Standard 3: Reading Across Genres

General Information
Number: ELA.8.R.3
Title: Reading Across Genres
Type: Standard
Subject: English Language Arts (B.E.S.T.)
Grade: 8
Strand: Reading

Related Benchmarks

This cluster includes the following benchmarks.

Related Access Points

This cluster includes the following access points.

Access Points

ELA.8.R.3.AP.1a
Explain how figurative language contributes to tone and meaning of text(s).
ELA.8.R.3.AP.1b
Identify examples of symbolism in a text.
ELA.8.R.3.AP.2
Retell content from grade-level texts, at the student’s ability level using the student’s mode of communication.
ELA.8.R.3.AP.3
Compare and contrast how the author uses archetypes in a text with developmentally appropriate content at the student’s skill level.
ELA.8.R.3.AP.4
Describe how an author’s use of rhetorical devices (to include rhetorical questioning and irony) supports an appeal.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this topic.

Lesson Plans

Alexander Hamilton: The Outsider: Understanding Perspectives: Colonists, Patriots, and Loyalists:

Students will use new vocabulary to complete a graphic organizer, and differentiate between the Loyalist and Patriot perspectives, and civic virtue as they read Alexander Hamilton: The Outsider by Jean Fritz in this lesson.

There are three CPALMS lessons that can be used to complement a study of Alexander Hamilton: The Outsider and help students take a new perspective by merging ELA skills with civics knowledge.

This resource uses a book that is on the Florida Department of Education's reading list. This book is not provided with this resource.

Type: Lesson Plan

Alexander Hamilton: The Outsider: The Liberty Boys and the Boston Tea Party:

Students will read Chapters 1-6 of Alexander Hamilton: The Outsider by Jean Fritz, and will critically analyze the actions of the Liberty Boys during the Boston Tea Party and develop informed opinions on whether they should be condemned for their act of dumping tea into the water. Students will need to understand that civic virtue is also connected to Alexander Hamilton based on his being a Founder, in that he played a significant role in the founding of the United States.

There are three CPALMS lessons that can be used to complement a study of Alexander Hamilton: The Outsider and help students take a new perspective by merging ELA skills with civics knowledge.

This resource uses a book that is on the Florida Department of Education's reading list. This book is not provided with this resource.

Type: Lesson Plan

To Kill a Mockingbird: Building Schema Through Historical Context:

This is lesson #1 in the text unit series for Harper Lee’s, To Kill a Mockingbird, in which students will be able to understand the historical context of the setting and time period in the text and make connections between the novel and real-world events during that era. By the end of this pre-reading lesson, students will be able to understand the historical context of the setting and time period in the text and make connections between the novel and real-world events during that era.

This lesson is part of a larger unit integrating ELA and Civics standards in order to support the understanding through the reading and study of Harper Lee’s novel, To Kill a Mockingbird. This unit’s activities will allow students to connect to the text and explore the blend of historical and literary context as they relate to real-world civic issues, address the application of the Bill of Rights, as well as recognizing the responsibilities of citizens at the local and state level. In this unit, students will develop critical thinking and communication skills by engaging in class discussions, written reflections, and collaborative activities.

This resource uses a book that is on the Florida Department of Education's reading list. This book is not provided with this resource.

Type: Lesson Plan

To Kill a Mockingbird: Response to Literature:

This is the final lesson #6 in the text unit series for Harper Lee’s, To Kill a Mockingbird, in which students will complete a culminating writing activity following the completion of the novel by examining provided source material outlining three major real-world court cases from the Civil Rights Movement.

This unit integrates ELA and Civics standards in order to support the understanding through the reading and study of Harper Lee’s novel, To Kill a Mockingbird. This unit’s activities will allow students to connect to the text and explore the blend of historical and literary context as they relate to real-world civic issues. In this unit, students will develop critical thinking and communication skills by engaging in class discussions, written reflections, and collaborative activities.

This resource uses a book that is on the Florida Department of Education's reading list. This book is not provided with this resource.

Type: Lesson Plan

Paraphrasing President Lincoln: The Words of Honest Abe:

In this lesson, students will review the basic rules for effective paraphrasing. Students will read a short speech that President Abraham Lincoln delivered to Union troops during the civil war. They will paraphrase several key sections to strengthen their paraphrasing skills and analyze the use of figurative language to deepen their knowledge of the United States' foundational principles. Students will also answer text-dependent questions to further analyze Lincoln’s remarks.

