## Course Standards

## General Course Information and Notes

### General Notes

While the content focus of this course is consistent with the Physics 2 course, students will explore these concepts in greater depth as preparatory work for the IB Physics course(s) while building on the work of the Pre-IB Physics 1 course. In general, the academic pace and rigor will be greatly increased for pre-IB level coursework. Coursework should include opportunities for students to develop their understanding of both theory and experiments, developing traditional practical skills and techniques while also developing interpersonal and digital communication skills in preparation for the IB Physics course.

Integral to the experience of students in Pre-IB Physics courses is their experience in the classroom laboratory or in the field. Practical activities allow students to interact directly with natural phenomena and secondary data sources. These experiences provide the students with the opportunity to design investigations, collect data, develop manipulative skills, analyze results, collaborate with peers and evaluate and communicate their findings. Experiments can be used to introduce a topic, investigate a phenomenon or allow students to consider and examine questions and curiosities. These laboratory experiences are essential as preparatory work for the IB Physics course(s).**Instructional Practices**Teaching from a range of complex text is optimized when teachers in all subject areas implement the following strategies on a routing basis:

- Ensuring wide reading from complex text that varies in length.
- Making close reading and rereading of texts central to lessons.
- Emphasizing text-specific complex questions, and cognitively complex tasks, reinforce focus on the text and cultivate independence.
- Emphasizing students supporting answers based upon evidence from the text.
- Providing extensive research and writing opportunities (claims and evidence).

**Science and Engineering Practices** (NRC *Framework for K-12 Science Education, 2010*)

- Asking questions (for science) and defining problems (for engineering).
- Developing and using models.
- Planning and carrying out investigations.
- Analyzing and interpreting data.
- Using mathematics, information and computer technology, and computational thinking.
- Constructing explanations (for science) and designing solutions (for engineering).
- Engaging in argument from evidence.
- Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information.

**Mathematical Practice (MP)**

Integrate Mathematics Practice standards as applicable.

- MAFS.K12.MP.1.1 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
- MAFS.K12.MP.2.1 Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
- MAFS.K12.MP.3.1 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
- MAFS.K12.MP.4.1 Model with mathematics.
- MAFS.K12.MP.5.1 Use appropriate tools strategically.
- MAFS.K12.MP.6.1 Attend to precision.
- MAFS.K12.MP.7.1 Look for and make use of structure.
- MAFS.K12.MP.8.1 Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

** Honors and Advanced Level Course Note: **Advanced courses require a greater demand on students through increased academic rigor. Academic rigor is obtained through the application, analysis, evaluation, and creation of complex ideas that are often abstract and multi-faceted. Students are challenged to think and collaborate critically on the content they are learning. Honors level rigor will be achieved by increasing text complexity through text selection, focus on high-level qualitative measures, and complexity of task. Instruction will be structured to give students a deeper understanding of conceptual themes and organization within and across disciplines. Academic rigor is more than simply assigning to students a greater quantity of work.

**English Language Development ELD Standards Special Notes Section:**

Teachers are required to provide listening, speaking, reading and writing instruction that allows English language learners (ELL) to communicate information, ideas and concepts for academic success in the content area of Science. For the given level of English language proficiency and with visual, graphic, or interactive support, students will interact with grade level words, expressions, sentences and discourse to process or produce language necessary for academic success The ELD standard should specify a relevant content area concept or topic of study chosen by curriculum developers and teachers which maximizes an ELL’s need for communication and social skills. To access an ELL supporting document which delineates performance definitions and descriptors, please click on the following link: https://cpalmsmediaprod.blob.core.windows.net/uploads/docs/standards/eld/sc.pdf.

**Course Standards**Appropriate grade levels standards in Language Arts should be used for students in Grades 9-10 and Grades 11-12.

### General Information

**Course Number:**2003838

**Course Path:**

**Abbreviated Title:**FL PRE-IB PHYSICS 2

**Number of Credits:**One (1) credit

**Course Length:**Year (Y)

**Course Attributes:**

- Honors

**Course Type:**Core Academic Course

**Course Level:**3

**Course Status:**Terminated

**Grade Level(s):**9,10

**Graduation Requirement:**Equally Rigorous Science

## Educator Certifications

## Student Resources

## Original Student Tutorials

Learn about different formats of quadratic equations and their graphs with experiments involving launching and shooting of balls in this interactive tutorial.

This is part 2 of a two-part series: Click **HERE** to open part 1.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Join us as we watch ball games and explore how the height of a ball bounce over time is represented by quadratic functions, which provides opportunities to interpret key features of the function in this interactive tutorial.

This is part 1 of a two-part series: Click **HERE** to open part 2.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Discover how Isaac Newton's background, talents, interests, and goals influenced his groundbreaking work in this interactive tutorial.

This is part 4 in a 4-part series. Click below to explore the other tutorials in the series.

