M/J Developmental Language Arts Through ESOL (Reading)   (#1002181)

Version for Academic Year:

Course Standards

General Course Information and Notes

Version Description

The purpose of this course is to enable middle school students who are native speakers of languages other than English instruction that enables students to accelerate the development of reading and writing skills and to strengthen those skills so they are able to successfully read and write middle grade level text independently. Instruction emphasizes reading comprehension, writing fluency, and vocabulary study through the use of a variety of literary and informational texts encompassing a broad range of text structures, genres, and levels of complexity. Texts used for instruction focus on a wide range of topics, including content-area information, in order to support students in meeting the knowledge demands of increasingly complex text. Students enrolled in the course will engage in interactive text-based discussion, question generation, and research opportunities. They will write in response to reading and cite evidence when answering text dependent questions orally and in writing. The course provides extensive opportunities for students to collaborate with their peers. Scaffolding is provided as necessary as students engage in reading and writing increasingly complex text and is removed as the reading and writing abilities of students improve over time.

The multiple credit courses have been designed for the teacher to select and teach only the appropriate standards corresponding to a student's grade level and/or instructional needs.

General Notes

General Notes:
The course includes, but is not limited to, the following:
  • determining central ideas or themes of a text and analyzing their development as well as summarizing the key supporting details and ideas;
  • interpreting words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyzing how specific word choices shape meaning or tone;
  • analyzing the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole;
  • integrating and evaluating content presented in diverse formats and media, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words;
  • delineating and evaluating the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the source, relevance and sufficiency of the evidence;
  • analyzing how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take;
  • writing in response to reading, emulating authors’ structures, word choices, styles, etc.
Additional Notes: Students entering the upper grades who are not reading and writing on grade level have a variety of intervention needs. No single program or strategy can be successful in remediating the needs of all students. The intervention course should require that students increase the amount and complexity of text they read and write independently throughout the school year to ensure students have enough exposure to various text structures and academic vocabulary to develop skills necessary for college and career readiness.

It is necessary to implement a combination of research-based programs and strategies that have been proven successful in accelerating the development of literacy skills in older readers.

The following practices should be incorporated in the course:
  1. Scaffolding of close reading is provided but does not preempt or replace text.
  2. Systematic instruction in vocabulary is provided.
  3. Explicit instruction in applying grammatical structures and conventions is provided.
  4. Student independence is cultivated.
Special Notes:

Instructional Practices: Teaching from well-written, grade-level instructional materials enhances students’ content area knowledge and also strengthens their ability to comprehend longer, complex reading passages on any topic for any purpose. Using the following instructional practices also helps student learning.
  1. Reading assignments from longer text passages, as well as shorter ones when text is extremely complex.
  2. Making close reading and rereading of texts central to lessons.
  3. Asking high-level, text-specific questions and requiring high-level, complex tasks and assignments.
  4. Requiring students to support answers with evidence from the text.
  5. Providing extensive text-based research and writing opportunities (claims and evidence).
Achievement on standardized tests assessing reading and writing skills is a reflection of students' confidence and competence in reading. Therefore, instruction throughout the school year should ensure students possess the ability to read and comprehend difficult texts and perform challenging tasks associated with those texts. Time spent engaging students in practice tests should be limited, given most students' vast experiences with standardized tests and the relatively small role that knowledge of test format plays in student test performance.

In those instances when this course is repeated, the content should be differentiated based on reliable and valid assessment data. If repeated, the required level of student proficiency should increase. If students are making adequate progress (accelerated growth) in a given intervention, that intervention should be continued. If students are not making adequate progress, a new intervention should be implemented.

The College and Career Readiness (CCR) standards and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate at each grade level. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each succeeding year's grade specific benchmarks, retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades, and work steadily toward meeting the more general expectations described by the CCR anchor standards.

English Language Development ELD Standards Special Notes Section:
Teachers are required to provide listening, speaking, reading and writing instruction that allows English language learners (ELL) to communicate information, ideas and concepts for academic success in the content area of Language Arts. For the given level of English language proficiency and with visual, graphic, or interactive support, students will interact with grade level words, expressions, sentences and discourse to process or produce language necessary for academic success. The ELD standard should specify a relevant content area concept or topic of study chosen by curriculum developers and teachers which maximizes an ELL’s need for communication and social skills. To access an ELL supporting document which delineates performance definitions and descriptors, please click on the following link: https://cpalmsmediaprod.blob.core.windows.net/uploads/docs/standards/eld/la.pdf

Qualifications

As well as any certification requirements listed on the course description, the following qualifications may also be acceptable for the course:

Any World Language certification plus English Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) Endorsement plus Reading Endorsement.

General Information

Course Number: 1002181
Abbreviated Title: M/J DE LA ESOL-READ
Number of Credits: Multiple Credit (more than 1 credit)
Course Length: Year (Y)
Course Attributes:
  • Class Size Core Required
Course Type: Elective Course
Course Status: Course Approved
Grade Level(s): 6,7,8

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this course.

Original Student Tutorials

The Sounds of "Sympathy": Analyzing Rhyme and Repetition in Poetry:

Learn how the sound devices of rhyme and repetition are used in the poem "Sympathy" by Paul Laurence Dunbar and analyze how they contribute to the poem's meaning. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Around the Horn: Using Context Clues:

Learn how to use context clues—including definitions, synonyms, and antonyms—to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words in this baseball-themed tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing an Extended Metaphor in "All the World’s a Stage":

Explore the famous speech “All the World’s a Stage” from Shakespeare’s play As You Like It. In this interactive tutorial, you’ll analyze an extended metaphor within the speech and how it contributes to the speech’s meaning.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Inside My Mind: Narrator Perspective:

Explore how an author develops the point of view of a narrating character through the incredible story of Melody, a girl who cannot speak. In this interactive tutorial, we'll read excerpts from the award-winning novel Out of My Mind by Sharon Draper.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

In the Driver's Seat: Character Interactions in Little Women:

Study excerpts from the classic American novel Little Women by Louisa May Alcott in this interactive English Language Arts tutorial. Using excerpts from chapter eight of Little Women, you'll identify key characters and their actions. You'll also explain how interactions between characters contributes to the development of the plot. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Words Take Root: Learning New Vocabulary:

Learn about Greek and Latin roots (anti, capit, bene, bon, and mal) and 12 modern words that feature those roots. In this interactive tutorial, you'll practice using these words and hopefully add them to your vocabulary!

