# Big Idea 13: Forces and Changes in Motion

A. It takes energy to change the motion of objects.

B. Energy change is understood in terms of forces--pushes or pulls.

C. Some forces act through physical contact, while others act at a distance.

Clarification for grades K-5: The target understanding for students in the elementary grades should focus on Big Ideas A, B, and C.

Clarification for grades 6-8: The target understanding for students in grades 6-8 should begin to transition the focus to a more specific definition of forces and changes in motion. Net forces create a change in motion. A change in momentum occurs when a net force is applied to an object over a time interval.

Grades 9-12, Standard 12: Motion - A. Motion can be measured and described qualitatively and quantitatively. Net forces create a change in motion. B. Momentum is conserved under well-defined conditions. A change in momentum occurs when a net force is applied to an object over a time interval.

General Information
Number: SC.5.P.13
Title: Forces and Changes in Motion
Type: Big Idea
Subject: Science
Body of Knowledge: Physical Science

## Related Benchmarks

This cluster includes the following benchmarks.

## Related Access Points

This cluster includes the following access points.

## Independent

SC.5.P.13.In.1
Distinguish between movement of an object caused by gravity and movement caused by pushes and pulls.
SC.5.P.13.In.2
Identify that heavier objects take more force to move than lighter ones.
SC.5.P.13.In.3
Identify that an opposing force (push or pull) is needed to prevent an object from moving.

## Supported

SC.5.P.13.Su.1
Recognize that gravity causes an object to move.
SC.5.P.13.Su.2
Recognize that a heavier object is harder to move than a light one.
SC.5.P.13.Su.3
Recognize the source of a force (push or pull) used to stop an object from moving.

## Participatory

SC.5.P.13.Pa.1
Recognize that pushing or pulling makes an object move.
SC.5.P.13.Pa.2
Recognize a way to stop an object from moving.

## Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this topic.

## Educational Game

Science Vocabulary Hangman:

This interactive game uses the traditional hangman premise with all questions and answers involving science vocabulary. There are general sets of science vocabulary to choose from, as well as specific topics. You can even choose vocabulary pertaining to 5th or 8th grade FCAT Science Tests!

Type: Educational Game

## Formative Assessment

Bounce Back Ball:

Students will be working in teams of four to measure the rebound heights of a tennis ball dropped from four different heights. Students will be investigating with the bouncing balls to measure changes in the type of energy they possess.

Type: Formative Assessment

## Lesson Plans

Newton's First Law of Motion Part 1 of 3:

This lesson plan is the first in a series of connected lessons on Sir Isaac Newton's Laws of Motion published on CPALMS. This lesson provides a brief background of Sir Isaac Newton and covers Newton's First Law of Motion.

Type: Lesson Plan

Polygon Park:

In this lesson students will use standards-based quadrilaterals and triangles to design a roller coaster tower. Students will use the Engineering Design Process to work through the processes in this lesson.

Type: Lesson Plan

Hoverama:

In this lesson students will create a model hovercraft. The challenge is to lift the most mass. Students will use their knowledge of forces and how increased mass interacts with motion. They will need to follow a budget in order to purchase building material for their hovercraft. While budgeting, students will apply real world mathematical (money) problem solving. Students will use iPads to record and document the process of the engineering and building of their model hovercrafts.

Type: Lesson Plan

How Does Force Affect Motion?:

Students will explore how force affects an object's motion. Students will discuss how the greater the mass of an object, the greater the force required to move an object.  Students will use data gathered through experimentation to justify their reasoning and understanding of forces and motion.

Type: Lesson Plan

Natural Builders - STEM Engineering Design Challenge:

In this lesson, students will investigate and explain balanced and unbalanced forces as they design a building for Miami Beach that is inspired by Florida's natural environment. In this challenge/lesson, students must design a building model that is at least thirty centimeters tall, features two elements that move in the wind, and can also withstand the wind.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Coasta with the Mosta:

Students will create an exciting and thrilling roller coaster model. Students will use their knowledge of forces to build a model of a roller coaster using foam insulation and a marble.

Type: Lesson Plan

When the Wind Blows:

This is an engineering design process lesson that covers forces and motion. It is designed to engage students using hands-on problem solving strategies.

