# Big Idea 8: Properties of Matter

A. All objects and substances in the world are made of matter. Matter has two fundamental properties: matter takes up space and matter has mass.

B. Objects and substances can be classified by their physical and chemical properties.

Mass is the amount of matter (or "stuff") in an object. Weight, on the other hand, is the measure of force of attraction (gravitational force) between an object and Earth.

The concepts of mass and weight are complicated and potentially confusing to elementary students. Hence, the more familiar term of "weight" is recommended for use to stand for both mass and weight in grades K-5. By grades 6-8, students are expected to understand the distinction between mass and weight, and use them appropriately.

Clarification for grades K-2: The use of the more familiar term ‘weight’ instead of the term “mass” is recommended for grades K-2.

Clarification for grades 3-5: In grade 3, introduce the term mass as compared to the term weight. In grade 4, investigate the concept of weight versus mass of objects. In grade 5, discuss why mass (not weight) is used to compare properties of solids, liquids and gases.

General Information
Number: SC.2.P.8
Title: Properties of Matter
Type: Big Idea
Subject: Science
Body of Knowledge: Physical Science

## Related Benchmarks

This cluster includes the following benchmarks.

## Related Access Points

This cluster includes the following access points.

## Independent

SC.2.P.8.In.1
Identify objects by observable properties, such as, size, shape, color,
SC.2.P.8.In.2
Identify objects and materials as solid or liquid.
SC.2.P.8.In.3
Recognize that solids have a definite shape and liquids take the shape of their container.
SC.2.P.8.In.4
Describe and compare outside daily temperatures as warm or cold.
SC.2.P.8.In.5
Compare the volume of liquid in a variety of containers.

## Supported

SC.2.P.8.Su.1
Identify objects by observable properties, such as size, shape, and color.
SC.2.P.8.Su.2
Recognize water in solid or liquid states.
SC.2.P.8.Su.3
Recognize that solids have a definite shape.
SC.2.P.8.Su.4
Identify outside temperatures as warm or cold.
SC.2.P.8.Su.5
Recognize different volumes of liquids in identical containers.

## Participatory

SC.2.P.8.Pa.1
Match objects by one observable property, such as size or color.
SC.2.P.8.Pa.2
Recognize water as a liquid.
SC.2.P.8.Pa.3
Recognize different containers that hold liquids.
SC.2.P.8.Pa.4
Recognize common objects or materials as warm or cold.

## Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this topic.

## Assessment

Using simple items, colored shapes, students use a binary classification system to divide objects, then justify their scheme.

The task assesses primary students' abilities to perform process skills such as classification by using observable differences and similarities.

This task is designed to take students approximately 8 minutes to complete.

Type: Assessment

## Lesson Plans

Exploring Machine Learning to Train an AI Model:

Students will explore Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) and pretrain a model to recognize and identify objects, including geometric shapes and aircraft. They will used unplugged activities to mimic sorting and classification of the objects using their prior knowledge and then make connections to human learning and Machine Learning. Students will then problem solve and propose solutions using an iterative process to improve the ML model to better recognize the objects. This lesson is an integrated Computer Science, Science and Math lesson designed for students in K-2 to apply math and science content knowledge while exploring and using computational thinking like people in Computer Science careers do.

Type: Lesson Plan

Water: Responsible Citizens Conserve Water:

Students will learn and apply knowledge relating to water’s three main states of matter and how responsible citizenship includes the responsible use of water in this integrated lesson plan.

Type: Lesson Plan

Candy Homes:

In this project based learning experience, students explore and sort different candies based on their physical properties and how they can be altered and changed. They will determine which properties of the candy would be most beneficial to build a successful home/structure. Students will create a model of their home using their chosen candy and support their choice by writing an opinion and preparing a presentation.

Type: Lesson Plan

Animal Sanctuary Engineering Design Challenge:

This Engineering Design Challenge is a hands-on investigation in both math and science. Students will be able to use prior knowledge and problem solving skills to solve non-routine problems and real-world situations, using mathematical and scientific models. It is a great way to introduce your students to real-world problem solving. Students will be engaged in hands-on learning by designing and creating an enclosure for zoo animals. Both math and science standards have been incorporated for an integrated lesson.

Type: Lesson Plan

Explore the States (of Matter): Glorious Gases:

This is the third lesson of three lessons designed for second grade students to understand and appreciate what matter is and which properties of matter are used to classify it as a solid, liquid or gas. The first lesson is Exploring the states (of Matter): Super Solids (see CPALMS Resource# 46557).