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Rooting Out Words: Learning New Vocabulary:

Learn about ancient Latin roots — Ante, Post, Scrib, and Script — and practice using twelve modern words connected with these roots to build your vocabulary in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

How Form Contributes to Meaning in Shakespeare’s "Sonnet 18":

Explore the form and meaning of William Shakespeare's “Sonnet 18.”  In this interactive tutorial, you’ll examine how specific words and phrases contribute to meaning in the sonnet, select the features of a Shakespearean sonnet in the poem, identify the solution to a problem, and explain how the form of a Shakespearean sonnet contributes to the meaning of "Sonnet 18."

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Getting at the Roots of Language: Learning New Vocabulary:

Learn about three roots from ancient Latin and Greek — Per, Seque, and Mis — and practice using twelve modern words connected with these roots to build your vocabulary in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Word Scholar: Using Context Clues:

Identify and apply context clues, including synonyms, antonyms, and inferences, to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words in passages about the life of Frederick Douglass with this interactive tutorial. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Root of the Matter: Learning New Vocabulary:

Learn about five roots from ancient Latin and Greek—frag, fract, cret, syn, and sym—and practice using twelve modern words connected with these roots to build your vocabulary in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Know Your Roots: Learning New Vocabulary:

Learn about 3 Latin roots (Am, Ab, and Ad) and 12 new words that feature those roots. In this interactive tutorial, you'll make some interesting language connections and hopefully add some new words to your vocabulary!  

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing Setting, Plot, & Character Development in “To Build a Fire”:

Learn to analyze the interaction among setting, character development, and plot using the classic short story "To Build a Fire." Examine how a story's setting frames the events of the entire story with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Ring the Bell: Paraphrase Like a Champion:

Learn to paraphrase grade-level content in this boxing-themed tutorial. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Paraphrase Pioneers:

Learn to paraphrase grade-level content in this tutorial that includes passages about some of America's most notable pioneers.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Understanding Plot: Part 2:

In the second part of this 2-part tutorial series, you'll analyze the plot of Cinderella in order to review the parts of the plot diagram. 

Make sure to complete Part One before beginning Part Two. Click HERE to launch "Understanding Plot: Part One."

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Planet Paraphrase - Part Two:

Learn all about the skill of paraphrasing in this two-part tutorial. You'll learn how to paraphrase effectively as you read about several of the most interesting locations on the planet.

Make sure to complete Planet Paraphrase - Part One before diving into Part Two.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Planet Paraphrase - Part One:

Learn all about the skill of paraphrasing in this two-part tutorial. You'll learn how to paraphrase effectively as you read about several of the most interesting locations on the planet. 

Make sure to complete both parts! Click here to launch Planet Paraphrase - Part Two.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Understanding Plot: Part 1:

In the first part of this two-part tutorial series, you'll learn about the parts of the plot diagram. In Part Two, you'll use this information to help you analyze the plot of the story of Cinderella.

Make sure to complete both parts of this series. Click HERE to view "Understanding Plot: Part 2."

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Power to Cure or Impair: The Importance of Setting in "The Yellow Wallpaper" -- Part One:

Learn to identify aspects of setting and character as you analyze several excerpts from “The Yellow Wallpaper," a chilling short story by Charlotte Perkins Gilman that explores the impact on its narrator of being confined to mostly one room. You'll also determine how the narrator’s descriptions of the story’s setting better reveal her emotional and mental state.

This interactive tutorial is Part One in a two-part series. By the end of Part Two, you should be able to explain how the narrator changes through her interaction with the setting. Click below to launch Part Two.

The Power to Cure or Impair: The Importance of Setting in 'The Yellow Wallpaper' -- Part Two 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Power to Cure or Impair: The Importance of Setting in "The Yellow Wallpaper" -- Part Two:

Continue to examine several excerpts from the chilling short story “The Yellow Wallpaper” by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, which explores the impact on its narrator of being confined to mostly one room. In Part Two of this tutorial series, you'll determine how the narrator’s descriptions of the story’s setting reveal its impact on her emotional and mental state. By the end of this tutorial, you should be able to explain how the narrator changes through her interaction with the setting.

Make sure to complete Part One before beginning Part Two. Click HERE to launch "The Power to Cure or Impair: The Importance of Setting in 'The Yellow Wallpaper' -- Part One." 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Mystery of the Past: How the Form of a Villanelle Contributes to Meaning in "The House on the Hill":

Explore the mysterious poem “The House on the Hill” by Edwin Arlington Robinson in this interactive tutorial. As you explore the poem's message about the past, you’ll identify the features of a villanelle in the poem. By the end of this tutorial, you should be able to explain how the form of a villanelle contributes to the poem's meaning.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

A Giant of Size and Power – Part Two: How the Form of a Sonnet Contributes to Meaning in "The New Colossus":

Continue to explore the significance of the famous poem “The New Colossus” by Emma Lazarus, lines from which are engraved on the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty. 

In Part Two of this two-part series, you’ll identify the features of a sonnet in the poem "The New Colossus." By the end of this tutorial, you should be able to explain how the form of a sonnet contributes to the poem's meaning. 

Make sure to complete Part One before beginning Part Two.

