Semantics and Logic Honors   (#1004300)

Version for Academic Year:

Course Standards

General Course Information and Notes

Version Description

The purpose of this course is to provide students knowledge of the principles of semantics and logic using texts of high complexity and advanced integrated language arts study.

Honors and Advanced Level Course Note: Academic rigor is more than simply assigning to students a greater quantity of work. Through the application, analysis, evaluation, and creation of complex ideas that are often abstract and multi-faceted, students are challenged to think and collaborate critically on the content they are learning.

General Notes

The content should include, but not be limited to, the following:
  • active reading of advanced texts for what they say explicitly, as well as the logical inferences that can be drawn
  • analysis of informational texts from varied literary periods to examine:
    • semantic concepts of text and changes across literary periods
    • arguments and claims supported by textual evidence, including logical fallacies
    • power and impact of language
    • inductive and deductive reasoning
    • critical and aesthetic response
  • writing for varied purposes
    • developing and supporting argumentative claims
    • crafting coherent, supported informative/expository texts
    • writing to sources using text- based evidence and reasoning
  • effective listening, speaking, and viewing strategies with emphasis on the use of evidence to support or refute a claim in multimedia presentations, class discussions, and extended text discussions
  • collaboration amongst peers
Special Notes:
Instructional Practices:
Teaching from well-written, grade-level instructional materials enhances students' content area knowledge and also strengthens their ability to comprehend longer, complex reading passages on any topic for any purpose. Using the following instructional practices also helps student learning.
  1. Reading assignments from longer text passages, as well as shorter ones when text is extremely complex.
  2. Making close reading and rereading of texts central to lessons.
  3. Asking high-level, text-specific questions and requiring high-level, complex tasks and assignments.
  4. Requiring students to support answers with evidence from the text.
  5. Providing extensive text-based research and writing opportunities (claims and evidence).
The College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate at each grade level. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each succeeding year's grade specific benchmarks, retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades, and work steadily toward meeting the more general expectations described by the CCR anchor standards.

General Information

Course Number: 1004300
Abbreviated Title: SEMANTICS - LOGIC HON
Number of Credits: Half credit (.5)
Course Length: Semester (S)
Course Attributes:
  • Honors
Course Type: Elective Course
Course Level: 3
Course Status: Course Approved
Grade Level(s): 9,10,11,12

Educator Certifications

One of these educator certification options is required to teach this course.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this course.

Original Student Tutorials

Symbolism & Allegory in "The Devil and Tom Walker" (Part Two):

Learn all about symbolism and allegory in this interactive tutorial. We'll use the classic short story "The Devil and Tom Walker" by Washington Irving to explore the use of symbolism and allegory as types of figurative language. We'll break down the events of the story and analyze how the use of symbolism contributes to the powerful allegory in this haunting tale. This tutorial is Part Two of a two-part series.

Make sure to complete Part One first. Click HERE to launch Part One.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Symbolism & Allegory in "The Devil and Tom Walker" (Part One):

Learn all about symbolism and allegory in this interactive tutorial. We'll use the classic short story "The Devil and Tom Walker" by Washington Irving to explore the use of symbolism and allegory as types of figurative language. We'll break down the events of the story and analyze how the use of symbolism contributes to the powerful allegory in this haunting tale. 

In Part One, we'll cover some important background information and read the opening excerpts of the text. Make sure to complete both parts! Click HERE to launch Part Two.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Word Prodigy: Using Context Clues:

Learn to use context clues to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words in this interactive tutorial. You'll learn how to identify and apply three important types of context clues: synonyms, antonyms, and inferences. This tutorial features passages about some of the world's most incredible child prodigies.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Blasting Off with Active and Passive Voice:

Learn to distinguish between passive and active voice and how to revise sentences by changing them from passive voice to active voice in this interactive Space Race-themed tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Vocabulary Unleashed:

Learn 15 new academic vocabulary words in this interactive tutorial! You'll practice the words' synonyms, antonyms, parts of speech, and context clues in order to add them to your vocabulary.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Exploring Comma Usage:

Learn to use commas correctly to set off an introductory clause, phrase, or word at the start of a sentence with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Be Careful with Your Commas!:

Learn to use commas correctly with this interactive English Language Arts tutorial. You'll review a number of important comma rules, including when not to use a comma, and you'll learn to identify errors in comma usage. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Mysterious Punctuation Marks—Part Two: Quotation Marks and the Dash:

Learn about two mysterious punctuation marks: quotation marks and the dash. As you complete this interactive tutorial, you'll learn a number of important rules and guidelines to help you use them correctly.

This is Part Two of a two-part series. Click HERE to launch Part One to learn about the apostrophe and the ellipsis.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Reading into Words with Multiple Meanings:

Explore Robert Frost's poem "Mending Wall" and examine words, phrases, and lines with multiple meanings. In this interactive tutorial, you'll analyze how these multiple meanings can affect a reader’s interpretation of the poem.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Mysterious Punctuation Marks -- Part One:

Learn about four mysterious punctuation marks in this two-part interactive tutorial. In Part One, you'll learn important rules and guidelines to help you correctly use the apostrophe and the ellipsis. 

In Part Two, you'll learn to correctly use quotation marks and the dash. Make sure to complete both parts! Click HERE to open Part Two.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Comma Check: Putting Your Punctuation in Order:

Learn three rules for using commas correctly in your writing through use of this interactive English Language Arts tutorial. You'll learn how to join two independent clauses without creating a comma splice, how to identify and offset a nonessential clause in a sentence, and how to use the controversial Oxford comma. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Determining Point of View and Its Effect on a Text:

Read excerpts from E.B. White's moving personal essay "Once More to the Lake." In this tutorial, you will determine an author’s personal point of view and examine how it contributes to the beauty of a text.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Check it Out: Using Colons Correctly:

Learn about the ways to correctly use a colon in a sentence by exploring this interactive tutorial! We'll go over contexts where colon use is appropriate, and you'll learn guidelines for colon usage. You'll also learn several important rules for capitalization usage after a colon. By the end, you should be apply to apply these rules to correctly use a colon within a sentence. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Doppelganger Danger: Confusing Pronouns:

Examine some commonly confused pronouns that often trick people into believing that they have the same meaning when their meanings can be very different. This interactive tutorial will help you properly use the following pronouns: who, whom, which, that, their, there, they're.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

What Is an American? Evaluating the Structure of an Argument – Part Three:

Examine what it means to be an American by analyzing a speech delivered by the U.S. Secretary of the Interior, Harold L. Ickes, in 1941. This tutorial is Part Three of a three-part series. In this tutorial, you will read more excerpts from Ickes’ speech, and then you will evaluate the effectiveness of his argument's structure. 

Be sure to complete the first two parts before completing Part Three.

Click HERE for Part One. Click HERE for Part Two. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Doppelganger Danger: Words Commonly Confused:

Avoid "doppelganger danger" as you examine six pairs of commonly confused words in this interactive tutorial. Learn how to correctly use these commonly confused words to improve your language and writing skills.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Piece It Together: Understanding Semicolon Usage:

Learn and practice how to use semicolons in this interactive tutorial. You'll learn three important rules for using the semicolon to join clauses together. By the end, you should be able to apply these three rules to correctly use a semicolon within a sentence.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Doppelganger Danger: Commonly Confused Words:

Avoid "doppelganger danger" as you examine six pairs of commonly confused words. Learning how to correctly use these commonly confused words will help improve your writing and mastery of English.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

What Is an American? Evaluating the Structure of an Argument – Part Two:

Examine what it means to be an American by analyzing a speech delivered by the U.S. Secretary of the Interior, Harold L. Ickes, in 1941. This tutorial is Part Two of a three-part series. In this tutorial, you will read excerpts from Ickes’ speech, and then you will identify his use of rhetorical appeals and analyze the structure of his argument. 