Type: Lesson Plan

Explore the States (of Matter): Super Solids:

This is the introductory lesson of three lessons designed for second grade students to understand and appreciate what matter is and which properties of matter are used to classify it as a solid, liquid or gas. Because solids are the most familiar form of matter for children, a shorter exploration of solids is included as the hands-on component.

Type: Lesson Plan

States of Matter:

In this 2-3 part session, students will manipulate printable objects and sort them into the three states of matter-solid, liquid and gas. They will also participate in a hands-on group investigation and record their observations into their Science Notebooks. A quiz on the content is also provided.

Type: Lesson Plan

May the Force Be With You:

In this lesson plan, students will explore what items are attracted to magnets. They will learn that magnets have an invisible force called a magnetic field and that objects can be moved without even touching them.

Type: Lesson Plan

Rocks, Rocks, Everywhere:

The students will be able to sort rocks based upon color, hardness, texture, layering and particle size.

Type: Lesson Plan

Classifying Candy 1:

Students will develop two binary classification systems using concrete objects. The classification systems will be based on two different properties of the concrete objects.

The task assesses students' abilities to make simple observations and apply their understanding to classification.

This task is designed to take students approximately 10-15 minutes to complete.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Shape of Kisses:

This resource features a lesson plan for comparing the properties of Hershey's chocolate kisses in different states: solid and liquid.

Type: Lesson Plan

Sink or Float? Inquiry Investigation:

Students will predict which objects sink or float in water. They will observe, describe, and keep records about what happens when objects are placed in water, and determine whether there is consistency in their own and classmates' results. They will generate ideas about characteristics of materials that sink or float, and will ask questions about physical properties of matter.

Type: Lesson Plan

Float or Sink?:

This lesson builds on lessons regarding the different properties of solids by having students explore how different objects float or sink when placed in water.

Type: Lesson Plan

What's the Weather?:

In this lesson, students use daily observations, videos, and activities to learn about meteorology and the changing nature of weather. Students also identify weather events that are commonly reported in the news and discuss how weather affects lives.

Type: Lesson Plan

Effect of Shape on Volume:

The students will learn that volume is not affected by a container's shape.

Type: Lesson Plan

Explore the States (of Matter): Lovely Liquids:

This is the second lesson of three lessons designed for second grade students to understand and appreciate what matter is and which properties of matter are used to classify it as a solid, liquid or gas. The first lesson is Exploring the States (of Matter): Super Solids (CPALMS Resource# 46557).

Type: Lesson Plan

It's Attracted:

In this lesson, students will use informational texts to gather information on objects made of matter that have properties that make them either attracted or not attracted to magnets.

Type: Lesson Plan

What's the Matter?:

This is a lesson where students will identify the properties of matter by their shape, color, size, and texture. Students will learn about how atoms make up matter through a hands on activity titled "Marshmallow Atoms." They will also be using their daily science notebooks.

Type: Lesson Plan

You Name It!:

Students are given a variety of materials and asked to identify each material as a solid, liquid or gas. They use their five senses — sight, sound, smell, texture and taste — to identify the other characteristics of each item.

Type: Lesson Plan

## Original Student Tutorials

Sweet Shop Properties Part 3: Volume and Mass:

Visit The Sweet Shop and size up their menu as we explore volume and mass measurement in this interactive science tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Sweet Shop Properties Part 2: Measuring Length:

Visit The Sweet Shop and see how their treats measure up as we explore length measurement in this interactive science tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Sweet Shop Properties Part 1: Using Your Senses:

Visit The Sweet Shop and tickle your senses as we observe properties of matter in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Shape of Water:

What is the shape of water?  Explore common states of matter and how the state affects the shape of matter inside and outside different containers in this interactive science tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Tracking the Temperature:

Learn to measure and compare temperatures taken every day at the same time in this interactive science tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Measuring the Rain:

Opportunities to explore the measurement of liquid volume are overflowing in this interactive science tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Solids, Liquids and Gases, Oh My!:

Learn about water in its different states, including solid, liquid, and gas, in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Is It Full?:

Investigate whether a container is "full" by exploring the three main states of matter in this interactive science tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Sweet Shop Properties Part 4: Temperature:

Visit The Sweet Shop and heat up your measuring skills as we explore temperature measurement in this interactive science tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

## Presentation/Slideshows

Forms of Water:

The Tar Heel Reader books may be downloaded as slide shows in PowerPoint, Impress, or Flash format. Each book can be speech enabled and accessed using multiple interfaces, including touch screens, the IntelliKeys with custom overlays, and 1 to 3 switches.

This book provides different examples of the different forms of water: liquid, solid, and gas.