Click HERE to launch "A Giant of Size and Power -- Part One: Exploring the Significance of 'The New Colossus.'"

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing the Beginning of The Red Umbrella – Part Two: How Setting Influences Characters:

Continue to explore excerpts from the beginning of the historical fiction novel The Red Umbrella by Christina Diaz Gonzalez in Part Two of this two-part series. In Part Two, you'll examine how setting influences characters.

Make sure to complete Part One first. Click HERE to launch "Analyzing the Beginning of The Red Umbrella -- Part One: How Setting Influences Events." 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

A Giant of Size and Power -- Part One: Exploring the Significance of "The New Colossus":

In Part One, explore the significance of the famous poem “The New Colossus” by Emma Lazarus, lines from which are engraved on the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty. 

This famous poem also happens to be in the form of a sonnet. In Part Two of this two-part series, you’ll identify the features of a sonnet in the poem. By the end of this tutorial series, you should be able to explain how the form of a sonnet contributes to the poem's meaning. Make sure to complete both parts!

Click HERE to launch "A Giant of Size and Power -- Part Two: How the Form of a Sonnet Contributes to Meaning in 'The New Colossus.'"

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing the Beginning of The Red Umbrella – Part One: How Setting Influences Events:

Explore excerpts from the beginning of the historical fiction novel The Red Umbrella by Christina Diaz Gonzalez in this two-part series. In Part One, you'll examine how setting influences events. In Part Two, you'll examine how setting influences characters.

Make sure to complete both parts! Click HERE to launch Part Two.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing Events and Characters in the Beginning of Stargirl:

Learn how characters' actions and responses develop the main characters and advance the plot during key events in the beginning of the novel Stargirl by Jerry Spinelli with this interactive tutorial.

 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Importance of Seeing in Tangerine: Part Two:

Continue to explore references to sight in the first chapter of Edward Bloor's novel Tangerine and how they convey different meanings and reveal information about characters. 

This interactive tutorial is part 2 of 2. Click HERE to launch Part One.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Importance of Seeing in Tangerine: Part One:

Explore the difference between vision and perception and how words related to sight convey different meanings and reveal information about characters in the first chapter of Edward Bloor's novel Tangerine.

This interactive tutorial is part 1 of 2. Click HERE to launch Part Two.

In Part Two, you'll continue to examine references to sight in the first chapter of Tangerine. You'll examine how these references convey different meanings and reveal information about characters.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

How Dialogue, Thoughts, and Events Reveal Character in Ender’s Game -- Part Two:

Learn more about how dialogue, a character’s thoughts, and key events can reveal aspects of a character as you read excerpts from the exciting science fiction novel Ender’s Game by Orson Scott Card. As you learn more about Ender, the main character, you’ll piece together information about the world in which he lives and his unique situation given the demands of his environment.

This interactive tutorial is Part Two of a two-part series. Make sure to complete Part One first! Click HERE to launch Part One.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

How Dialogue, Thoughts, and Events Reveal Character in Ender’s Game -- Part One:

Learn how dialogue, a character’s thoughts, and key events can reveal aspects of a character as you read excerpts from the exciting science fiction novel Ender’s Game by Orson Scott Card. As you learn more about Ender, the main character, you’ll piece together information about the world in which he lives and his unique situation given the demands of his environment.

This interactive tutorial is Part One of a two-part series. Make sure to complete both parts! Click HERE to launch Part Two.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Developing a Central Idea: Spies and the Revolutionary War — Part Four:

Explore excerpts from the nonfiction book George Washington’s Secret Six: The Spies Who Saved America in this interactive tutorial. This tutorial is the final part of a four-part series. In this tutorial, you’ll read two more passages from the book about Washington’s spies. You’ll also determine the central ideas of the passages, identify key details, and practice writing a summary of a text. 

You should complete the previous tutorials in this series before beginning Part Four. 

Click HERE to launch Part One. 

Click HERE to launch Part Two. 

Click HERE to launch Part Three. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Developing a Central Idea: Spies and the Revolutionary War — Part Three:

Explore excerpts from the nonfiction book George Washington’s Secret Six: The Spies Who Saved America in this interactive tutorial. This tutorial is Part Three of a four-part series. In this tutorial, you'll read another passage from the book, identify the topic, and determine the central idea. Then, you'll review the central ideas from all the passages you've read throughout this series and examine how each central idea helps develop an overarching central idea of all the passages. 

Be sure to complete the first two parts before beginning Part Three.

Click HERE to launch Part One. 

Click HERE to launch Part Two. 

Make sure to do Part Four to complete the series! Click HERE to launch Part Four.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Developing a Central Idea: Spies and the Revolutionary War — Part Two:

Explore excerpts from the nonfiction book George Washington’s Secret Six: The Spies Who Saved America with this interactive tutorial. In this four-part series, you'll analyze several passages from the book and learn how to extract key information along the way. In Part Two, you'll read another passage from the book, identify the topic, determine the central idea, and examine how key details help develop the central idea.

Be sure to complete Part One before beginning Part Two. 

Click HERE to launch Part One. 

Make sure to complete the rest of the series: 

Click HERE to launch Part Three. 

Click HERE to launch Part Four.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Developing a Central Idea: Spies and the Revolutionary War – Part One:

Explore excerpts from the nonfiction book George Washington’s Secret Six: The Spies Who Saved America with this interactive tutorial. In this four-part series, you'll analyze several passages from the book and learn how to extract key information along the way. By the end of Part One, you should be able to distinguish topics from central ideas and identify central ideas and key details in the text. 

Make sure to complete all four parts!

Click HERE to launch Part Two. 

Click HERE to launch Part Three. 

Click HERE to launch Part Four.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

How Events Influence Individuals and Ideas – Part Three:

Examine how a significant event can influence individuals and ideas in this tutorial series about one of the most studied human injuries of all time. Read excerpts from John Fleischman’s book, Phineas Gage: A Gruesome but True Story About Brain Science to learn about a young man’s remarkable survival after a near-fatal accident. 

