# Big Idea 8: Properties of Matter

A. All objects and substances in the world are made of matter. Matter has two fundamental properties: matter takes up space and matter has mass.

B. Objects and substances can be classified by their physical and chemical properties. Mass is the amount of matter (or "stuff") in an object. Weight, on the other hand, is the measure of force of attraction (gravitational force) between an object and Earth.

The concepts of mass and weight are complicated and potentially confusing to elementary students. Hence, the more familiar term of "weight" is recommended for use to stand for both mass and weight in grades K-5. By grades 6-8, students are expected to understand the distinction between mass and weight, and use them appropriately.

Clarification for grades K-2: The use of the more familiar term ‘weight’ instead of the term “mass” is recommended for grades K-2.

Clarification for grades 3-5: In grade 3, introduce the term mass as compared to the term weight. In grade 4, investigate the concept of weight versus mass of objects. In grade 5, discuss why mass (not weight) is used to compare properties of solids, liquids and gases.

General Information
Number: SC.1.P.8
Title: Properties of Matter
Type: Big Idea
Subject: Science
Body of Knowledge: Physical Science

## Related Benchmarks

This cluster includes the following benchmarks.

## Related Access Points

This cluster includes the following access points.

## Independent

SC.1.P.8.In.1
Sort objects by observable properties, such as size, shape, color, or texture.

## Supported

SC.1.P.8.Su.1
Sort objects by an observable property, such as size, shape, or color.

## Participatory

SC.1.P.8.Pa.1
Identify common classroom objects by one observable property, such as size or color.

## Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this topic.

## Assessment

Using simple items, colored shapes, students use a binary classification system to divide objects, then justify their scheme.

The task assesses primary students' abilities to perform process skills such as classification by using observable differences and similarities.

This task is designed to take students approximately 8 minutes to complete.

Type: Assessment

## Lesson Plans

Exploring Machine Learning to Train an AI Model:

Students will explore Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) and pretrain a model to recognize and identify objects, including geometric shapes and aircraft. They will used unplugged activities to mimic sorting and classification of the objects using their prior knowledge and then make connections to human learning and Machine Learning. Students will then problem solve and propose solutions using an iterative process to improve the ML model to better recognize the objects. This lesson is an integrated Computer Science, Science and Math lesson designed for students in K-2 to apply math and science content knowledge while exploring and using computational thinking like people in Computer Science careers do.

Type: Lesson Plan

Lesson 1 - Responsible Sorting:

This is the first of three lessons integrating responsible citizenship in the classroom. Students will define responsible citizenship while sorting objects by their physical properties in this integrated lesson plan.

Type: Lesson Plan

Design a Tub Toy - An Engineering Design Challenge:

This Engineering Design Challenge is intended to help students apply the concepts floating and sinking in an engineering design challenge.

Type: Lesson Plan

Terrific Toy Company:

In this Model-Eliciting Activity (MEA), the Terrific Toy Company needs the help of students to sort toys into value packs. The students will use observable properties of the toys to sort them and create three example packs.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. MEAs resemble engineering problems and encourage students to create solutions in the form of mathematical and scientific models. Students work in teams to apply their knowledge of science and mathematics to solve an open-ended problem while considering constraints and tradeoffs. Students integrate their ELA skills into MEAs as they are asked to clearly document their thought processes. MEAs follow a problem-based, student-centered approach to learning, where students are encouraged to grapple with the problem while the teacher acts as a facilitator. To learn more about MEAs visit: https://www.cpalms.org/cpalms/mea.aspx

Type: Lesson Plan

Sink or Float?:

This lesson helps students explore different objects that may sink or float. The teacher will begin the lesson with two candy bars. The students will be able to touch and feel the weight of the candy bars and make predictions on whether the candy will sink or float. After the teacher performs the investigation students will be broken up into groups of three to four and will look at ten different objects and predict if they will sink or float. The students will record their predictions. Fill out a table with there findings and write about why there predictions were correct or incorrect. By the end of the lesson students should understand what a prediction is. They should also understand that objects with more air float.

Type: Lesson Plan

Matter is EVERYWHERE Part 4:

Through exploration and discussion, the students will identify whether an object sinks or floats as a property of matter. Students will also sort objects on whether the object sinks or floats. This lesson is part 4 of a 4 part unit on Properties of Matter. During each lesson, the students will explore specific properties of matter through hands-on activities.

Type: Lesson Plan

Matter is EVERYWHERE Part 2:

Through exploration and discussion students will identify texture as a property of matter. Students will develop vocabulary related to describing texture. Students will sort objects by texture. This lesson is part 2 of a 4 part unit on Properties of Matter. During each lesson students will explore specific properties of matter through hands-on activities.