Type: Presentation/Slideshow

Liquids: A Science Curriculum Resource Support:

This is an accessible, easy-to-read book about liquids. It can be downloaded in Power Point, Impress, and Flash formats. For struggling or non-readers, the book can be read aloud in a variety of voices. All of the books on the Tar Heel Reader site can be used with the Intellikeys keyboard and a custom overlay, a touch screen, and/or 1-3 switches. The text and background colors can be modified for students with visual impairments.

Type: Presentation/Slideshow

Three Kinds of Matter: Solids, Liquids, and Gases:

This is free, easy-to-read, and accessible book that explains the three states of matter. The book may be downloaded as slide show in PowerPoint, Impress, or Flash format. The book can be speech enabled and accessed using multiple interfaces, including touch screens, the IntelliKeys with custom overlays, and 1 to 3 switches.

Type: Presentation/Slideshow

## Professional Development

2nd Grade, Science - Properties of Matter and Thinking Skills :

2nd grade teacher teaches Standards of Learning content knowledge and thinking skills with the Patterns of Thinking Method.

Focus: properties of matter

Type: Professional Development

## Teaching Ideas

Mystery Eggs:

This teaching idea provides students with an opportunity to make observations about the weight, sound, and movement of plastic eggs with a different number of nails inside.

Type: Teaching Idea

Guess What?:

This is a short and simple teaching idea where students will have an opportunity to engage in the beginning stages of the scientific method through observation. This activity is unique as it suggests that students observe less common objects.

Type: Teaching Idea

Investigating Oobleck: Solid or Liquid?:

The students will make their own predictions and conclusions on whether Oobleck is a solid or liquid by using focus observations, conducting focus explorations, raising questions, clarifying questions, and making conclusions about Oobleck.

Type: Teaching Idea

Magic Magnets:

As a result of this activity, students will be able to classify objects as metals and nonmetals, and will be able to demonstrate that magnets can make certain metals and other magnets move without actually touching them.

Type: Teaching Idea

Solid and Liquid Stations:

Students investigate the properties of solids and liquids.

Type: Teaching Idea

Solid or Liquid?:

In this chemistry lesson students will investigate if certain materials are solids or liquids. Students are expected to make predictions, record observations, draw conclusions, and formulate questions for further investigation.

Type: Teaching Idea

Sorting Solids:

Students are asked to sort solids in a variety of ways and justify their reasoning for sorting the solids.

Type: Teaching Idea

The Weight of Water-SeaWorld Classroom Activity:

In this activity, the students will discover that seawater is more dense than fresh water.

Type: Teaching Idea

## Text Resource

States of Water:

Users can read and view pictures that explain the three phases (solid, liquid, and gas) in which water exists. An activity that illustrates water vapor in one's breath and a brief explanation of what phase changes are and what triggers them is also included.

Type: Text Resource

## Unit/Lesson Sequences

Water 1: Water and Ice:

In three connected lessons students observe and describe water as it changes state. In Water 1: Water and Ice, students explored how water can change from solid to liquid and back again. In the second lesson, students will focus on the concept that water can go back and forth from one form to another focusing on a liquid changing to a gas. In the third lesson, students investigate what happens to the amount of different substances as they change from a solid to a liquid or a liquid to a solid.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Matter: Solids:

In this unit, properties of matter are introduced and solids are explored. Exposure to the engineering design process synthesizes information learned about solids and asks students to create a homemade play dough recipe.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Water and Wind in Weather:

This unit builds on concepts learned in the "Weather Measure" resource for Grade 2. Students are introduced to evaporation and wind. "Windmills" synthesizes information about how wind can move objects by engaging students in the engineering design process in a project that calls for the design and construction of a functioning windmill that can lift a weighted cup.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Weather Measure:

In this unit, students learn about meteorology and act as meteorologists, predict and take temperature measurements, and create a severe weather preparedness plan.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

## Video/Audio/Animations

States of Matter:

The representation is an animation showing particle arrangement and movement in a gas, liquid, and solid. In addition, there is accompanying text and a chart that compares the characteristics of a solid, liquid, and gas.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Observe Water in Winter and Summer:

This video clip explores what happens to water in the same location over the course of different seasons. On Earth, water can be found regularly in its three distinct phases; liquid, solid, and gas. Each phase has noticeably different properties that need to be considered in certain circumstances. The phase of water is influenced by atmospheric conditions, specifically seasonal temperatures. An example, is that a boat can float and glide on water in the summer, but it cannot pass through solid ice in the winter.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Observe Clouds:

Upon observing clouds in a section of the sky, one notices that they are not static. Being composed of tiny particles of water means they are constantly changing and moving. This video clip explores clouds forming, moving, and changing shape.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Solar Still Part 1: Salt Water:

The process that moves water around Earth is known as the water cycle. I this ZOOM-adapted video clip, the cast uses a homemade solar still to separate pure water from a saltwater mixture, mimicing this natural process.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

## Worksheet

Changing States of Matter:

In this activity, students will see that the liquid water can change state again and freeze to become ice.