This tutorial is Part Three of a three-part series. Make sure to complete the other parts first.

Click HERE to launch Part One.

Click HERE to launch Part Two. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

How Events Influence Individuals and Ideas – Part Two:

Examine how a significant event can influence individuals and ideas in this tutorial series about one of the most studied human injuries of all time. Read excerpts from John Fleischman’s book Phineas Gage: A Gruesome but True Story About Brain Science to learn about a young man’s remarkable survival after a near-fatal accident. 

This tutorial is Part Two in a three-part series. Make sure to complete Part One first. Click HERE to launch Part One.

Then, make sure to complete Part Three! Click HERE to launch Part Three.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

How Events Influence Individuals and Ideas – Part One:

Examine how a significant event can influence individuals and ideas in this interactive tutorial series about one of the most studied human injuries of all time. Read excerpts from John Fleischman’s book Phineas Gage: A Gruesome but True Story About Brain Science to learn about a young man’s remarkable survival after a near-fatal accident. Phineas Gage, at the age of twenty-six, survived a traumatic brain injury that would not only challenge the scientific understandings of his time but would also provide interesting revelations about the human brain to this day.

In Part One, you’ll begin to identify what makes a particular event significant, such as how a life-altering injury—like what happened to Phineas Gage—can influence an individual. 

This tutorial is Part One of a three-part series. Make sure to complete all three parts!

Click HERE to launch Part Two.

Click HERE to launch Part Three.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

How Events Shape Ideas in a Text -- Part Three:

Explore excerpts from astronaut Scott Kelly’s autobiography, Endurance: A Year in Space, A Lifetime of Discovery, in this interactive tutorial. Using these excerpts, you’ll identify several important experiences in Scott Kelly’s young life that had a crucial impact on his later success. You’ll also determine how these events shaped important ideas or life lessons that Scott learned along the way. Finally, you’ll examine the connection between these important life events and the ideas or lessons Scott learned to determine how he discovered what it takes to achieve the nearly impossible.

This tutorial is Part Three of a three-part series. Make sure to complete Part One and Part Two before beginning Part Three. 

Click HERE to launch Part One. 

Click HERE to launch Part Two.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

How Events Shape Ideas in a Text -- Part Two:

Explore excerpts from astronaut Scott Kelly’s autobiography, Endurance: A Year in Space, A Lifetime of Discovery, in this interactive tutorial. Using these excerpts, you’ll identify several important experiences in Scott Kelly’s young life that had a crucial impact on his later success. You’ll also determine how these events shaped important ideas that Scott learned along the way. 

This tutorial is Part Two of a three-part series. Make sure to complete all three parts!

Click HERE to launch Part One.

Click HERE to launch Part Three.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

How Events Shape Ideas in a Text – Part One:

Explore excerpts from astronaut Scott Kelly’s autobiography, Endurance: A Year in Space, A Lifetime of Discovery, in this interactive tutorial. Using these excerpts, you’ll identify several important experiences in Scott Kelly’s young life that had a crucial impact on his later success. You’ll also determine how these events shaped important ideas or life lessons that Scott learned along the way. Finally, you’ll examine the connection between these important life events and the ideas or lessons Scott learned to determine how he discovered what it takes to achieve the nearly impossible.

This tutorial is Part One of a three-part series. Make sure to complete all three parts!

Click HERE to launch Part Two.

Click HERE to launch Part Three.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

How a Dream Compares to Reality -- Part Four:

Study excerpts from the essay “America and I” by Anzia Yezierska and learn about how she immigrated to America from Russia in the early 1900s. In this interactive tutorial, you'll analyze the comparisons she makes between her dream of life in America with the reality of her experience as an immigrant in America. 

This tutorial is Part Four of a four-part series. Make sure to complete the previous tutorials before beginning Part Four.

Click HERE to launch Part One.

Click HERE to launch Part Two.

Click HERE to launch Part Three.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

A Navajo Chant and Refrain in "The Twelfth Song of Thunder":

Explore the poem “The Twelfth Song of Thunder” from the Navajo Mountain Chant. In this interactive tutorial, you'll examine how a refrain in the poem better develops a theme of the poem. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

How a Dream Compares to Reality -- Part Two:

Study excerpts from the essay “America and I” by Anzia Yezierska and learn about how she immigrated to America from Russia in the early 1900s. In this interactive tutorial, you'll analyze the comparison she makes between being in America but not being seen as American. Analyzing this comparison will help you better understand how her vision of life in America was different from the reality she experienced after arriving. 

This is the second tutorial of a 4-part series, so make sure to complete Part One before beginning Part Two. Then, make sure to complete the rest of the tutorial series.

Click HERE to launch Part One.

Click HERE to launch Part Three.

Click HERE to launch Part Four.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

How a Dream Compares to Reality -- Part One:

Study excerpts from the essay “America and I” by Anzia Yezierska and learn about how she immigrated to America from Russia in the early 1900s. In this interactive tutorial, you'll analyze the comparison she makes between the reality of living in Russia and her vision of what life will be like in America. You'll also identify her use of vivid contrasts to better understand what motivated her to go to America. 

This tutorial is Part One. Make sure to complete the other tutorials in this series! 

Click HERE to launch Part Two.

Click HERE to launch Part Three.