Type: Lesson Plan

Matter is EVERYWHERE Part 3:

Students will classify matter by temperature. Students will explore and come to conclusions about the temperature (hot or cold) of matter. This lesson is Part 3 of a 4-lesson unit on the Properties of Matter.

Type: Lesson Plan

Matter is EVERYWHERE:

Students will identify matter that is in their environment. Students will sort objects by the observable properties size, shape, color. Students will explore and come to conclusions about the size, shape, and color of matter. This lesson plan is part 1 of a 4 part unit which addresses properties of matter. (The properties of temperature, texture, weight, and ability to sink or float will be addressed in subsequent lessons).

Type: Lesson Plan

Rocks, Rocks, Everywhere:

The students will be able to sort rocks based upon color, hardness, texture, layering and particle size.

Type: Lesson Plan

Classifying Candy 1:

Students will develop two binary classification systems using concrete objects. The classification systems will be based on two different properties of the concrete objects.

The task assesses students' abilities to make simple observations and apply their understanding to classification.

This task is designed to take students approximately 10-15 minutes to complete.

Type: Lesson Plan

Sink or Float? Inquiry Investigation:

Students will predict which objects sink or float in water. They will observe, describe, and keep records about what happens when objects are placed in water, and determine whether there is consistency in their own and classmates' results. They will generate ideas about characteristics of materials that sink or float, and will ask questions about physical properties of matter.

Type: Lesson Plan

Shell Sorts:

A resource as plentiful as seashells on the beaches of Florida provides a great springboard for teaching about sorting objects by texture, size and shape. Your students will never look at these beautiful objects in the same way!

Type: Lesson Plan

Float or Sink?:

This lesson builds on lessons regarding the different properties of solids by having students explore how different objects float or sink when placed in water.

Type: Lesson Plan

Properties of Solids:

This lesson (intended to be used with other sorting lessons) allows students to understand the basic concepts of matter and properties of solids. This lesson involves the creation of a vocabulary chart with a child-friendly definition of matter and a Thinking Map with the varying properties of solids that students can use to sort different objects. Students explore two different objects and record their observations about the objects' properties.

Type: Lesson Plan

Sink or Float:

Students make predictions and test and sort a variety of objects based on whether they sink or float.

Type: Lesson Plan

Sorting Matter:

Students will recognize that matter can be sorted by various properties.

Type: Lesson Plan

Build a Better Boat:

This lesson gives the students an opportunity to recognize the properties of objects (sink and float) as well as working collaboratively to solve problems. This lesson incorporates design challenge aspects at a level that is appropriate for young students who are just beginning their formal education.

Type: Lesson Plan

## Original Student Tutorials

Sorting Part 4: Sinking and Floating:

Make and test predictions to see if different items sink or float in water in this interactive tutorial.

This is Part 4 in a four-part series about sorting.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Sorting Part 3: Temperature:

Learn all about temperature and use temperature to sort different types of food in this interactive tutorial.

This is Part 3 in a four-part series about sorting.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Sorting Part 2: Weight:

Learn about weight and use weight to sort different types of sports balls.

This is Part 2 in a four-part series about sorting.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Sorting Part 1: Size, Shape, Color, and Texture:

Sort bugs and other critters by their different attributes, including size, shape, color, and texture, in this interactive tutorial.

This is Part 1 in a four-part series about sorting.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

## Teaching Ideas

Float or Sink?:

In this water activity, learners test which objects float and which sink. Learners discover that objects behave differently in water. Learners are also introduced to the idea of "predicting" and record their predictions and observations on a chart. This activity is part of the curriculum Explore Water, related to Peep and the Big Wide World, a preschool science series on public television. The activity starts on page 41 of the PDF.

Type: Teaching Idea

Sorting Solids:

Students are asked to sort solids in a variety of ways and justify their reasoning for sorting the solids.

Type: Teaching Idea

The Weight of Water-SeaWorld Classroom Activity:

In this activity, the students will discover that seawater is more dense than fresh water.

Type: Teaching Idea

## Unit/Lesson Sequence

Observing and Sorting:

In this unit, students learn to make observations that clearly distinguish specific objects from others and how to sort items by different attributes (eg, color, size, weight).

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

## Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this topic.

## Original Student Tutorials

Sorting Part 4: Sinking and Floating:

Make and test predictions to see if different items sink or float in water in this interactive tutorial.

This is Part 4 in a four-part series about sorting.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Sorting Part 3: Temperature:

Learn all about temperature and use temperature to sort different types of food in this interactive tutorial.

This is Part 3 in a four-part series about sorting.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Sorting Part 2: Weight:

Learn about weight and use weight to sort different types of sports balls.

This is Part 2 in a four-part series about sorting.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Sorting Part 1: Size, Shape, Color, and Texture:

Sort bugs and other critters by their different attributes, including size, shape, color, and texture, in this interactive tutorial.

This is Part 1 in a four-part series about sorting.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

## Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this topic.