Type: Lesson Plan

“Ain’t I a Woman?” – Using Ethos to Achieve Purpose:

In this lesson, students will read Sojourner Truth’s “Ain’t I a Woman?” speech, delivered in 1851 to men and women attending the Women’s Rights Convention in Akron, Ohio. Students will analyze how the use of rhetorical appeals, specifically ethos, helps Truth establish and achieve her purpose. Students will describe how this use of ethos supports Truth’s purpose to persuade Americans to support equal voting rights, especially for women, citing text evidence when appropriate.

Students will complete text-dependent questions to clarify their comprehension of the speech. In addition, they will make connections between Truth’s speech and the foundational principles expressed in an excerpt from the Declaration of Independence.

Type: Lesson Plan

American Leadership: Analyzing Two Central Ideas:

In this lesson, students will read President George W. Bush’s “9/11 Address to the Nation,” delivered in the evening of September 11th, 2001. Students will analyze the two distinct central ideas that emerge in the speech. They will identify the textual evidence within the speech that supports each central idea.

Students will also complete text-dependent questions to further analyze the speech. As part of this analysis, they will make connections between President Bush’s speech and the ideas expressed in the Preamble of the Constitution.

Type: Lesson Plan

Comparing Irony: The Gift of the Magi--Lesson 3 of 3:

This lesson is the third in a series of three based on O. Henry's short story "The Gift of the Magi." The previous lessons provide instruction in using context clues to determine word meanings and in analyzing the significance of literary devices as they support the theme of Love and Sacrifice. In this final lesson, students will apply their knowledge of context clues from lesson one and their analysis of theme from lesson two as they consider the use of irony in the texts: "The Gift of the Magi" and "The Shivering Beggar," a poem by Robert Graves.

Type: Lesson Plan

Analyzing Theme: The Gift of the Magi--Lesson 2 of 3:

This is lesson two in a three-part series on “The Gift of the Magi” by O. Henry. In this lesson, students will analyze the development of the theme of love and sacrifice in O. Henry's classic short story, "The Gift of the Magi." Students will write an extended paragraph analyzing how point of view, setting, or plot contributes to the theme.

Type: Lesson Plan

Rain in Summer: What a Bummer, Or Is It?:

In this lesson, students will analyze the symbols and imagery present in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem "Rain in Summer" to determine its meaning. Formative assessment checks are included as student handouts with text-based questions and charts. Students will also write a short essay as a summative assessment in which they will develop a claim about the poem's meaning, providing text-based examples as support.

Type: Lesson Plan

Reading of a Greek Myth: Apollo and Daphne:

Students will read the myth "Apollo and Daphne" as told by Thomas Bulfinch and analyze lines in the story that propel the action, reveal details about a character, or provoke a decision. Students will work in groups to paraphrase text to create a short dramatization of an assigned section of the myth.

Type: Lesson Plan

Symmetry in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight:

This lesson plan explores symmetry in the structure and themes of "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight," delving into the antagonist's representation of the "duality of nature." In examining knightly virtues, students will measure Gawain's strength as the poem's hero. The lesson explains background information that every medieval thinker listening to a performance of the poem would know, in an effort to put the student into the mind-set of the medieval audience, providing a deeper appreciation and understanding of the work.

Type: Lesson Plan

Edgar Allan Poe: "Annabel Lee":

In this lesson, students will read and analyze “Annabel Lee” by Edgar Allan Poe and will analyze and discuss the poetic devices and figurative language used in the poem as it supports the topic of “The Death of a Beautiful Woman.” Students will write a short response to explain their analysis.

Type: Lesson Plan

Florida: Feast of Connotations:

In this lesson, students will read the poem "Florida" by Elizabeth Bishop and code the text for positive and negative descriptions of Florida. Students will then explain in writing how connotation and figurative language contribute to the poet's description of Florida.

Type: Lesson Plan

Figurative Language in Macavity:

In this lesson students will use T.S. Eliot's poem, “Macavity," to analyze the power of word choice and figurative language devices in creating coherent and purposefully written descriptions. They will cite text evidence to show how specific lines of the poem impact and drive the description of the subject of the poem, who happens to be a cat. They will write their own narrative using figurative language to describe an animal.