Click HERE to launch Part Four.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Vocabulary Unleashed:

Learn 12 new academic vocabulary words in this interactive tutorial! You'll practice the words' synonyms, antonyms, parts of speech, and context clues in order to add them to your vocabulary.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

How a Character Is Developed in a Diary:

Explore excerpts from the novel The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian written by Sherman Alexie. In this interactive tutorial, you'll learn about how a character is developed through a novel written as a diary. You'll examine how the author carefully reveals the history, thoughts, feelings, and perspective of the main character.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Vocabulary Unleashed:

Learn 12 new academic vocabulary terms in this interactive tutorial! You'll practice the words' synonyms, antonyms, parts of speech, and context clues in order to add them to your vocabulary.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Vocabulary Unleashed:

Learn 12 new academic vocabulary words in this interactive tutorial! You'll practice the words' synonyms, antonyms, parts of speech, and context clues in order to add them to your vocabulary.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Personification in "The Railway Train":

Explore the poem “The Railway Train” by Emily Dickinson in this interactive tutorial. Learn about personification and vivid descriptions and determine how they contribute to the meaning of a poem. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Following "The Road Not Taken":

Explore the poem “The Road Not Taken” by Robert Frost and learn how the poem’s structure develops theme, setting, and plot as you complete this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Denotation and Connotation in "Fire and Ice":

Explore the poem "Fire and Ice" by Robert Frost and learn about denotation and connotation. In this interactive tutorial, you will examine the impact of word choice on the meaning of a poem. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

How Setting Develops Character in Little Women:

Examine how the story elements of plot, setting, and character interact in an excerpt from the novel Little Women by Louisa May Alcott with this interactive tutorial.   

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Don't Plagiarize: Cite Your Sources!:

Learn more about that dreaded word--plagiarism--in this interactive tutorial that's all about citing your sources, creating a Works Cited page, and avoiding academic dishonesty!

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Avoiding Plagiarism and Citing Sources:

Learn more about that dreaded word--plagiarism--in this interactive tutorial that's all about citing your sources and avoiding academic dishonesty!

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Truth About Sugar?:

Analyze the central idea in multiple texts in this interactive tutorial. You'll read several short texts in which authors disagree about the effects of sugar consumption. You'll practice identifying their different central ideas and the various types of evidence used to support them.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Its all about Mood: Bradbury's "Zero Hour":

Learn how authors create mood in a story through this interactive tutorial. You'll read a science fiction short story by author Ray Bradbury and analyze how he uses images, sound, dialogue, setting, and characters' actions to create different moods. This tutorial is Part One in a two-part series. In Part Two, you'll use Bradbury's story to help you create a Found Poem that conveys multiple moods.

When you've completed Part One, click HERE to launch Part Two.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Vocabulary Mastery:

Learn 12 new academic vocabulary words, identify their parts of speech, synonyms, and antonyms, and use them in context with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Vocabulary Mastery:

Learn 12 new vocabulary words, identify their parts of speech, synonyms, and antonyms, and use them in context with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Vocabulary Mastery:

Learn 12 new academic vocabulary words in this interactive tutorial!  You'll practice the words' synonyms, antonyms, parts of speech, and context clues in order to add them to your vocabulary.  

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Time for Revolution: Using Context Clues:

Use context clues to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words in an informational text about the Revolutionary War in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

It's all about Mood: Creating a Found Poem:

Learn how to create a Found Poem with changing moods in this interactive tutorial. This tutorial is Part Two of a two-part series. In Part One, students read “Zero Hour,” a science fiction short story by author Ray Bradbury and examined how he used various literary devices to create changing moods. In Part Two, students will use words and phrases from “Zero Hour” to create a Found Poem with two of the same moods from Bradbury's story.

Click HERE to launch Part One.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Addicted to Lotteries: Analyzing Text Structures:

Learn about four text structures often used in informational texts: sequence, compare and contrast, problem/solution, and cause and effect. In this interactive tutorial, you'll practice identifying these various text structures using a short article about playing the lottery. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Vocabulary in Action:

Learn 12 new academic vocabulary words in this interactive tutorial!  You'll practice the words' synonyms, antonyms, parts of speech, and context clues in order to add them to your vocabulary.  

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Happy Halloween! Textual Evidence and Inferences:

Cite text evidence and make inferences about the "real" history of Halloween in this spooky interactive tutorial. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Vocabulary Power:

Learn 12 new academic vocabulary words using synonyms, antonyms, parts of speech, and context clues in this interactive tutorial.  

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Vocabulary in Action:

Learn 12 new academic vocabulary words in this interactive tutorial!  You'll practice the words' synonyms, antonyms, parts of speech, and context clues in order to add them to your vocabulary.  

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Vocabulary Power:

Learn 12 new academic vocabulary words in this interactive tutorial!  You'll practice the words' synonyms, antonyms, parts of speech, and context clues in order to add them to your vocabulary.  

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Vocabulary Power:

Learn 12 new academic vocabulary words using synonyms, antonyms, parts of speech, and context clues in this interactive tutorial. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Vocabulary in Action:

Learn 12 new academic vocabulary words using synonyms, antonyms, parts of speech, and context clues in this interactive tutorial.  

Type: Original Student Tutorial

A Crooked Election: Character & Story Development:

Read a story called “A Crooked Election" and learn to describe how the plot of a story unfolds in a series of episodes. In this interactive tutorial, you will also explore how the characters change and evolve throughout the plot of a story.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Plagiarism: What Is It? How Can I Avoid It?:

Learn more about that dreaded word--plagiarism--in this interactive tutorial that's all about citing your sources and avoiding academic dishonesty!