- Part 1: Discovering Newton's First Law of Motion: On the Soccer Pitch
- Part 2: Discovering Newton’s Second Law of Motion: On the Softball Diamond
- Part 3: Discovering Newton’s Third Law of Motion: On the Basketball Court

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Follow Jake along as he relates box plots with other plots and identifies possible outliers in real-world data from surveys of moviegoers' ages in part 2 in this interactive tutorial.

This is part 2 of 2-part series, click HERE to view part 1.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Follow Jake as he displays real-world data by creating box plots showing the 5 number summary and compares the spread of the data from surveys of the ages of moviegoers in part 1 of this interactive tutorial.

This is part 1 of 2-part series, click HERE to view part 2.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn about exponential decay as you calculate the value of used cars by examining equations, graphs, and tables in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how to interpret key features of linear functions and translate between representations of linear functions through exploring jobs for teenagers in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn about exponential growth in the context of interest earned as money is put in a savings account by examining equations, graphs, and tables in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn about exponential functions and how they are different from linear functions by examining real world situations, their graphs and their tables in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Explore the impacts on sea turtles, humans, and the economy when we live, work, and play at the beach with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how scientists measure viral spread and use this information to make recommendations for the public in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how to identify different sources of scientific claims and to evaluate their reliability in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how to test scientific claims and judge competing hypotheses by understanding how they can be tested against one another in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Explore how heat changes the temperature or the state of matter of a material in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Explore the three types of heat transfer that occur in our world as you complete this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Practice writing different aspects of an expository essay about scientists using drones to research glaciers in Peru. This interactive tutorial is part four of a four-part series. In this final tutorial, you will learn about the elements of a body paragraph. You will also create a body paragraph with supporting evidence. Finally, you will learn about the elements of a conclusion and practice creating a “gift.”

This tutorial is part four of a four-part series. Click below to open the other tutorials in this series.

- Drones and Glaciers: Eyes in the Sky (Part 1)
- Drones and Glaciers: Eyes in the Sky (Part 2)
- Expository Writing: Eyes in the Sky (Part 3)
- Expository Writing: Eyes in the Sky (Part 4)

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how to write an introduction for an expository essay in this interactive tutorial. This tutorial is the third part of a four-part series. In previous tutorials in this series, students analyzed an informational text and video about scientists using drones to explore glaciers in Peru. Students also determined the central idea and important details of the text and wrote an effective summary. In part three, you'll learn how to write an introduction for an expository essay about the scientists' research.

This tutorial is part three of a four-part series. Click below to open the other tutorials in this series.

- Drones and Glaciers: Eyes in the Sky (Part 1)
- Drones and Glaciers: Eyes in the Sky (Part 2)
- Expository Writing: Eyes in the Sky (Part 3)
- Expository Writing: Eyes in the Sky (Part 4)

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how to identify the central idea and important details of a text, as well as how to write an effective summary in this interactive tutorial. This tutorial is the second tutorial in a four-part series that examines how scientists are using drones to explore glaciers in Peru.

This tutorial is part two of a four-part series. Click below to open the other tutorials in this series.

- Drones and Glaciers: Eyes in the Sky (Part 1)
- Drones and Glaciers: Eyes in the Sky (Part 2)
- Expository Writing: Eyes in the Sky (Part 3)
- Expository Writing: Eyes in the Sky (Part 4)

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn about how researchers are using drones, also called unmanned aerial vehicles or UAVs, to study glaciers in Peru. In this interactive tutorial, you will practice citing text evidence when answering questions about a text.

This tutorial is part one of a four-part series. Click below to open the other tutorials in this series.

- Drones and Glaciers: Eyes in the Sky (Part 1)
- Drones and Glaciers: Eyes in the Sky (Part 2)
- Expository Writing: Eyes in the Sky (Part 3)
- Expository Writing: Eyes in the Sky (Part 4)

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how to evaluate a speaker's point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence. In this interactive tutorial, you'll examine Abraham Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address" and evaluate the effectiveness of his words by analyzing his use of reasoning and evidence.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

See how data are interpreted to better understand the reproductive strategies taken by sea anemones with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Examine field sampling strategies used to gather data and avoid bias in ecology research. This interactive tutorial features the CPALMS Perspectives video *.*

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Explore the mystery of muscle cell metabolism and how cells are able to meet the need for a constant supply of energy. In this interactive tutorial, you'll identify the basic structure of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), explain how ATP’s structure is related it its job in the cell, and connect this role to energy transfers in living things.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn to define, calculate, and interpret marginal frequencies, joint frequencies, and conditional frequencies in the context of the data with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis in this interactive tutorial. You'll also relate them to the processes of sexual and asexual reproduction and their consequences for genetic variation.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how to identify and describe the leading scientific explanations of the origin of life on Earth.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn what scientific laws and scientific theories are and how they are different from what we commonly call laws and theories outside of science with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Follow as we discover key features of a quadratic equation written in vertex form in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how to identify explicit evidence and understand implicit meaning in a text and demonstrate how and why scientific inferences are drawn from scientific observation and be able to identify examples in biology.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn that a scientific theory is the culmination of many experiments and supplies the most powerful explanation that scientists have to offer with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how to define what science is and what it is not. In this interactive tutorial, you will identify why certain ways of exploring the universe can and cannot be considered scientific practices.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how the chemical properties of water relate to its physical properties and make it essential for life with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn to distinguish between questions that can be answered by science and questions that science cannot answer. This interactive tutorial will help you distinguish between science and other ways of knowing, including art, religion, and philosophy.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how the distribution of aquatic life forms is affected by light, temperature, and salinity with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn how to identify and define types of biotechnology and consider the impacts of biotechnologies on the individual, society and the environment in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Explore green chemistry and what it means to be benign by design in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