Type: Lesson Plan

Context Clues in Context: The Gift of the Magi--Lesson 1 of 3:

This is lesson one in a three-part series on “The Gift of the Magi” by O. Henry. In lesson one, students will read "The Gift of the Magi" by O. Henry. As they read, they will complete a context clues activity to solidify their understanding of how to use context clues to determine meanings of unknown vocabulary words.

Type: Lesson Plan

Exploring Technology Part 1: Inventions & Innovations:

Students will complete a graphic organizer to record information from their online research on various technological inventions and innovations as an introduction to technology. After completing their research, students will reflect on the relationship between people and technology in this lesson plan.

Type: Lesson Plan

Leadership Part 2: Leaders- Who are they and what do they do?:

In groups, students will conduct online research and complete a graphic organizer on the characteristics and responsibilities of leaders from various industries in this lesson.

Type: Lesson Plan

Letter from the Front:

In this lesson series, students will read and conduct research about an American Civil War battle. Students will be required to use two or more texts to synthesize information about the battle, and they will then use this information to write a journal entry or letter as if they were present for the battle. Students will share their journal entries or letters digitally.

Type: Lesson Plan

Orientation to Career Clusters: Education and Training Career Research Part 2:

Students will choose a career within the Education and Training Career Cluster to research. Student research will focus on training and education requirements for the career, the skills, abilities, and talents needed to be successful in the career and showcase a business or organization that employs individuals within the career. Students will compile their research as they create a poster presentation.

Type: Lesson Plan

Poetry and Meaning: "Abraham Lincoln Walks at Midnight" :

In this lesson, students will study the poem "Abraham Lincoln Walks at Midnight" by Vachel Lindsay. Students will identify the examples of imagery within the poem and determine how the use of imagery contributes to the poem's meaning. Students will also practice making connections between the poem and its background information (President Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War) as well as its historical context (World War I). During the lesson, students will also practice determining the meaning of unfamiliar words in the poem.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorials

Just a Small Town Kid Part One:

Analyze how the small town setting archetype enhances the plot and characterization in a text with this interactive tutorial.

This is part one in a two part series on the small town archetype.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Not All Heroes Wear Capes!:

Learn the characteristics of the archetype of The Hero, compare the hero archetype with American heroes, and identify how the archetype characteristics and American hero characteristics connect to elements of the Bill of Rights in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Fate by the Fire: Analyzing Symbolism in "The Monkey's Paw" (Part One):

Learn all about symbolism using excerpts from the classic short story "The Monkey's Paw" by W.W. Jacobs. We'll break down the events of the story and analyze how the use of symbolism contributes to the overall meaning of the text. In Part One, we'll cover some important background information and read the opening excerpts of the text. Make sure to complete both parts!

Click HERE to launch Part Two.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

A Heart Trouble: Analyzing Symbolism in "The Story of an Hour" (Part One):

Learn the features of symbolism and how authors use it to add meaning and depth to a piece of literature. Then we’ll examine the specific use of symbolism in the short story “The Story of an Hour.” Using excerpts from the text, we’ll analyze how the use of symbolism contributes to meaning in the text.

This is part 1 in a two-part series. Click HERE to view Part 2.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

A Heart Trouble: Analyzing Symbolism in "The Story of an Hour" (Part Two):

In Part Two, continue to examine the use of symbolism in the short story “The Story of an Hour” by Kate Chopin. By the end of this tutorial, you should be able to explain how the use of symbolism adds greater significance to the dramatic transformation of Louise Mallard throughout the story.

Make sure to complete Part One before beginning Part Two. Click HERE to view Part One.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Fate by the Fire: Analyzing Symbolism in "The Monkey's Paw" (Part Two):

Learn all about symbolism in this two-part tutorial series using excerpts from the classic short story "The Monkey's Paw" by W.W. Jacobs. In Part One, we examined the use of symbolism in the first part of the text. In Part Two, we'll finish the story and analyze how the use of symbolism contributes to the text's overall meaning. Make sure to complete both parts!