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Abraham the Amazing:

Learn about dramatic irony and its impact within a story. In this interactive tutorial, you'll read excerpts of a story about Abraham the circus elephant. You'll read about Abraham's unexpected adventure as you examine the effects of dramatic irony within the text.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Magic of Allusion and Themes:

Learn how to identify and explain allusions within a text. In this interactive tutorial, you'll examine how texts create meaning by referencing well-known individuals, characters, and myths.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Read Between the Lines: Understanding Allusions and Analogies:

Learn how authors use allusions and analogies within informational texts. In this interactive tutorial, you'll practice identifying analogies and allusions used in context to better understand their purpose. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

To Change a Heart: The Transformation of Ebenezer Scrooge:

Analyze the interaction between characters and specific events to help reveal aspects of the infamous Mr. Ebenezer Scrooge from Charles Dickens' A Christmas Carol.  In this interactive tutorial, you’ll examine how specific character interactions and plot events help provoke Scrooge to make a decision about the way he lives his life. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Cyberwar! Citing Evidence and Making Inferences:

Learn how to cite evidence and draw inferences in this interactive tutorial. Using an informational text about cyber attacks, you'll practice identifying text evidence and making inferences based on the text.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Spread Your Wings: Structure & Meaning in Poetry:

Learn how poems are organized to express and develop themes. In this interactive tutorial, you'll read "My Pretty Rose Tree" by William Blake and "'Hope' is the thing with feathers" by Emily Dickinson. Using these classic poems, you'll examine the structure of poetry and review several relevant terms including stanzas, diction, and mood

Type: Original Student Tutorial

A Closer Look: Understanding Themes in Poetry:

Practice identifying themes in poetry and how they're conveyed to readers. In this interactive tutorial, you'll practice identifying the examples of imagery and diction within several classic poems. These include "The Guest House" by Rumi, "The Road Not Taken" by Robert Frost, and "Take Home a Smile" by Edgar Guest. You'll examine how authors use both imagery and diction to help express their intended theme.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Game On: Finding the Central Idea:

Learn how to identify the central idea within a text. In this interactive tutorial, you'll read an article about video games to practice identifying and explaining the central idea of a passage or text.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Food For Thought: Analyzing Authors' Approaches:

Learn how different authors can approach the same topic in very different ways. In this interactive tutorial, you'll read several informational texts about how insects are a commonly eaten food in certain parts of the world. You'll practice identifying the central ideas of these texts as well as the authors' use of evidence. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Sacagawea: Evidence of Fearlessness:

Learn to identify evidence within a text to support inferences. In this interactive tutorial, you'll read all about Sacagawea—the Native American woman who helped Lewis and Clark on their expedition into the American wilderness. You'll practice identifying key pieces of evidence that support inferences that can be made from the text. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

What's for Lunch?:

Learn how arguments are formed with claims, reasons, and evidence. In this interactive tutorial, you'll read several short speeches from students hoping to be elected president of the Student Council. We'll trace the claim made by each student and the reasons and evidence they use to support it.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Alien Invasion! Or Not?:

Learn about puns--a type of figurative language--in Philip K. Dick's science fiction short story "The Eyes Have It." In this interactive tutorial, you'll identify puns, interpret their various meanings, and explain how the author’s use of puns adds humor to the story.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Arguments: Making Claims & Using Evidence:

Learn to evaluate argumentative claims based on evidence with this interactive tutorial. You'll also learn about statistics, facts, expert quotations, and anecdotes, and how each kind of evidence can strengthen an argument.  

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Weighing the Evidence: Supporting Claims in Arguments:

In this interactive tutorial, you'll study written arguments and claims. You'll examine four specific types of evidence that can be used to support a claim: facts, statistics, anecdotes, and expert quotations.  

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Structures and Skeletons:

Learn about four common text structures that are often used in informational texts: chronological order, compare and contrast, problem/solution, and cause and effect. In this interactive tutorial, you'll practice identifying each type of text structure while reading several informational texts about dinosaurs. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Make a Wish: Theme in "The Monkey's Paw":

Learn to identify and analyze the development of theme in this interactive tutorial. We'll read excerpts from "The Monkey's Paw" by W.W. Jacobs and examine how several different themes are developed throughout the text. We'll explore how each theme is conveyed in the story as the plot unfolds.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

VSI: Vocabulary Scene Investigation:

Learn how to determine the meaning of "mystery words" using several different strategies in this interactive crime-themed tutorial. You'll learn how to recognize a word's job or function in a sentence to help determine its meaning. You'll also practice identifying key words and word parts to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Changing the Driving Age?:

Learn to analyze and evaluate arguments for their soundness and relevancy. In this interactive tutorial, you'll read several short passages about raising the legal driving age. You'll practice examining the evidence presented to determine whether it's sound and relevant to the argument at hand.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Paul Revere's Ride - What Really Happened?:

Examine the important differences between historical fiction and factual historical accounts. In this interactive tutorial, you'll read the poem "The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere" by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. You'll examine how Longfellow reshaped the events of history to create this renown piece of historical fiction.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Metaphors: The Ultimate Transformers!:

Learn about two types of figurative language—similes and metaphors—in this interactive tutorial. You'll read several classic poems, including "The Road Not Taken" by Robert Frost and "Hope" by Emily Dickinson. You'll examine how each poem uses metaphor to convey a specific idea to readers. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Different Perspectives: Analyzing Points of View:

Learn to analyze the differing points of view of various characters within a story. In this interactive tutorial, you'll read a short story about a fender bender that occurs between a teacher and student. You'll learn to identify the objective and subjective statements made by each character as they relay their individual versions of events.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Frederick Douglass: The Art of Interaction:

Examine the interactions between individuals, ideas, and events using excerpts from the book Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. In this interactive tutorial, you'll explore the relationships and events that helped shape Douglass's life and his courageous quest for freedom. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing Word Parts: Follow the Signs:

Learn to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words by examining their word parts. In this interactive tutorial, you'll practice using prefixes and root words to determine the meanings of unfamiliar words.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Pavement Bookworm:

Learn how to use evidence from an informational, nonfiction text to support your analysis of what you have read. In this interactive tutorial you make inferences, or draw conclusions, from a passage about Philani Dladla, "The Pavement Bookworm."