## Educational Games

This interesting game is to hit the target located opposite a electron gun. The electron gun will fire an electron. This electron must not hit any walls or obstacles during the attempt. The user may direct the electron along a path by placing stationary positive and negative charges at various locations. This game will help support learning about the concept of the electric field, which is created when electrons repel other electrons.

Type: Educational Game

Students attempt to save towns from damage prior to the arrival of several different natural disasters. Students will learn the importance of early prevention and actions to protect others, themselves and their property when faced with a natural disaster. Certain disasters are more appropriate for particular grade levels. Each scenario takes between 20 and 45 minutes to play, depending on the disaster for which your students are trying to prepare. There are five scenarios available, hurricane, tsunami, flood, earthquake, and wildfire. Each scenario can be played on easy, medium or hard difficulty levels. As with life, there are no "perfect solutions" to each scenario and no "perfect score", so students can play multiple times and the scenarios will still be slightly different.These simulation are part of a larger website that provides multiple links for natural disasters.

Type: Educational Game

## Educational Software / Tool

This Excel spreadsheet allows the educator to input data into a two way frequency table and have the resulting relative frequency charts calculated automatically on the second sheet. This resource will assist the educator in checking student calculations on student-generated data quickly and easily.

Steps to add data: All data is input on the first spreadsheet; all tables are calculated on the second spreadsheet

- Modify column and row headings to match your data.
- Input joint frequency data.
- Click the second tab at the bottom of the window to see the automatic calculations.

Type: Educational Software / Tool

## Image/Photograph

This flyer describes how NASA partners with small businesses for research and development to further space exploration. It directly discusses the impact of research on the economy and provides specific examples of innovations that resulted from partnerships with small businesses.

Type: Image/Photograph

## Lesson Plans

The purpose of this lesson is to introduce students to the concept of sea level rise as it occurs through climate change by having them examine 3 specific parameters: ice distribution, thermal expansion, and analyzing and interpreting data. The lesson and activities within the lesson were designed using the three dimensions of the Framework for K-12 Science Education and the Next Generation Science Standards – specifically crosscutting concepts, science and engineering practices, and disciplinary core ideas. While there isn’t any required pre-requisite learning required for this lesson, a general understanding of sea-level rise, glaciers, and climate may be beneficial to students. During classroom breaks, pairs of students will develop/discuss their models, revise their interpretations of their models or data, and think-pair-share their thoughts on the investigation segments.

Type: Lesson Plan

This BLOSSOMS lesson discusses Carbon Dioxide, and its impact on climate change. The main learning objective is for students to become more familiar with human production of Carbon Dioxide gas, as well as to gain an awareness of the potential for this gas to effect the temperature of Earth’s atmosphere. This lesson should take about an hour to complete. In order to complete the lesson, the teacher will need: printed copies of signs representing the different products and processes that take place in the carbon cycle (included), samples of matter that represent those products, handouts for the students to create a graphic of the carbon cycle (included) and graph paper or graphing software for students to create graphs. In the breaks of this BLOSSOMS lesson, students will be creating models of the carbon cycle as well as observing experiments and analyzing data from them. It is hoped that this lesson will familiarize students with ways in which carbon moves through our environment and provide them with some personal connection to the impact that an increased concentration of CO_{2} can have on air temperature. The goal is to spark their interest and hopefully to encourage them to ask and investigate more questions about the climate.

Type: Lesson Plan

## Perspectives Video: Experts

<p>Jump to it and learn more about how quadratic equations are used in robot navigation problem solving!</p>

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Explore how pendulums show the transformation of gravitational potential energy to kinetic energy and back with Dr. Simon Capstick in this engaging video. Don't miss his broken-nose defying test of the physics with a bowling ball pendulum.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

The tide is high! How can we statistically prove there is a relationship between the tides on the Gulf Coast and in a fresh water spring 20 miles from each other?