Click HERE to launch Part One.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing an Extended Metaphor in "All the World’s a Stage":

Explore the famous speech “All the World’s a Stage” from Shakespeare’s play As You Like It. In this interactive tutorial, you’ll analyze an extended metaphor within the speech and how it contributes to the speech’s meaning.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

What it Means to Give a Gift: How Allusions Contribute to Meaning in "The Gift of the Magi":

Examine how allusions contribute to meaning in excerpts from O. Henry's classic American short story “The Gift of the Magi." In this interactive tutorial, you'll determine how allusions in the text better develop the key story elements of setting, characters, and conflict and explain how the allusion to the Magi contributes to the story’s main message about what it means to give a gift.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Archetypes – Part Three: Comparing and Contrasting Archetypes in Two Fantasy Stories:

Read excerpts from the fantasy novel The Princess and Curdie, the sequel to The Princess and the Goblin, by George MacDonald in Part Three of this three-part series. By the end of this interactive tutorial, you should be able to compare and contrast the use of archetypes in two fantasy stories.

Make sure to complete all three parts of this series!

Click HERE to view "Archetypes -- Part One: Examining an Archetype in The Princess and the Goblin."

Click HERE to view "Archetypes -- Part Two: Examining Archetypes in The Princess and the Goblin.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Ring the Bell: Paraphrase Like a Champion:

Learn to paraphrase grade-level content in this boxing-themed tutorial. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Archetypes – Part Two: Examining Archetypes in The Princess and the Goblin:

Read more from the fantasy novel The Princess and the Goblin by George MacDonald in Part Two of this three-part series. By the end of this tutorial, you should be able to compare and contrast the archetypes of two characters in the novel.

Make sure to complete all three parts of this series in order to compare and contrast the use of archetypes in two texts.

Click HERE to view "Archetypes -- Part One: Examining an Archetype in The Princess and the Goblin."

Click HERE to view "Archetypes -- Part Three: Comparing and Contrasting Archetypes in Two Fantasy Stories." 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Archetypes – Part One: Examining an Archetype in The Princess and the Goblin:

Learn to determine the important traits of a main character named Princess Irene in excerpts from the fantasy novel The Princess and the Goblin by George MacDonald. In this interactive tutorial, you’ll also identify her archetype and explain how textual details about her character support her archetype.  

Make sure to complete all three parts of this series in order to compare and contrast the use of archetypes in two texts.

Click HERE to view "Archetypes -- Part Two: Examining Archetypes in The Princess and the Goblin."

Click HERE to view "Archetypes -- Part Three: Comparing and Contrasting Archetypes in Two Fantasy Stories." 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Bridging Figurative Language:

Learn how figurative language contributes to the meaning of an informational text. In this interactive tutorial, you'll examine excerpts from President Obama's 50th Anniversary Speech of the March on Selma. You'll specifically analyze his use of imagery and metaphors and how they add to the meaning of his speech.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Text Resources

Vocabulary Through Context Clues in "The Rights of the Colonists" by Samuel Adams:

This teaching resource provides teachers with the tools to help students analyze Samuel Adams' "The Rights" of the Colonists" by paraphrasing content and using context clues to understand vocabulary necessary for comprehension.

Type: Text Resource

A Woman's Truth: Analyzing Imagery & Meaning:

This teaching resource provides the tools to help students analyze the use of figurative language in an 1853 speech by Sojourner Truth. Students will specifically examine her skillful use of imagery throughout the speech. Students will analyze how Truth uses imagery at key points in her speech to express her message and achieve her purpose (below). Students will also gain a deeper understanding of this speech and why it was a significant act of civic participation.

Type: Text Resource

Ain't I a Woman?: Rhetorical Questions and Emotional Appeal:

This teaching resource provides teachers with guidelines to help students analyze the speech delivered by Sojourner Truth, during the period leading up to women’s suffrage. The speech contains many rhetorical questions that connect with her emotional appeal (utilizing pathos) that students will think critically about.

Type: Text Resource

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this topic.

Original Student Tutorials

Just a Small Town Kid Part One:

Analyze how the small town setting archetype enhances the plot and characterization in a text with this interactive tutorial.

This is part one in a two part series on the small town archetype.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Not All Heroes Wear Capes!:

Learn the characteristics of the archetype of The Hero, compare the hero archetype with American heroes, and identify how the archetype characteristics and American hero characteristics connect to elements of the Bill of Rights in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Fate by the Fire: Analyzing Symbolism in "The Monkey's Paw" (Part One):

Learn all about symbolism using excerpts from the classic short story "The Monkey's Paw" by W.W. Jacobs. We'll break down the events of the story and analyze how the use of symbolism contributes to the overall meaning of the text. In Part One, we'll cover some important background information and read the opening excerpts of the text. Make sure to complete both parts!

