Lesson Plan Template: General Lesson Plan
Learning Objectives: What should students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?
- Students should be able to graph a scatter plot of a given data set, describe the correlation of the data, and compare and contrast two sets of data.
- Students should be able to estimate the correlation coefficient of a data set if given a scatterplot.
- Students should be able to distinguish between correlation and causation.
Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?
Students should be able to:
- Plot an ordered pair
- Plot a linear function
- Identify independent and dependent variables
- Find the slope of a line given two points
Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?
- What comparisons can be made between two sets of data to determine if one variable causes the other?
- Does someone's tall stature cause their shoe size to be bigger?
Teaching Phase: How will the teacher present the concept or skill to students?
This lesson is designed for a 50-minute class period. The first 5 minutes should be spent on the warm-up assignment, the next 40 on instruction and practice, and the last 5 minutes on closure. The lesson utilizes Kagan strategies for engagement as well as a data collection activity. The lesson also requires an iPad or other tablet device for quick input and display of data.
- Minutes 0-5: Students will be given a sheet with their warm-up. The sheet includes three poll questions for the students to answer. During this time, the white board, projected display, or other display device should display these questions:
- What is your height in inches?
- What is your shoe size?
- Does someone's tall stature cause their shoe size to be bigger?
- Minutes 5-10: The teacher will display the answer to the first warm-up question and allow brief discussion of the activity. The teacher quickly inputs the results to the three poll questions into a spreadsheet in GeoGebra while students discuss the warm-up.
- Minutes 10-12: The teacher provides 2 minutes for students to situate themselves for daily note taking routines.
- Minutes 12-22: The teacher displays the results of the survey inGeoGebra. Ask the students to identify what they are looking at. Ask them about the results does it look like the x and y axis are related? What do the x and y axis represent? What is the pattern?
- Student responses to the data will likely show a positive correlation, but in the chance that it shows no correlation or negative correlation, the results remain just as effective for introducing types of correlation.
- Explain to the students that the pattern that they see is called a correlation. A correlation shows that two variable (bivariate) data are linked. "We will talk about what linked means at the end of the lesson today."
- Upon revealing what type of correlation the data they provided shows (likely positive correlation), explain the remaining two forms of correlation.
- The last part of this instructional portion is to ask to the students to explain to discuss how the scatter plot they are looking at was made. Upon regaining the students' attention, explain the details of a scatter plot that you do not hear discussed by the group and reinforce positive commentary between students.
- Minutes 22-27: Ask the students to describe the correlation of Guided Practice #1 to their shoulder partner and share this description on a mini whiteboard. Probe incorrect responses by asking students to explain their thinking.
- Minutes 27-32: Introduce the vocabulary term correlation coefficient (r) as a measure of the strength of the correlation and assess the strength of the data that was collected during the warm up.
- Show the students two graphs side-by-side, one that shows a strong correlation and one that shows a weak correlation (Note: it does not matter if the data is positive or negative for this brief introductory step).
- After identifying the difference between a strong or weak correlation, have students discuss the strength of the correlation of the data that we collected at the beginning of the period.
- Figure 2 in the attached PowerPoint explains the correlation coefficient. Ask students the main differences between the four graphs shown, between the r values, and show them the r value of the two forms of data in GeoGebra.
- Minutes 32-37: Ask students to estimate whether the correlation coefficient of the given scatter plot in the Guided Practice #2 problem is closest to 1, 0, or -1 and explain why. Students struggle with thinking of the correlation coefficient as the measure of strength. Be sure explanations provided are substantial and that multiple students' responses are heard.
- Minutes 37-42: Return to GeoGebra, where there should be data from the previous concept and the data from the warm up on students' height and shoe size. Ask students to discuss how the variables in these form of data are related. Listen for discussion on how the variables are related and direct conversations in groups to identify which variables cause the other one to happen.
- Minutes 42-47: Ask students to discuss and ultimately conclude whether or not the correlation between height and shoe size is a result of causation.
- Minutes 47-50: Students are to complete the Closure activity and the attached exit ticket.
Guided Practice: What activities or exercises will the students complete with teacher guidance?
There are guided practice problems for students to complete under the supervision of the teacher with an opportunity for the teacher to assess the students' understanding. Guided practice problems are included in the attached PowerPoint presentation.
Independent Practice: What activities or exercises will students complete to reinforce the concepts and skills developed in the lesson?
Independent assignment is attached. Exercises are intended for out of class work and assess the students' knowledge of all three standards in the same order they were presented.
Closure: How will the teacher assist students in organizing the knowledge gained in the lesson?
Real or Rubbish?
Students in their exit ticket will review three studies that link two variables to identify if the link is a causation or if it is media sensationalism.
Students will be assessed both through class paper assessments as well as the exit ticket.
- Formative assessments are embedded throughout the lesson in order to identify the student's level of understanding, starting with the bell work.
- The lesson includes group discussion moments in which the teacher is responsible for listening intently to the discussion being offered.
- Shoulder partners are offered the opportunity to show answers on white boards.
Feedback to Students
Students will be given the opportunity to provide each other feedback. The teacher will monitor student discussions and ask students to reason with the data. Students are expected to have arguments for their statements and should be allowed to correct themselves as they gain an updated view of the knowledge.
Accommodations & Recommendations
Students with special needs can be accommodated by altering the provided lesson materials to fit their cultural interests, simplifying data to contain a smaller amount of data points and whole numbers, an alternative vocabulary building warm up assignment, or individual handouts. The teacher should be aware of each individuals students educational plan accommodations before teaching this lesson.
Ask students to create their own bivariate data set with a correlation that is the result of a causation. Students should provide the properly labeled scatter plot, general sketch of the trend line, and a short paragraph explaining the independent and dependent variable and the mechanism that makes the correlation a causation.
Suggested Technology: LCD Projector, Microsoft Office, GeoGebra Free Software, Smart Phone/Tablet
Special Materials Needed:
The teacher can complete this lesson with the provided materials on the standard classroom computer and projector setup. However, a tablet or Interwrite setup displayed on the projector allows the teacher mobility to monitor discussion moments.
The teacher may want students to have their heights measured the night before for homework or have rulers provided at the beginning of class.
The teacher should be sure to open each required file and application in order to minimize any downtime for application switches.
Applicable Math Practices:
- Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
- Look for and make use of structure.
Source and Access Information
Name of Author/Source: Michael Brown
District/Organization of Contributor(s): SeminoleDistrict/Organization of Contributor(s): Seminole
Access Privileges: Public
* Please note that examples of resources are not intended as complete curriculum.