Make sure to complete Part One first. Click HERE for Part One.

Click HERE for Part Three.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

What Is an American? Evaluating the Structure of an Argument – Part One:

Examine what it means to be an American by analyzing a speech delivered by the U.S. Secretary of the Interior, Harold L. Ickes, in 1941. This tutorial is Part One of a three-part series. In this tutorial, you will read excerpts from the opening sections of Ickes’ speech. Then, you will work on determining his purpose, point of view, and important claims in these sections.  

Make sure to complete all three parts! Click HERE to view Part Two. Click HERE to view Part Three.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Complex Usage: Which Word Will Win?:

Examine five pairs of commonly confused words in this interactive tutorial. This tutorial focuses on language and resolving issues of complex usage. You will examine pairs of words that are often confused in order to learn the correct use of each word. By the end of this tutorial, you should be able to accurately use these ten commonly confused words. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Doppelganger Danger: Tricky Word Doubles:

Avoid "doppelganger danger" as you examine fourteen homophones, which are words that sound the same but have different meanings and spellings. Learning how to use these homophones correctly in this interactive tutorial will help you avoid some of the most common usage mistakes.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Doppelganger Danger: Tricky Homophones:

Avoid "doppelganger danger" as you examine eleven homophones, which are words that sound the same but have different meanings and spellings. Learning how to use these homophones correctly in this interactive tutorial will help you avoid some of the most common usage mistakes.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Doppelganger Danger: Words that Confuse:

Avoid "doppelganger danger" as you examine twelve homophones, which are words that sound the same but have different meanings and spellings. Learning how to use these homophones correctly in this interactive tutorial will help you avoid some of the most common usage mistakes.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing Word Choice in Emerson's "Self-Reliance": Part 2:

Explore excerpts from Ralph Waldo Emerson's essay "Self-Reliance" in this two-part series. This tutorial is Part Two. In this tutorial, you will continue to examine excerpts from Emerson's essay that focus on the topic of traveling. You'll examine word meanings and determine the connotations of specific words. You will also analyze the impact of specific word choices on the meaning of this portion of the essay.

Make sure to complete Part One first. Click HERE to launch Part One.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing Word Choice in Emerson's "Self-Reliance": Part 1:

Explore excerpts from Ralph Waldo Emerson's essay "Self-Reliance" in this two-part interactive tutorial series. You will examine word meanings, examine subtle differences between words with similar meanings, and think about the emotions or associations that are connected to specific words. Finally, you will analyze the impact of specific word choices on the meaning of these excerpts.

Make sure to complete both parts! Click HERE to launch Part Two.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing Figurative Meaning in Emerson's "Self-Reliance": Part 2:

Explore excerpts from Ralph Waldo Emerson's essay "Self-Reliance" in this interactive two-part tutorial. This tutorial is Part Two. In this two-part series, you will learn to enhance your experience of Emerson's essay by analyzing his use of the word "genius." You will analyze Emerson's figurative meaning of "genius" and how he develops and refines the meaning of this word over the course of the essay.

Make sure to complete Part One before beginning Part Two. Click HERE to view Part One.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Exploring Themes in Pride and Prejudice - Part Four:

Having studied two key topics in excerpts from the classic novel Pride and Prejudice in previous parts of this tutorial series, in Part Four you will use these topics and textual details from the novel to determine two themes of the novel. You will also analyze how these themes interact and build on one another.

Make sure to complete the previous parts of this series before beginning Part Four.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing Figurative Meaning in Emerson's "Self-Reliance": Part 1:

Explore excerpts from Ralph Waldo Emerson's essay "Self-Reliance" in this interactive two-part tutorial. In Part One, you’ll learn to enhance your experience of a text by analyzing its use of a word’s figurative meaning. Specifically, you'll examine Emerson's figurative meaning of the key term "genius." In Part Two, you’ll learn how to track the development of a word’s figurative meaning over the course of a text. 