Type: Worksheet

## Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this topic.

## Original Student Tutorials

Sweet Shop Properties Part 3: Volume and Mass:

Visit The Sweet Shop and size up their menu as we explore volume and mass measurement in this interactive science tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Sweet Shop Properties Part 2: Measuring Length:

Visit The Sweet Shop and see how their treats measure up as we explore length measurement in this interactive science tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Sweet Shop Properties Part 1: Using Your Senses:

Visit The Sweet Shop and tickle your senses as we observe properties of matter in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Shape of Water:

What is the shape of water?  Explore common states of matter and how the state affects the shape of matter inside and outside different containers in this interactive science tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Tracking the Temperature:

Learn to measure and compare temperatures taken every day at the same time in this interactive science tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Measuring the Rain:

Opportunities to explore the measurement of liquid volume are overflowing in this interactive science tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Solids, Liquids and Gases, Oh My!:

Learn about water in its different states, including solid, liquid, and gas, in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Is It Full?:

Investigate whether a container is "full" by exploring the three main states of matter in this interactive science tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Sweet Shop Properties Part 4: Temperature:

Visit The Sweet Shop and heat up your measuring skills as we explore temperature measurement in this interactive science tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

## Presentation/Slideshows

Forms of Water:

The Tar Heel Reader books may be downloaded as slide shows in PowerPoint, Impress, or Flash format. Each book can be speech enabled and accessed using multiple interfaces, including touch screens, the IntelliKeys with custom overlays, and 1 to 3 switches.

This book provides different examples of the different forms of water: liquid, solid, and gas.

Type: Presentation/Slideshow

Liquids: A Science Curriculum Resource Support:

This is an accessible, easy-to-read book about liquids. It can be downloaded in Power Point, Impress, and Flash formats. For struggling or non-readers, the book can be read aloud in a variety of voices. All of the books on the Tar Heel Reader site can be used with the Intellikeys keyboard and a custom overlay, a touch screen, and/or 1-3 switches. The text and background colors can be modified for students with visual impairments.

Type: Presentation/Slideshow

Three Kinds of Matter: Solids, Liquids, and Gases:

This is free, easy-to-read, and accessible book that explains the three states of matter. The book may be downloaded as slide show in PowerPoint, Impress, or Flash format. The book can be speech enabled and accessed using multiple interfaces, including touch screens, the IntelliKeys with custom overlays, and 1 to 3 switches.

Type: Presentation/Slideshow

## Text Resource

States of Water:

Users can read and view pictures that explain the three phases (solid, liquid, and gas) in which water exists. An activity that illustrates water vapor in one's breath and a brief explanation of what phase changes are and what triggers them is also included.

Type: Text Resource

## Video/Audio/Animations

States of Matter:

The representation is an animation showing particle arrangement and movement in a gas, liquid, and solid. In addition, there is accompanying text and a chart that compares the characteristics of a solid, liquid, and gas.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Observe Water in Winter and Summer:

This video clip explores what happens to water in the same location over the course of different seasons. On Earth, water can be found regularly in its three distinct phases; liquid, solid, and gas. Each phase has noticeably different properties that need to be considered in certain circumstances. The phase of water is influenced by atmospheric conditions, specifically seasonal temperatures. An example, is that a boat can float and glide on water in the summer, but it cannot pass through solid ice in the winter.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Solar Still Part 1: Salt Water:

The process that moves water around Earth is known as the water cycle. I this ZOOM-adapted video clip, the cast uses a homemade solar still to separate pure water from a saltwater mixture, mimicing this natural process.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

## Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this topic.

## Presentation/Slideshows

Liquids: A Science Curriculum Resource Support:

This is an accessible, easy-to-read book about liquids. It can be downloaded in Power Point, Impress, and Flash formats. For struggling or non-readers, the book can be read aloud in a variety of voices. All of the books on the Tar Heel Reader site can be used with the Intellikeys keyboard and a custom overlay, a touch screen, and/or 1-3 switches. The text and background colors can be modified for students with visual impairments.

Type: Presentation/Slideshow

Three Kinds of Matter: Solids, Liquids, and Gases:

This is free, easy-to-read, and accessible book that explains the three states of matter. The book may be downloaded as slide show in PowerPoint, Impress, or Flash format. The book can be speech enabled and accessed using multiple interfaces, including touch screens, the IntelliKeys with custom overlays, and 1 to 3 switches.

Type: Presentation/Slideshow