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Statistical analysis played an essential role in using microgravity sensors to determine location of caves in Wakulla County.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Advances in "big data" are leading to rapid developments in personalized medicine. Learn more!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Dr. Oates uses engineering practices to design artificial muscles that react to electrostatic fields.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Plants need visible light, just not all of it. Learn how space plants and their lights strive for efficiency.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Humans aren't the only ones who get their fingerprints taken. Learn how this scientist is like a crime scene investigator using oil "fingerprints" to explain the orgins of spilled oil.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

The director of the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory describes electromagnetic waves.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Don't let the motion of the ocean cause a commotion! Learn how vectors describe ocean movement patterns.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

A viticulture scientist explains grape expectations for medicine and society.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

## Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiasts

<p>Get fired up as you learn more about ceramic glaze recipes and mathematical units.</p>

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

If you want to understand the atom, you'll need a lot of energy. Learn how physicists use high energy light and electrons to study atomic structure.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

One way to figure out what something is made of is to see what kinds of wavelengths of electromagnetic energy it can absorb.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

An archaeologist explains how he is using x-rays to reconstruct a nineteenth-century battle!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Dive deep into science as an oceanographer describes conduction, convection, and radiation and their relationship to oceanic systems.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

<p>Forge a new understanding of metallurgy and heat transfer by learning how this blacksmith and collier make nails.</p>

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Archaeologists can see underground trends before everyone else with ground penetrating radar (GPR).

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

When you watch this video, your knowledge related to flight and physics will really take off!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Learn more about how splitting light beams helps researchers detect hydrogen fires for the space program.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

<p>Hydrogen is used to launch spacecraft, but accidental fires are difficult to see. Learn about the physics of these fires and how we detect them.</p>

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Landfills have a come a long way! Explore modern techniques for managing our environmental impact through responsible waste disposal.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Factors to consider when making pottery on the wheel are discussed, but not in a way that would make your head spin.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

## Presentation/Slideshow

It is often difficult, sometimes impossible, to get a definitive answer to some of life's most enduring questions. Scientific processes provide alternative explanations for a wide variety of phenomena by piecing together all the available information. This interactive activity on the *Evolution* website explores four possible hypotheses to explain what caused the extinction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago, inviting the viewer to consider the evidence and come to their own decision.

Type: Presentation/Slideshow

## Problem-Solving Tasks

The purpose of this task is to allow students to demonstrate an ability to construct boxplots and to use boxplots as the basis for comparing distributions.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task asks students to make deductions about the kind of music students enjoy by examining data in a two-way table.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task challenges students to answer probability questions about SAT scores, using distribution and mean to solve the problem.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem could be used as an introductory lesson to introduce group comparisons and to engage students in a question they may find amusing and interesting.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task asks students to examine the relationship between shops and crimes by using a correlation coefficient. The implications of linking correlation with causation are discussed.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of this task is to have students complete normal distribution calculations and to use properties of normal distributions to draw conclusions.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task requires students to use the normal distribution as a model for a data distribution. Students must use given means and standard deviations to approximate population percentages.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The task provides a context to calculate discrete probabilities and represent them on a bar graph.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task asks students to explain which measurements are needed to estimate the thickness of a soda can. Multiple solution processes are presented.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task challenges students to find the surface area of a soda can, calculate how many cubic centimeters of aluminum it contains, and estimate how thick it is.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This is a mathematical modeling task aimed at making a reasonable estimate for something which is too large to count accurately, the number of leaves on a tree.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This is a mathematical modeling task aimed at making a reasonable estimate for something which is too large to count accurately, the number of leaves on a tree.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task challenges students to apply the concepts of mass, volume, and density in the real-world context to find how many cells are in the human body.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task gives an interesting context for implementing ideas from geometry and trigonometry.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem solving task uses the tale of Archimedes and the King of Syracuse's crown to determine the volume and mass of gold and silver.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

In this task, students use trigonometric functions to model the movement of a point around a wheel and, through space. Students also interpret features of graphs in terms of the given real-world context.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem-solving task challenges students to find all quadratic functions described by given equation and coordinates, and describe how the graphs of those functions are related to one another.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task is meant to be a straight-forward assessment task of graph reading and interpreting skills. This task helps reinforce the idea that when a variable represents time, t = 0 is chosen as an arbitrary point in time and positive times are interpreted as times that happen after that.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task could be used for assessment or for practice. It allows students to compare characteristics of two quadratic functions that are each represented differently, one as the graph of a quadratic function and one written out algebraically. Specifically, students are asked to determine which function has the greatest maximum and the greatest non-negative root.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task asks students to find the average, write an equation, find the domain, and create a graph of the cost of producing DVDs.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The principal purpose of the task is to explore a real-world application problem with algebra, working with units and maintaining reasonable levels of accuracy throughout. Students are asked to determine which product will be the most economical to meet the requirements given in the problem.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

In this task students are given graphs of quantities related to weather. The purpose of the task is to show that graphs are more than a collection of coordinate points; they can tell a story about the variables that are involved, and together they can paint a very complete picture of a situation, in this case the weather. Features in one graph, like maximum and minimum points, correspond to features in another graph. For example, on a rainy day, the solar radiation is very low, and the cumulative rainfall graph is increasing with a large slope.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem introduces a logistic growth model in the concrete settings of estimating the population of the U.S. The model gives a surprisingly accurate estimate and this should be contrasted with linear and exponential models.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task is for instructional purposes only and students should already be familiar with some specific examples of logistic growth functions. The goal of this task is to have students appreciate how different constants influence the shape of a graph.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task can be used as a quick assessment to see if students can make sense of a graph in the context of a real world situation. Students also have to pay attention to the scale on the vertical axis to find the correct match. The first and third graphs look very similar at first glance, but the function values are very different since the scales on the vertical axes are very different. The task could also be used to generate a group discussion on interpreting functions given by graphs.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of this task is to illustrate through an absurd example the fact that in real life quantities are reported to a certain level of accuracy, and it does not make sense to treat them as having greater accuracy.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task operates at two levels. In part it is a simple exploration of the relationship between speed, distance, and time. Part (c) requires understanding of the idea of average speed, and gives an opportunity to address the common confusion between average speed and the average of the speeds for the two segments of the trip.