Make sure to complete both parts of the tutorial! Click HERE to launch Part Two.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Exploring Themes in Pride and Prejudice - Part Three:

Continue to explore two key topics in the classic novel Pride and Prejudice and analyze characters’ actions as they relate to these topics in Part Three of this four-part series. By the end of this series, you will use these topics and textual details to determine two themes of the novel. You will also analyze how these themes interact and build on one another.

Make sure to complete all four parts of the series!

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Exploring Themes in Pride and Prejudice - Part Two:

Explore two key topics (first impressions and self-awareness) in the classic novel Pride and Prejudice and analyze characters’ actions as they relate to these topics. This tutorial is Part Two in a four-part series. By the end of this tutorial series, you will use these topics and textual details to determine two themes of the novel. You will also analyze how these themes interact and build on one another.

Make sure to complete all four parts of the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Exploring Themes in Pride and Prejudice - Part One:

Explore two key topics in excerpts from Jane Austen's classic novel Pride and Prejudice and analyze characters’ actions as they relate to these topics in Part One of this four-part interactive tutorial series. By the end of this series, you will use these topics and textual details to determine two themes of the novel and analyze how these themes interact and build on one another.

Click below to complete all four parts of the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Discovering the Treasure of Sentence Variety: Part 2:

Batten down the hatches, mateys! In this two-part series, you'll learn about syntax and the ways in which writing with varied syntax can affect the meaning of a text. This tutorial is Part Two. In this tutorial, you'll learn about complex sentence structures. Then you'll combine what you learned in both parts of this series to identify different sentence structures and analyze the effect of simple, compound, and complex sentence structures on the meaning of a text. You'll also practice writing using varied syntax. 

Make sure to complete Part One before beginning Part Two! Click HERE to view Part One.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Discovering the Treasure of Sentence Variety: Part 1:

Ahoy, mateys! Learn about syntax and the ways in which writing with varied syntax can affect the meaning of a text. In this two-part interactive tutorial, you'll learn about syntax. You'll practice identifying simple, compound, and complex sentence structures and analyze the effect of these different types of structures on the meaning of a text. You'll also practice writing using varied syntax. 

Make sure to complete both parts of this series! Click HERE for Part Two.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Playing with Words: Changing Word Forms:

Learn how to transform words into other words, including nouns into verbs, verbs into adjectives, adjectives into adverbs, and much more with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Vocabulary Mastery:

Acquire 15 new vocabulary words, identify their parts of speech, synonyms, and antonyms, and use them in context with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Exploring Beneath the Surface: Irony in Poe’s “The Cask of Amontillado” (Part Two):

Learn how to identify use of verbal and dramatic irony in Edgar Allan Poe's "The Cask of Amontillado" in this interactive two-part tutorial. Students will also examine how Poe's use of irony with first person point of view affects the story. This tutorial is Part Two of a two-part series. In Part One, students read and analyzed the first two excerpts from the story. In Part Two, students will read and analyze the last three excerpts from the story.

Make sure to complete Part One first! Click HERE to complete Part One.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Exploring Beneath the Surface: Irony in Poe’s “The Cask of Amontillado” (Part 1 of 2):

Learn how to identify use of verbal and dramatic irony in Edgar Allan Poe's "The Cask of Amontillado" in this interactive two-part tutorial. You'll also examine how Poe's use of irony with first person point of view affects the story. You'll read and analyze the first two excerpts from the story in Part One, and the last three excerpts from the story in Part Two.

Be sure to complete Part One first. Click HERE to open Part Two. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Frankenstein's Creature: Monster or Not? Part 2 :

Examine text excerpts from Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein and evaluate several film clips based on different adaptations of Shelley's novel in this two-part interactive tutorial. By the end of this two-part tutorial, you should be able to analyze how the films’ various adaptations of the novel changes the audience’s perception of the creature that Mary Shelley originally created. This tutorial is Part Two of a two-part series.