Type: Lesson Plan

Bottling Rockets:

In this lesson, students will explore the concepts of force and motion as they use the engineering design process to create and test rockets. Students will demonstrate their understanding of familiar forces by creating and presenting a poster. Take students up, up, and away with this engaging lesson!

Type: Lesson Plan

Bridge Over Troubled Waters:

In this engineering lesson, students will design and construct a bridge that will be free-standing and support a toy car.

Type: Lesson Plan

Medic Mass Landing: Engineering Design Challenge:

In this lesson, 5th grade students work in small groups on a STEM challenge that involves science and math standards related to force, motion, and measurement, as well as learning the engineering design process.

Type: Lesson Plan

Balanced or Nah (Not):

In this lesson, Balanced or Nah, the students will collaborate within groups to create a scenario or demonstration where they will explain concepts related to forces and motion. The students will conclude the lesson with a written essay or paragraphs explaining their concept and the concepts of other presenters.

Type: Lesson Plan

Clean Dat "SPACE" Inc.:

This Model Eliciting Activity (MEA) is written at a 5th grade level. Clean Dat "SPACE" MEA provides students with an engineering problem in which they must work as a team to design a procedure to select the best space junk cleanup company for the purpose of keeping the International Space Station safe while in orbit.

Type: Lesson Plan

Air Time 3D Printing MEA:

The students follow the engineering process to assist Worldwide Food Distribution Mission improve their food delivery device in order to deliver food to remote parts of the world.

Type: Lesson Plan

Pendulum Inquiry - Wrecking Balls:

In this lesson, students will mimic a wrecking ball by manipulating the variables of a pendulum in order to move objects with different masses. It is recommended this lesson follow Pendulum Inquiry (see Related CPALMS Resources), which will build students' content knowledge on pendulums. Students can apply their understanding of pendulums gained from the lesson Pendulum Inquiry to assist them in designing wrecking ball pendulums in this lesson.

Type: Lesson Plan

Pendulum Inquiry:

Pendulums are a fun and engaging way for students to learn about physics and the nature of science. In this lesson, students will investigate the effects of gravity, mass, changing variables and energy transfer through building their own pendulums as well as teacher demonstration.

Type: Lesson Plan

Newton's Third Law of Motion:

This lesson plan is the third in a series of connected lessons on Sir Isaac Newton's laws of motion published to CPALMS. This lesson plan teaches Newton's third law of motion.

Type: Lesson Plan

Newton's Second Law of Motion Part 2 of 3:

This lesson plan is the second in a series of connected lessons on Sir Isaac Newton's laws of motion published to CPALMS. This lesson teaches Newton's second law of motion.

Type: Lesson Plan

X-treme Roller Coasters:

This MEA asks students to assist Ms. Joy Ride who is creating a virtual TV series about extreme roller coasters. They work together to determine which roller coaster is most extreme and should be featured in the first episode. Students are presented with research of five extreme roller coasters and they must use their math skills to convert units of measurements while learning about force and motion.

Type: Lesson Plan

Pop Goes the Balloon, a Rube Goldberg Design Project:

The students will work in small groups in order to build a "Rube Goldberg" machine. A "Rube Goldberg" machine is modeled after a famous cartoonist who tried to make more difficult ways to accomplish simple tasks, such as popping a balloon. The students will build one machine, made from many simple machines working together, to perform their task. The machine is only permitted to be touched at the beginning and must work independently from that point on.

Type: Lesson Plan

Sail Away - An Engineering Design Challenge:

This Engineering Design Challenge is intended to help students apply the concepts of forces from SC.5.P.13.1 and SC.5.P.13.2 as well as energy and its ability to cause motion from SC.5.P.10.1 and SC.5.P.10.2 by designing a boat and racing it. It may also be used as introductory instruction of the content.

Type: Lesson Plan

Blast Off - An Engineering Design Challenge:

This Engineering Design Challenge is intended to help students apply the concepts of forces from SC.5.P.13.1 and SC.5.P.13.2 by building and launching straw rockets. It may also be used as introductory instruction of the content.

Type: Lesson Plan

Friction Time!!!:

In this lesson, students explore friction using ramps, matchbox cars, books, and a beach towel. The beach towels are used to increase the friction between the cars and the surface. The books are used to increase the speed in which the car travels, and later changing the number of text books allows the students to explore the effect of mass on friction.