At a higher level, the task addresses MAFS.912.N-Q.1.3, since realistically neither the car nor the bus is going to travel at exactly the same speed from beginning to end of each segment; there is time traveling through traffic in cities, and even on the autobahn the speed is not constant. Thus students must make judgments about the level of accuracy with which to report the result.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task examines, from a mathematical and statistical point of view, how scientists measure the age of organic materials by measuring the ratio of Carbon 14 to Carbon 12. The focus here is on the statistical nature of such dating.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task examines, from a mathematical and statistical point of view, how scientists measure the age of organic materials by measuring the ratio of Carbon 14 to Carbon 12. The focus here is on the statistical nature of such dating.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The problem requires students to not only convert miles to kilometers and gallons to liters but they also have to deal with the added complication of finding the reciprocal at some point.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task asks students to calculate the cost of materials to make a penny, utilizing rates of grams of copper.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Students are asked to use units to determine if the given statement is valid.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This is a challenging task, suitable for extended work, and reaching into a deep understanding of units. Students are given a scenario and asked to determine the number of people required to complete the amount of work in the time described. The task requires students to exhibit , Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. An algebraic solution is possible but complicated; a numerical solution is both simpler and more sophisticated, requiring skilled use of units and quantitative reasoning. Thus the task aligns with either MAFS.912.A-CED.1.1 or MAFS.912.N-Q.1.1, depending on the approach.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Students explore and manipulate expressions based on the following statement:

A function f defined for -a < x="">< a="" is="" even="" if="" f(-x)="f(x)" and="" is="" odd="" if="" f(-x)="-f(x)" when="" -a="">< x="">< a.="" in="" this="" task="" we="" assume="" f="" is="" defined="" on="" such="" an="" interval,="" which="" might="" be="" the="" full="" real="" line="" (i.e.,="" a="">

Type: Problem-Solving Task

Students compare graphs of different quadratic functions, then produce equations of their own to satisfy given conditions.

This exploration can be done in class near the beginning of a unit on graphing parabolas. Students need to be familiar with intercepts, and need to know what the vertex is. It is effective after students have graphed parabolas in vertex form (y=a(x–h)^{2}+k), but have not yet explored graphing other forms.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This resource poses the question, "how many vehicles might be involved in a traffic jam 12 miles long?"

This task, while involving relatively simple arithmetic, promps students to practice modeling (MP4), work with units and conversion (N-Q.1), and develop a new unit (N-Q.2). Students will also consider the appropriate level of accuracy to use in their conclusions (N-Q.3).

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The task is a modeling problem which ties in to financial decisions faced routinely by businesses, namely the balance between maintaining inventory and raising short-term capital for investment or re-investment in developing the business.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task provides students the opportunity to make use of units to find the gas needed (). It also requires them to make some sensible approximations (e.g., 2.92 gallons is not a good answer to part (a)) and to recognize that Felicia's situation requires her to round up. Various answers to (a) are possible, depending on how much students think is a safe amount for Felicia to have left in the tank when she arrives at the gas station. The key point is for them to explain their choices. This task provides an opportunity for students to practice MAFS.K12.MP.2.1: Reason abstractly and quantitatively, and MAFS.K12.MP.3.1: Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This task requires students to recognize the graphs of different (positive) powers of x.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The primary purpose of this task is to lead students to a numerical and graphical understanding of the behavior of a rational function near a vertical asymptote, in terms of the expression defining the function.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

The purpose of this task is to give students practice constructing functions that represent a quantity of interest in a context, and then interpreting features of the function in the light of the context. It can be used as either an assessment or a teaching task.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

This problem involves the meaning of numbers found on labels. When the level of accuracy is not given we need to make assumptions based on how the information is reported. An unexpected surprise awaits in this case, however, as no reasonable interpretation of the level of accuracy makes sense of the information reported on the bottles in parts (b) and (c). Either a miscalculation has been made or the numbers have been rounded in a very odd way.

Type: Problem-Solving Task

## Text Resources

An online passage which addresses the Health and Environmental risks of genetic engineering.

Type: Text Resource

This site presents the basic ideas of magnetism and applies these ideas to the earth's magnetic field. There are several useful diagrams and pictures interspersed throughout this lesson, as well as links to more detailed subjects. This is an introduction to a larger collection on exploring the Earth's magnetosphere. A Spanish translation is available.