Click HERE to launch Part Two.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

A Heart Trouble: Analyzing Symbolism in "The Story of an Hour" (Part One):

Learn the features of symbolism and how authors use it to add meaning and depth to a piece of literature. Then we’ll examine the specific use of symbolism in the short story “The Story of an Hour.” Using excerpts from the text, we’ll analyze how the use of symbolism contributes to meaning in the text.

This is part 1 in a two-part series. Click HERE to view Part 2.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

A Heart Trouble: Analyzing Symbolism in "The Story of an Hour" (Part Two):

In Part Two, continue to examine the use of symbolism in the short story “The Story of an Hour” by Kate Chopin. By the end of this tutorial, you should be able to explain how the use of symbolism adds greater significance to the dramatic transformation of Louise Mallard throughout the story.

Make sure to complete Part One before beginning Part Two. Click HERE to view Part One.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Fate by the Fire: Analyzing Symbolism in "The Monkey's Paw" (Part Two):

Learn all about symbolism in this two-part tutorial series using excerpts from the classic short story "The Monkey's Paw" by W.W. Jacobs. In Part One, we examined the use of symbolism in the first part of the text. In Part Two, we'll finish the story and analyze how the use of symbolism contributes to the text's overall meaning. Make sure to complete both parts!

Click HERE to launch Part One.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing an Extended Metaphor in "All the World’s a Stage":

Explore the famous speech “All the World’s a Stage” from Shakespeare’s play As You Like It. In this interactive tutorial, you’ll analyze an extended metaphor within the speech and how it contributes to the speech’s meaning.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

What it Means to Give a Gift: How Allusions Contribute to Meaning in "The Gift of the Magi":

Examine how allusions contribute to meaning in excerpts from O. Henry's classic American short story “The Gift of the Magi." In this interactive tutorial, you'll determine how allusions in the text better develop the key story elements of setting, characters, and conflict and explain how the allusion to the Magi contributes to the story’s main message about what it means to give a gift.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Archetypes – Part Three: Comparing and Contrasting Archetypes in Two Fantasy Stories:

Read excerpts from the fantasy novel The Princess and Curdie, the sequel to The Princess and the Goblin, by George MacDonald in Part Three of this three-part series. By the end of this interactive tutorial, you should be able to compare and contrast the use of archetypes in two fantasy stories.

Make sure to complete all three parts of this series!

Click HERE to view "Archetypes -- Part One: Examining an Archetype in The Princess and the Goblin."

Click HERE to view "Archetypes -- Part Two: Examining Archetypes in The Princess and the Goblin.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Ring the Bell: Paraphrase Like a Champion:

Learn to paraphrase grade-level content in this boxing-themed tutorial. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Archetypes – Part Two: Examining Archetypes in The Princess and the Goblin:

Read more from the fantasy novel The Princess and the Goblin by George MacDonald in Part Two of this three-part series. By the end of this tutorial, you should be able to compare and contrast the archetypes of two characters in the novel.

Make sure to complete all three parts of this series in order to compare and contrast the use of archetypes in two texts.

Click HERE to view "Archetypes -- Part One: Examining an Archetype in The Princess and the Goblin."

Click HERE to view "Archetypes -- Part Three: Comparing and Contrasting Archetypes in Two Fantasy Stories." 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Archetypes – Part One: Examining an Archetype in The Princess and the Goblin:

Learn to determine the important traits of a main character named Princess Irene in excerpts from the fantasy novel The Princess and the Goblin by George MacDonald. In this interactive tutorial, you’ll also identify her archetype and explain how textual details about her character support her archetype.  

Make sure to complete all three parts of this series in order to compare and contrast the use of archetypes in two texts.

Click HERE to view "Archetypes -- Part Two: Examining Archetypes in The Princess and the Goblin."

Click HERE to view "Archetypes -- Part Three: Comparing and Contrasting Archetypes in Two Fantasy Stories." 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Bridging Figurative Language:

Learn how figurative language contributes to the meaning of an informational text. In this interactive tutorial, you'll examine excerpts from President Obama's 50th Anniversary Speech of the March on Selma. You'll specifically analyze his use of imagery and metaphors and how they add to the meaning of his speech.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this topic.