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Finding Buried Treasure: Uncovering the Theme:

Learn to distinguish the theme of the story from its summary. In this interactive tutorial, you'll read several short pirate tales to practice summarizing a story, identifying its theme, and analyzing how the theme is expressed. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Solving Word Mysteries: Context Clues and Word Parts:

Learn how to determine the meaning of "mysterious" words by analyzing context clues, word roots, prefixes, and suffixes in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing POEtry:

Learn how to identify sound devices such as repetition, alliteration, and assonance in the poems of Edgar Allan Poe. As you complete this interactive tutorial, you'll read portions of "The Raven," "The Bells," and "Annabel Lee."  

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Turn the Key: Unlocking Authors' Intentions:

Learn how to identify an author's purpose and attitude toward a specific topic. In this interactive tutorial, you'll practice identifying the key differences between argumentative and informative writing. You'll also practice determining an author's attitude and beliefs toward a topic using several short informational texts.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

"The Last Leaf" – Making Inferences:

Learn how to make inferences based on the information included in the text in this interactive tutorial. Using the short story "The Last Leaf" by O. Henry, you'll practice identifying both the explicit and implicit information in the story. You'll apply your own reasoning to make inferences based on what is stated both explicitly and implicitly in the text. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Connections and Concussions: Teens and Sports:

Practice making connections between key individuals discussed in an informational text. In this interactive tutorial, you'll read a short text about the connection between high school football and concussions. You'll practice identifying specific details and making connections between individuals based on the text.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

All Aboard! The Central Idea Express:

Learn how to find the central idea of an informational text in this interactive tutorial! In this train-themed tutorial, you'll learn how to identify the central idea and identify its supporting details. You'll also practice summarizing the text to highlight its most important points.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Exploring Texts:

Learn how to make inferences using the novel Hoot in this interactive tutorial. You'll learn how to identify both explicit and implicit information in the story to make inferences about characters and events.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Exploring Introductions:

Learn how authors of informational texts "hook" readers and introduce information. In this interactive tutorial, you'll learn how authors engage readers by using interesting or unusual information, anecdotes, and quotes.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Story Structure: Many Paths:

Learn about different kinds of story structures that authors use in this interactive tutorial. You'll examine several types of story structures, including linear and nonlinear structures, as well as open and closed story structures. You'll practice identifying the various features of these different structures. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Go Figure: Learning Figurative Language:

Learn to distinguish between figurative and literal language in context. In this interactive tutorial, you'll examine excerpts of speeches from John F. Kennedy, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and Barack Obama. You'll practice identifying the following types of figurative language: similes, metaphors, personification, and onomatopoeia. You'll also practice determining the intended meaning of these examples of figurative language. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Arguing Mars :

Practice identifying and examining the evidence used to support a specific argument. In this interactive tutorial, you'll read several short texts about the exploration of Mars to practice distinguishing relevant from irrelevant evidence. You'll also practice determining whether the evidence presented is sufficient or insufficient

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Parts of a Whole:

Learn about the common text structures used in informational texts. In this interactive tutorial, you'll practice identifying these four frequently used text structures: problem/solution, cause and effect, sequence, and compare and contrast. You'll also learn to recognize the signal words that often accompany each type of text structure. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Stand Tall: Using Evidence to Support Your Answers:

Learn how to analyze what a literary text states directly and indirectly. In this tutorial, you will learn how to support conclusions based on what is directly and/or indirectly stated in a text.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Mission Possible: Finding the Theme:

Learn the difference between summarizing a story and describing its theme. In this interactive tutorial, you'll practice summarizing the important details of a fiction text. Then, you'll practice describing the theme of the text in your own words.  

Type: Original Student Tutorial

A Mighty Man Analyzing Metaphors, Similes, and Tone:

Practice identifying the use of similes and metaphors in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem "The Village Blacksmith." In this interactive tutorial, you'll analyze Longfellow's tone and how it's conveyed through the use of similes and metaphors.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Robots Come to Life:

Learn to identify the central idea of an informational text. In this interactive tutorial, you'll read an article about cutting-edge robots. Using this text, you'll practice identifying important details in the article to help determine the central idea.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

How a Dream Compares to Reality -- Part Three:

Study excerpts from the essay “America and I” by Anzia Yezierska and analyze the comparison she makes between her actual work experience in America and her dream of finding work that would bring out the best in her. Analyzing this comparison in this interactive tutorial will help you understand how Anzia's vision of life in America was different from the reality she experienced after immigrating to America. 

This is the third tutorial in a 4-part series. Make sure to complete Parts One and Two first. Then, complete the rest of this tutorial series.

Click HERE to launch Part One.

Click HERE to launch Part Two.

Click HERE to launch Part Four.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Putting Down Roots: Learning New Vocabulary:

Learn about 3 Greek and Latin roots (spect, path, and omni) and 12 modern words that feature those roots. In this interactive tutorial, you'll practice using these words and hopefully add them to your vocabulary!  

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Tutorials

Hints about Print: Evaluating Print Resources :

Use this interactive tutorial to explore how to select print resources for a research assignment. The tutorial demonstrates tips on how to evaluate the author, select images, and use text features to gather information prior to writing. To get started, click on the Go to Demo arrow to learn more about these tips, then select the Try It arrow to download a worksheet that will allow you to use these tips on your own project.

Type: Tutorial

Grammar Bytes! Exercise 10: Whose, Who's:

This fun and interactive exercise will give you practice with two words that are commonly misused: whose and who’s. For each practice item, you must type the appropriate word to complete the sentence. After every response, you will get immediate feedback. Explanations of each correct answer are provided at the top of the screen. If you don’t know which word to type, the “I Give Up” button will help you out.

Type: Tutorial

Grammar Bytes! Exercise 13: Its, It's:

This fun and interactive exercise will give you practice with two words that are commonly misused: its and it’s. For each practice item, you must choose the appropriate word to complete the sentence. After every response, you will get immediate feedback. Explanations of each correct answer are provided at the top of the screen.