Type: Text Resource

This site from the National Academy of Sciences presents uses, sources, costs, and efficiency of energy.

Type: Text Resource

## Tutorials

You will learn how the parent function for a quadratic function is affected when f(x) = x^{2}.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help the students to identify the vertex of a parabola from the equation, and then graph the parabola.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial helps the learners to graph the equation of a quadratic function using the coordinates of the vertex of a parabola and its x- intercepts.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help you to learn about exponential functions by graphing various equations representing exponential growth and decay.

Type: Tutorial

This Khan Academy video describes what happens to a zygote as it becomes an embyro. It further explains what a stem cell is and discusses why there are questions concerning the use of stem cells.

Type: Tutorial

Water is both essential and unique. Many of its particular qualities stem from the fact that it consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen, therefore creating an unequal sharing of electrons. From fish in frozen lakes to ice floating on water, Christina Kleinberg describes the effects of polarity.

Type: Tutorial

Every day, we are bombarded by attention grabbing headlines that promise miracle cures to all of our ailments -- often backed up by a "scientific study." But what are these studies, and how do we know if they are reliable? David H. Schwartz dissects two types of studies that scientists use, illuminating why you should always approach the claims with a critical eye.

Type: Tutorial

This lab simulation will allow you to explore how carbon circulates through the environment. Through data collection and analysis, you will experiment with the impact that humans are having on the cycling of carbon and make data based predictions on how these impacts may change environmental outcomes to the year 2100.

Type: Tutorial

This tutorial will help the learners to understand the solar system and will learn how it was discovered from the historical astronomy perspective.

Type: Tutorial

Molecular clocks are models that use mutation rates to measure evolutionary time. Mutations tend to accumulate at a constant rate for related species. The rate of mutations is the ticking that powers a molecular clock. This tutorial will help the learners understand this concept in order to recognize how species diverge from a common ancestors.

Type: Tutorial

This resource explores the electromagnetic spectrum and waves by allowing the learner to observe the refraction of light as it passes from one medium to another, study the relation between refraction of light and the refractive index of the medium, select from a list of materials with different refractive indicecs, and change the light beam from white to monochromatic and observe the difference.

Type: Tutorial

- Observe how the eye's muscles change the shape of the lens in accordance with the distance to the object being viewed
- Indicate the parts of the eye that are responsible for vision
- View how images are formed in the eye

Type: Tutorial

- Learn how a concave spherical mirror generates an image
- Observe how the size and position of the image changes with the object distance from the mirror
- Learn the difference between a real image and a virtual image
- Learn some applications of concave mirrors

Type: Tutorial

- Learn how a convex mirror forms the image of an object
- Understand why convex mirrors form small virtual images
- Observe the change in size and position of the image with the change in object's distance from the mirror
- Learn some practical applications of convex mirrors

Type: Tutorial

- Observe the change of color of a black body radiator upon changes in temperature
- Understand that at 0 Kelvin or Absolute Zero there is no molecular motion

Type: Tutorial

This resource explains how a solar cell converts light energy into electrical energy. The user will also learn about the different components of the solar cell and observe the relationship between photon intensity and the amount of electrical energy produced.

Type: Tutorial

- Observe that light is composed of oscillating electric and magnetic waves
- Explore the propagation of an electromagnetic wave through its electric and magnetic field vectors
- Observe the difference in propagation of light of different wavelengths

Type: Tutorial

- Explore the relationship between wavelength, frequency, amplitude and energy of an electromagnetic wave
- Compare the characteristics of waves of different wavelengths

Type: Tutorial

- Learn to trace the path of propagating light waves using geometrical optics
- Observe the effect of changing parameters such as focal length, object dimensions and position on image properties
- Learn the equations used in determining the size and locations of images formed by thin lenses

Type: Tutorial

## Video/Audio/Animations

With an often unexpected outcome from a simple experiment, students can discover the factors that cause and influence thermohaline circulation in our oceans. In two 45-minute class periods, students complete activities where they observe the melting of ice cubes in saltwater and freshwater, using basic materials: clear plastic cups, ice cubes, water, salt, food coloring, and thermometers. There are no prerequisites for this lesson but it is helpful if students are familiar with the concepts of density and buoyancy as well as the salinity of seawater. It is also helpful if students understand that dissolving salt in water will lower the freezing point of water. There are additional follow up investigations that help students appreciate and understand the importance of the ocean's influence on Earth's climate.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Ocean explorer Robert Ballard gives a TED Talk relating to the mysteries of the ocean, and the importance of its continued exploration.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

This video contains a demo that can be performed to show that light consists of particles

It also uses Lasers with different wavelengths

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

- Explain the processes of absorption and emission
- Describe how a laser works
- Determine the factors affecting lasing

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Khan Academy video tutorial on graphing linear equations: "Algebra: Graphing Lines 1"

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Khan Academy tutorial video that demonstrates with real-world data the use of Excel spreadsheet to fit a line to data and make predictions using that line.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

A 4-minute video in which an Olympic freestyle skier and a physicist discuss the physics behind freestyle skiing.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