Type: Lesson Plan

Lunar Landers: Exploring Gravity :

The attached engineering design lesson plan elaborates on the PBS Kids online resource and will probably take from 4-5 class periods. It takes the students through the engineering design process which includes the following components: Identify the Problem, Brainstorm and Design a Solution, Test and Evaluate, Redesign, Reflect and Share the Solution.

Type: Lesson Plan

Sunshine Beach Hotel MEA:

This Model Eliciting Activity (MEA) asks students to develop a procedure to select a hurricane shutter company.

Type: Lesson Plan

We're Curious!—An Engineering Design Challenge:

This Engineering Design Challenge is intended to help students apply the concepts of forces as they build containers to protect their eggs in an egg drop. It is not intended as an initial introduction to this benchmark.

Type: Lesson Plan

## Model Eliciting Activity (MEA) STEM Lesson

Pump Up the Volume:

This is a lesson on volume relating specifically to using the formula V = B x h.

Type: Model Eliciting Activity (MEA) STEM Lesson

## Original Student Tutorials

I Sense a Disturbance in the Force… and Motion.:

Explore forces and how changes in forces can affect the motion of objects in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Kickin' It: Playing Soccer with Inertia:

Explore the relationship between mass, forces, and motion on the soccer field in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Push It! Force and Motion:

Explore different kinds of forces, including pushes, pulls, magnetism, gravity, and friction in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Einstein's Guide To Forces And Motion:

Investigate and explain that when a force is applied to an object but it does not move, it is because another opposing force is being applied by something in the environment so the forces are balanced. This interactive tutorial also includes practice items to check your knowledge.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

## Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiasts

Amplifying Forces with an Atlatl:

Ancient weapons technologies developed by humans proved that they were better at physics than the saber-toothed cats.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Horses and Forces:

What is the force of a horse on a course? It depends on the size of the horse, of course!

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

## Perspectives Video: Teaching Ideas

Dropsonde Construction and Hurricane Forces:

Don't get too carried away, but make sure you are having fun while learning about how hurricane researchers gather data! Produced with funding from the Florida Division of Cultural Affairs.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Paper Glider Forces:

Have you ever wanted to fly paper airplanes for fun while learning about the science of flight? Here's your chance! Produced with funding from the Florida Division of Cultural Affairs.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Pinewood Derby Forces and Motion:

Let's get rolling and explore the physics behind rolling cars! Make sure you stay on track. Produced with funding from the Florida Division of Cultural Affairs.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

## Teaching Ideas

The Mystery of Tiny Algal Spores:

In this video, students will learn from a researcher about adaptations algae have developed to enable them to withstand water forces in their habitat.

Type: Teaching Idea

Forces Lab:

This set of interactive online simulations shows the forces that may be at work on geologic structures or on man-made structures during an earthquake. Users can see examples of compression, tension, bending, and torsion. Each simulation also features a link to a photo of a real-life example.

Type: Teaching Idea

Newton Laws of Motion-SeaWorld Classroom Activity:

Students will correlate Newton's Laws to various animal behaviors.

Type: Teaching Idea

## Virtual Manipulatives

A Pendulum:

This virtual manipulative will help the students learn some important concepts of classical mechanics, such as gravitational acceleration, energy conservation and so on. This activity will also help in students learning via the process of making predictions (about number of pendulum swings), discussing outcomes and sharing results.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Friction (at Molecular Workbench):

Friction is important in enabling the movement of objects. Friction is a force that acts in an opposite direction to movement. Friction is everywhere when objects come into contact with each other. Observe what happens when the surfaces are very smooth or slippery, it reduces the friction and thus it makes harder to stop the motion.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

A Pulley System:

This activity will help the students in understanding the concept of the pulley and how it can be helpful in lifting heavy weights. Students will recognize the structure of a pulley which is a wheel on an axle that is designed to support movement of a cable or a belt along its circumference.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Balance Challenge Game:

Play with objects on a teeter totter to learn about balance.

• Predict how objects of various masses can be used to make a plank balance.
• Predict how changing the positions of the masses on the plank will affect the motion of the plank
• Write rules to predict which way plank will tilt when objects are placed on it.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Explore the forces:

Students can create an applied force and see how it makes objects move. They can also make changes in friction and see how it affects the motion of objects.