Part One should be completed before beginning Part Two. Click HERE to launch Part One.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Hurston and Hughes: Analyzing Topics and Themes (Part 1 of 2):

Learn about two significant writers of the Harlem Renaissance, Zora Neal Hurston and Langston Hughes. In this two-part tutorial series, you'll read excerpts of texts from each author. In Part One, you'll practice identifying topics and determining themes using Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God. In Part Two, you'll read Hughes' poem "Freedom's Plow" to compare and contrast the authors' treatment of a similar topic and theme.

Click here to launch PART TWO.

 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Frankenstein's Creature: Monster or Not? Part 1 of 2:

Examine text excerpts from Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein and evaluate several film clips based on different adaptations of Shelley's novel in this two-part interactive tutorial. By the end of this two-part series, you should be able to analyze how the films’ various adaptations of the novel changes the audience’s perception of the creature Mary Shelley originally created.

Make sure to complete both parts! Click HERE to launch Part 2.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Hallowed Words: Evaluating a Speaker's Effectiveness:

Learn how to evaluate a speaker's point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence. In this interactive tutorial, you'll examine Abraham Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address" and evaluate the effectiveness of his words by analyzing his use of reasoning and evidence. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

In the Driver's Seat!:

Learn how to identify the strengths and weaknesses of sources to use in your writing. In this interactive tutorial, you'll learn to evaluate sources based on their relation to the audience, task, and purpose of your writing. You'll also practice determining whether potential sources are useful, relevant, and authoritative for your specific topic.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Power of Words: Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address:

Practice analyzing an informational text using President Abraham Lincoln's 2nd Inaugural Address. In this interactive tutorial, you'll determine Lincoln's purpose in this historical speech. You'll also analyze how his specific word choice and use of parallel structure help support his purpose.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Streamlining Sentences: Using Hyphens :

Learn how to use the hyphen in this interactive tutorial about sharks! You'll learn rules and strategies for the proper use of this often misunderstood punctuation mark.  

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Vocabulary in Action:

Acquire new vocabulary through this interactive tutorial. You'll learn the definitions for 15 new words, as well as their parts of speech, their synonyms and antonyms, and you'll practice using them in context.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Language Liaisons: A Relationship Between Words:

Explore word relationships by identifying and interpreting various figures of speech in context. In this interactive tutorial, you'll analyze the use of several kinds of figures of speech, including hyperbole and paradox. You'll also analyze the nuances in the meaning of words with similar definitions. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Vocabulary Power:

Acquire 15 new vocabulary words, identify their parts of speech, synonyms, and antonyms, and use them in context with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Reader Reflections: Text Structures and Complex Ideas:

Learn to identify common text structures used in nonfiction texts: problem/solution, definition/example, cause and effect, and compare and contrast. In this interactive tutorial, you'll read excerpts from Walden by Henry David Thoreau and examine how complex ideas can be expressed using various text structures.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Purpose and Rhetoric: Analyzing Civil Disobedience:

Learn about the rhetorical techniques used by Henry David Thoreau in his influential essay "Civil Disobedience."  In this interactive tutorial, you'll cover some important background information on Thoreau and this classic essay, examine his purpose for writing, and identify his use of specific rhetorical techniques, including the use of allusions, metaphors, and rhetorical questions.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Wild Words: Analyzing the Extended Metaphor in "The Stolen Child":

Learn to identify and analyze extended metaphors using W.B. Yeats' poem, "The Stolen Child." In this interactive tutorial, we'll examine how Yeats uses figurative language to express the extended metaphor throughout this poem. We'll focus on his use of these seven types of imagery: visual, auditory, gustatory, olfactory, tactile, kinesthetic, and organic. Finally, we'll analyze how the poem's extended metaphor conveys a deeper meaning within the text.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Drawing Evidence for Analysis and Reflection:

Learn to draw appropriate text evidence to support your written response to analysis and reflection prompts. In this interactive tutorial, you'll be working with excerpts from two of George Orwell’s works: 1984 and “Shooting an Elephant.” You'll practice identifying important evidence in the text to support your own thoughts and ideas.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Best Left Unsaid: Determining Matters of Brevity and Clarity:

In this interactive tutorial, you'll hone your skills of analysis using excerpts of the essay "For Brevity and Clarity" by Ambrose Bierce. You will sharpen your skills identifying textual evidence to support what an author states directly and as well as draw inferences from the text. You'll then learn to distinguish what is stated through satire and determine what amiguities the author creates. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Into the Wild: Close Encounters with Unfamiliar Words:

Learn several strategies for determining the meaning of unfamiliar words as you read about the late Dian Fossey's research on mountain gorillas. This interactive tutorial will also help you identify common prefixes and how they affect the meaning of words.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Clarence Darrow's Leopold and Loeb Speech:

Learn how to provide a complex analysis of two or more central ideas in a nonfiction text in this interactive tutorial. You will also analyze how the author’s central ideas develop over the course of the text and describe how they interact and build on one another. This tutorial utilizes an excerpt from the closing arguments by Clarence Darrow at the trial of Leopold and Loeb.

*Due to the subject matter of the Leopold and Loeb trial, this tutorial is recommended for a mature audience.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Dynamic English: Understanding a Changing Language:

Learn about the conventions of Modern English compared to the English of long ago. In this interactive tutorial, we'll examine some current language conventions that apply to our use of English when speaking and writing. We'll also see how our language has evolved since the days of Old English and Middle English. Finally, we'll examine some important differences between standard language and disputed (less formal) language. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Student Center Activity

Edcite: ELA Reading Grade 11:

Students can practice answering reading comprehension questions with engaging texts on the history of women's athletics. With an account, students can save their work and send it to their teacher when complete.

Type: Student Center Activity

Tutorials

How to Avoid Plagiarism:

This tutorial from the University of Maryland University College's Writing Center will help you understand and evaluate three ways to use source material: quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing. The resource also provides guidelines to help you avoid even unintentional plagiarism mistakes. Once you complete the interactive exercises and answer every question on the final quiz correctly, you will receive a printable certificate of completion. Simply click on the hyperlink for the Interactive Version to begin.

Type: Tutorial

Proper Techniques for Research and Writing:

This tutorial provides you with step-by-step instructions for all aspects of writing a research paper and includes a comprehensive list of links to various style guides. Quizzes are also provided for self-assessment. Simply click start at the bottom of the home page to begin the presentation. If you want to only use portions of the tutorial, use the scroll down menu from the Jump To section located at the top of each presentation slide.

Type: Tutorial

Selling Yourself: Resume Generator:

In this tutorial from ReadWriteThink.org you will learn how to create a professional resume that showcases your talents and skills. This interactive site offers both chronological (if you have lots of work experience) or functional (if you have little work experience) templates to guide you through the development of your resume and offers helpful tips at each step of the process. When you are finished, you can print, save or email your resume.

Type: Tutorial

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this course.
Reading Literature
Standard Notes:
These reading literature standards offer a focus for instruction each year and help ensure that students gain adequate exposure to a range of texts and tasks. Rigor is also infused through the requirement that students read increasingly complex texts through the grades. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year's grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.

Writing
Standards Notes:
Each year in their writing, students should demonstrate increasing sophistication in all aspects of language use, from vocabulary and syntax to the development and organization of ideas, and they should address increasingly demanding content and sources. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each succeeding year's grade-specific writing standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.

Speaking and Listening
Standards Notes:
The following speaking and listening standards offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of communication skills and applications.

Language
Standards Notes:
The following language standards offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of language skills and applications. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each succeeding year's grade-specific benchmarks and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.