The Sun produces a solar wind — a continuous flow of charged particles — that can affect us on Earth. It can, for example, disrupt communications, navigation systems, and satellites. Solar activity can also cause power outages, such as the extensive Canadian blackout in 1989. In this video segment adapted from NASA, learn about solar storms and their effects on Earth.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

This video examines the vocabulary essential for understanding the nature of science and evolution and illustrates how evolution is a powerful, well-supported scientific explanation for the relatedness of all life. A clear definition and description of scientific theory is given.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

In this National Science Foundation video and reading selection lab ecologist Janis Dickinson explains how she depends on citizen scientists to help her track the effects of disease, land-use change and environmental contaminants on the nesting success of birds.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

## Virtual Manipulatives

In this simulation, learn about the black body spectrum of the sun, a light bulb, an oven and the earth. Adjust the temperature to see how the wavelength and intensity of the spectrum are affected.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Learn more about collisions with the use of a virtual air hockey table. Investigate simple and complex collisions in one and two dimensions.Experiment with the number of discs, masses and initial conditions. Vary the elasticity and see how the total momentum and kinetic energy changes during collisions.

Some of the sample learning goals can be:

- Draw "Before and After" pictures of collisions.
- Construct momentum vector representations of "Before and After" collisions.
- Apply law of conservation of momentum to solve problems with collisions.
- Explain why energy is not conserved and varies in some collisions.
- Determine the change in mechanical energy in collisions of varying "elasticity".
- What does "elasticity" mean?

Type: Virtual Manipulative

In this activity, students adjust slider bars which adjust the coefficients and constants of a linear function and examine how their changes affect the graph. The equation of the line can be in slope-intercept form or standard form. This activity allows students to explore linear equations, slopes, and y-intercepts and their visual representation on a graph. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This resource provides linear functions in standard form and asks the user to graph it using intercepts on an interactive graph below the problem. Immediate feedback is provided, and for incorrect responses, each step of the solution is thoroughly modeled.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

The split brain experiments revealed that the right and the left hemisphere in the brain are good at different things. For instance, the right hemisphere is good at space perception tasks and music while the left is good at verbal and analytic tasks. This game guides students through some examples of the split-brain phenomenon and how the differences are understood.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will allow the user to see how a magnetic field will effect the motion of a charged particle. The charge of the particle and the size of the magnetic field can be changed.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

- Observe the orbit of the earth around the sun and its relationship to seasons
- Understand the factors affecting Earth's climate
- Observe the effect of Earth's tilt on the seasons

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will help the students to understand how the light shines on a metal surface. Students will recognize a process called as photoelectric effect wherein light can be used to push electrons from the surface of a solid.

Some of the sample learning goals can be:

- Visualize and describe the photoelectric effect experiment.
- Predict the results of the experiment, when the intensity of light is changed and its effects on the current and energy of the electrons.
- Predict the results of the experiment, when the wavelength of the light is changed and its effects on the current and the energy of the electrons.
- Predict the results of the experiment, when the voltage of the light is changed and its effects on the current and energy of electrons.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will allow you to produce light by bombarding atoms with electrons. You can also visualize how the characteristic spectra of different elements are produced, and configure your own element's energy states to produce light of different colors.

Other areas to investigate:

- Provide a basic design for a discharge lamp and explain the function of the different components.
- Explain the basic structure of an atom and relate it to the color of light produced by discharge lamps.
- Explain why discharge lamps emit only certain colors.
- Design a discharge lamp to emit any desired spectrum of colors.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will help the students generate electricity with a bar magnet. Students can discover the physics behind the phenomena by exploring magnets and how they can be used to make a bulb light. They will recognize that any change in the magnetic environment of a coil of wire will cause a voltage to be induced in the coil.

Some of the sample learning goals can be:

- Identify equipment and conditions that produce induction.
- Compare and contrast how both a light bulb and voltmeter can be used to show characteristics of the induced current.
- Predict how the current will change when the conditions are varied.
- Explain practical applications of Faraday's Law.
- Explain what is the cause of the induction.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This simulation will provide an insight into the properties of gases. You can explore the more advanced features which enables you to explore three physical situations: Hot Air Balloon (rigid open container with its own heat source), Rigid Sphere (rigid closed container), and Helium Balloon (elastic closed container).

Through this activity you can:

- Determine what causes the balloon, rigid sphere, and helium balloon to rise up or fall down in the box.
- Predict how changing a variable among Pressure, Volume, Temperature and number influences the motion of the balloons.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Allows students access to a Cartesian Coordinate System where linear equations can be graphed and details of the line and the slope can be observed.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This is a virtual manipulative to understand beta decay. In the Beta decay process, a neutron decays into a proton and an electron (beta radiation). The process also requires the emission of a neutrino to maintain momentum and energy balance. Beta decay allows the atom to obtain the optimal ratio of protons and neutrons.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative will help you to understand the process of alpha decay. Watch alpha particles escape from a polonium nucleus, causing radioactive alpha decay. See how random decay times relate to the half life.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Whether it is a tumor or not, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can tell. Your head is full of tiny radio transmitters (the nuclear spins of the hydrogen nuclei of your water molecules). In an MRI unit, these little radios can be made to broadcast their positions, giving a detailed picture of the inside of your head.