• Identify when forces are balanced vs. unbalanced.
• Determine the sum of forces (net force) on an object with more than one force on it.
• Predict the motion of an object with zero net force.
• Predict the direction of motion given a combination of forces.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Forces in 1 Dimension:

This is a virtual manipulative which demonstrates the principles of force. Students can click on a man and push different objects of varying masses across the screen. The resulting forces (frictional and total force) are shown. Graphs show forces, position and acceleration as a function of time. Free body diagrams of all the forces can also be viewed.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

## Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this topic.

## Original Student Tutorials

I Sense a Disturbance in the Force… and Motion.:

Explore forces and how changes in forces can affect the motion of objects in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Kickin' It: Playing Soccer with Inertia:

Explore the relationship between mass, forces, and motion on the soccer field in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Push It! Force and Motion:

Explore different kinds of forces, including pushes, pulls, magnetism, gravity, and friction in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Einstein's Guide To Forces And Motion:

Investigate and explain that when a force is applied to an object but it does not move, it is because another opposing force is being applied by something in the environment so the forces are balanced. This interactive tutorial also includes practice items to check your knowledge.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

## Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Amplifying Forces with an Atlatl:

Ancient weapons technologies developed by humans proved that they were better at physics than the saber-toothed cats.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

## Virtual Manipulatives

A Pendulum:

This virtual manipulative will help the students learn some important concepts of classical mechanics, such as gravitational acceleration, energy conservation and so on. This activity will also help in students learning via the process of making predictions (about number of pendulum swings), discussing outcomes and sharing results.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Friction (at Molecular Workbench):

Friction is important in enabling the movement of objects. Friction is a force that acts in an opposite direction to movement. Friction is everywhere when objects come into contact with each other. Observe what happens when the surfaces are very smooth or slippery, it reduces the friction and thus it makes harder to stop the motion.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Balance Challenge Game:

Play with objects on a teeter totter to learn about balance.

• Predict how objects of various masses can be used to make a plank balance.
• Predict how changing the positions of the masses on the plank will affect the motion of the plank
• Write rules to predict which way plank will tilt when objects are placed on it.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Explore the forces:

Students can create an applied force and see how it makes objects move. They can also make changes in friction and see how it affects the motion of objects.

• Identify when forces are balanced vs. unbalanced.
• Determine the sum of forces (net force) on an object with more than one force on it.
• Predict the motion of an object with zero net force.
• Predict the direction of motion given a combination of forces.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Forces in 1 Dimension:

This is a virtual manipulative which demonstrates the principles of force. Students can click on a man and push different objects of varying masses across the screen. The resulting forces (frictional and total force) are shown. Graphs show forces, position and acceleration as a function of time. Free body diagrams of all the forces can also be viewed.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

## Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this topic.

## Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Amplifying Forces with an Atlatl:

Ancient weapons technologies developed by humans proved that they were better at physics than the saber-toothed cats.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

## Teaching Idea

The Mystery of Tiny Algal Spores:

In this video, students will learn from a researcher about adaptations algae have developed to enable them to withstand water forces in their habitat.

Type: Teaching Idea

## Virtual Manipulatives

A Pendulum:

This virtual manipulative will help the students learn some important concepts of classical mechanics, such as gravitational acceleration, energy conservation and so on. This activity will also help in students learning via the process of making predictions (about number of pendulum swings), discussing outcomes and sharing results.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Friction (at Molecular Workbench):

Friction is important in enabling the movement of objects. Friction is a force that acts in an opposite direction to movement. Friction is everywhere when objects come into contact with each other. Observe what happens when the surfaces are very smooth or slippery, it reduces the friction and thus it makes harder to stop the motion.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Balance Challenge Game:

Play with objects on a teeter totter to learn about balance.

• Predict how objects of various masses can be used to make a plank balance.
• Predict how changing the positions of the masses on the plank will affect the motion of the plank
• Write rules to predict which way plank will tilt when objects are placed on it.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Explore the forces:

Students can create an applied force and see how it makes objects move. They can also make changes in friction and see how it affects the motion of objects.

• Identify when forces are balanced vs. unbalanced.
• Determine the sum of forces (net force) on an object with more than one force on it.
• Predict the motion of an object with zero net force.
• Predict the direction of motion given a combination of forces.

Type: Virtual Manipulative