacher can provide verbal corrective feedback, allowing students to make corrections to their work during the discussion.
Common errors/misconceptions to anticipate and how to respond:
- Students may believe if they are not overweight that they will be highly unlikely to get heart disease. Remind them that there are factors that they can't control and that everyone should have a physical every year. It is also important for them to obtain a baseline for their cholesterol early on, so they will be able to watch for changes.
- Students may also believe that young people cannot have heart disease. With the unhealthy diets of many American children and the new trend of drinking energy drinks, heart disease is affecting younger people.
Independent Practice: What activities or exercises will students complete to reinforce the concepts and skills developed in the lesson?
Provide each student with a copy of the text-dependent questions to complete. Students should be reminded to continually refer back to the text and to use relevant and specific evidence from the text to support their answers.
Formative Assessment (How will teachers check for understanding?):
Teachers can check students' understanding by collecting students' answers to the text-dependent questions, checking their work, providing written feedback, and maybe grading the assignment. Or, teachers can have students share out their responses and the teacher can provide verbal corrective feedback, allowing students to make corrections to their work during the discussion.
Common errors/misconceptions to anticipate and how to respond: Please see the text-dependent questions sample answer key.
Closure: How will the teacher assist students in organizing the knowledge gained in the lesson?
- Before students complete the writing prompt be sure to review responses to the text-dependent questions as a class, including covering the misconceptions and key points described in the sample answer key.
- After students' written responses have been graded and returned with feedback, teachers might wish to use the provided sample response with the class. Students who are struggling writers can benefit greatly from seeing a well-organized, detailed written response. The teacher could show the sample response on an overhead or withanLCD projector and discuss some of the following:
- Have students identify text evidence for risk factors that can be controlled.
- Have students identify text evidence for risk factors that cannot be controlled.
- Ask students to identify accurate use of domain-specific vocabulary (e.g., CHD, blood cholesterol, triglyceride, plaque, BMI).
- To close out the lesson, have students make a model of a healthy blood vessel, one with plaque development, and one that is completely obstructed. They could use various materials, like straws and clay. When they are finished with their models, have them raise their hand so the teacher can ask them questions about the models, or if time is rushed, have them take pictures of their models and then submit them through email with explanations of each model.
- Students will individually respond to the writing prompt. They should be directed to respond with a multi-paragraph response, with a clear introduction, body section, and conclusion. They can refer back to the text as they construct their response.
- Provide students with a copy of the rubric and go over the rubric with them so they will know how their written response will be assessed.
- Go over the writing prompt with students and make sure students understand what the prompt is asking them to address.
The prompt: Your best friend's grandmother died of a heart attack about 2 months ago and now she is worried about her mother's health. Using evidence from the article, educate her on the risk factors associated with heart disease so that both of them can make educated, healthy, and proactive decisions.
- Teachers will use the rubric to assess students' written responses.
Specific suggestions for conducting the Formative Assessment can be found in the Guided Practice and Independent Practice phases of the lesson.
Feedback to Students
Specific suggestions for providing Feedback to Students can be found in the Guided Practice and Independent Practice phases of the lesson where it says, "Common errors/misconceptions to anticipate and how to respond."
Accommodations & Recommendations
The text's grade band recommendation reflects the shifts inherent in the Florida Standards and is based on a text complexity analysis of a quantitative measure, qualitative rubric, and reader and task considerations.
Source and Access Information
Name of Author/Source: Jennifer Heflick
District/Organization of Contributor(s): BrevardDistrict/Organization of Contributor(s): Brevard
Access Privileges: Public
* Please note that examples of resources are not intended as complete curriculum.