In this simulation you can:

- Recognize that light can flip spins if the energy of the photons matches the difference between the energies of spin up and spin down.
- Recognize that the difference between the energies of spin up and spin down is proportional to the strength of the applied magnetic field.
- Describe how to put these two ideas together to detect where there is a higher density of spins.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This activity will help to investigate how a greenhouse gas affects the climate, or why the ozone layer is important. Using this simulation, explore how light interacts with molecules in our atmosphere.

Areas to explore:

- How light interacts with molecules in our atmosphere.
- Identify that absorption of light depends on the molecule and the type of light.
- Relate the energy of the light to the resulting motion.
- Identify that energy increases from microwave to ultraviolet.
- Predict the motion of a molecule based on the type of light it absorbs.
- Identify how the structure of a molecule affects how it interacts with light.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Play with one or two pendulums and discover how the period of a simple pendulum depends on the length of the string, the mass of the pendulum bob, and the amplitude of the swing. It's easy to measure the period using the photogate timer. Students can vary friction and the strength of gravity.

- Design experiments to describe how variables affect the motion of a pendulum
- Use a photogate timer to determine quantitatively how the period of a pendulum depends on the variables you described
- Determine the gravitational acceleration of planet X
- Explain the conservation of Mechanical energy concept using kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy
- Describe energy chart from position or selected speeds

Type: Virtual Manipulative

- Explain what happens when the magnet moves through the coil at different speeds and how this affects the brightness of the bulb and the magnitude and sign of the voltage.
- Explain the difference between moving the magnet through the coil from the right side versus the left side.
- Explain the difference between moving magnet through the big coil versus the smaller coil.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

In this activity, students use preset data or enter in their own data to be represented in a box plot. This activity allows students to explore single as well as side-by-side box plots of different data. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the Java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Using this virtual manipulative, students are able to graph a function and a set of ordered pairs on the same coordinate plane. The constants, coefficients, and exponents can be adjusted using slider bars, so the student can explore the affect on the graph as the function parameters are changed. Students can also examine the deviation of the data from the function. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

With this online tool, students adjust the standard deviation and sample size of a normal distribution to see how it will affect a histogram of that distribution. This activity allows students to explore the effect of changing the sample size in an experiment and the effect of changing the standard deviation of a normal distribution. Tabs at the top of the page provide access to supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

In this online tool, students input a function to create a graph where the constants, coefficients, and exponents can be adjusted by slider bars. This tool allows students to explore graphs of functions and how adjusting the numbers in the function affect the graph. Using tabs at the top of the page you can also access supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This is an online graphing utility that can be used to create box plots, bubble graphs, scatterplots, histograms, and stem-and-leaf plots.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

The students will see and hear the effects of changing the frequency and/or amplitude of a sound wave. This animation may also be used to demonstrate the Doppler effect, reflection and interference of sound waves.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

With a mouse, students will drag data points (with their error bars) and watch the best-fit polynomial curve form instantly. Students can choose the type of fit: linear, quadratic, cubic, or quartic. Best fit or adjustable fit can be displayed.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This interactive simulation investigates graphing linear and quadratic equations. Users are given the ability to define and change the coefficients and constants in order to observe resulting changes in the graph(s).

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Complete this virtual manipulative to gain a better understanding of nuclear fission. Study the basic principles behind chain reactions and a nuclear reactor.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

The students will watch as gases become trapped by the Earth's surface. They can examine different variables and the relationship between concentration of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane, and temperature.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Learn about conservation of energy with a skater! Build tracks, ramps and jumps for the skater and view the kinetic energy, potential energy, thermal energy as he moves. You can adjust the amount of friction and mass. Measurement and graphing tools are built in.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative histogram tool can aid in analyzing the distribution of a dataset. It has 6 preset datasets and a function to add your own data for analysis.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This virtual manipulative allows you to investigate various aspects of gases through virtual experimentation. From the site: Pump gas molecules to a box and see what happens as you change the volume, add or remove heat, change gravity, and more (open the box, change the molecular weight of the molecule). Measure the temperature and pressure, and discover how the properties of the gas vary in relation to each other.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

In this activity, students can create and view a histogram using existing data sets or original data entered. Students can adjust the interval size using a slider bar, and they can also adjust the other scales on the graph. This activity allows students to explore histograms as a way to represent data as well as the concepts of mean, standard deviation, and scale. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

This activity allows the user to graph data sets in multiple bar graphs. The color, thickness, and scale of the graph are adjustable which may produce graphs that are misleading. Users may input their own data, or use or alter pre-made data sets. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Section:Grades PreK to 12 Education Courses >Grade Group:Grades 9 to 12 and Adult Education Courses >Subject:Science >SubSubject:Physical Sciences >