Type: Tutorial

Grammar Bytes! Exercise 14: Its, It's:

This fun and interactive exercise will give you practice with two words that are commonly misused: its and it’s. For each practice item, you must type the appropriate word to complete the sentence. After every response, you will get immediate feedback. Explanations of each correct answer are provided at the top of the screen. If you don’t know which word to type, the “I Give Up” button will help you out.

Type: Tutorial

Grammar Bytes! Exercise 3: Lose, Loose:

This fun and interactive exercise will give you practice with two words that are commonly misused: lose and loose. For each practice item, you must choose the appropriate word to complete the sentence. After every response, you will get immediate feedback. Explanations of each correct answer are provided at the top of the screen.

Type: Tutorial

Grammar Bytes! Exercise 4: Lose, Loose:

This fun and interactive exercise will give you practice with two words that are commonly misused: lose and loose. For each practice item, you must type the appropriate word to complete the sentence. After every response, you will get immediate feedback. Explanations of each correct answer are provided at the top of the screen. If you don’t know which word to type, the “I Give Up” button will help you out.

Type: Tutorial

Grammar Bytes! Exercise 5: Loss, Lost:

This fun and interactive exercise will give you practice with two words that are commonly misused: loss and lost. For each practice item, you must type the appropriate word to complete the sentence. After every response, you will get immediate feedback. Explanations of each correct answer are provided at the top of the screen. If you don’t know which word to type, the “I Give Up” button will help you out.

Type: Tutorial

Grammar Bytes! Exercise 6: Who, Whom:

This fun and interactive exercise will give you practice with two words that are commonly misused: who and whom. For each practice item, you must choose the appropriate word to complete the sentence. After every response, you will get immediate feedback. Explanations of each correct answer are provided at the top of the screen.

Type: Tutorial

Grammar Bytes! Exercise 7: Who, Whom:

This fun and interactive exercise will give you practice with two words that are commonly misused: who and whom. For each practice item, you must type the appropriate word to complete the sentence. After every response, you will get immediate feedback. Explanations of each correct answer are provided at the top of the screen. If you don’t know which word to type, the “I Give Up” button will help you out.

Type: Tutorial

Grammar Bytes! Exercise 8: Whoever, Whomever:

This fun and interactive exercise will give you practice with two words that are commonly misused: whoever and whomever. For each practice item, you must type the appropriate word to complete the sentence. After every response, you will get immediate feedback. Explanations of each correct answer are provided at the top of the screen. If you don’t know which word to type, the “I Give Up” button will help you out.

Type: Tutorial

Grammar Bytes! Exercise 11: To, Too, Two:

This fun and interactive exercise will give you practice with three words that are commonly misused: to, too, and two. For each practice item, you must choose the appropriate word to complete the sentence. After every response, you will get immediate feedback. Explanations of each correct answer are provided at the top of the screen.

Type: Tutorial

Grammar Bytes! Exercise 12: To, Too, Two:

This fun and interactive exercise will give you practice with three words that are commonly misused: to, too, and two. For each practice item, you must type the appropriate word to complete the sentence. After every response, you will get immediate feedback. Explanations of each correct answer are provided at the top of the screen.

Type: Tutorial

Grammar Bytes! Exercise 6: Using Lay and Lie Correctly:

This fun and interactive exercise will give you practice with two irregular verbs that are commonly misused: lie and lay. For each practice item, you must select the correct irregular verb and its appropriate tense to complete a sentence. After every response, you will get immediate feedback. Explanations of each correct answer are also provided. There's also an explanation of the rules for using these irregular verbs; simply click the hyperlinked word "rules."

Type: Tutorial

Grammar Bytes! Exercise 9: Whose, Who's:

This fun and interactive exercise will give you practice with two words that are commonly misused: whose and who’s. For each practice item, you must choose the appropriate word to complete the sentence. After every response, you will get immediate feedback. Explanations of each correct answer are provided at the top of the screen.

Type: Tutorial

Grammar Bytes! Exercise 2: Their, There, They're:

This fun and interactive exercise will give you practice with three words that are commonly misused: their, they’re, and there. For each practice item, you must type the appropriate word to complete the sentence. After every response, you will get immediate feedback. Explanations of each correct answer are provided at the top of the screen. If you don’t know which word to type, the “I Give Up” button will help you out.

 

Type: Tutorial

Grammar Bytes! Exercise 1: Their, There, They're:

This fun and interactive exercise will give you practice with three words that are commonly misused: their, they’re, and there. For each practice item, you must choose the appropriate word to complete the sentence. After every response, you will get immediate feedback. Explanations of each correct answer are provided at the top of the screen.

Type: Tutorial

Hero's Journey:

In this tutorial from ReadWriteThink, you will learn about the hero's journey, an ancient story pattern that can be found in texts from thousands of years ago to newly released Hollywood blockbusters. This interactive tool will provide you with the background of the hero's journey and give you a chance to explore several of the journey's key elements. Also, you can use the tool to record examples from a hero's journey you have read or viewed or to plan out a hero's journey of your own.

Type: Tutorial

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this course.
Reading Literature
Standard Notes:
These reading literature standards offer a focus for instruction each year and help ensure that students gain adequate exposure to a range of texts and tasks. Rigor is also infused through the requirement that students read increasingly complex texts through the grades. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year's grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.

Reading Informational Text
Standard Notes:
These reading informational text standards offer a focus for instruction each year and help ensure that students gain adequate exposure to a range of texts and tasks. Rigor is also infused through the requirement that students read increasingly complex texts through the grades.

Writing
Standard Notes:
Each year in their writing, students should demonstrate increasing sophistication in all aspects of language use, from vocabulary and syntax to the development and organization of ideas, and they should address increasingly demanding content and sources. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each succeeding year's grade-specific writing benchmarks and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.

Speaking and Listening
Standard Notes:
The following speaking and listening standards offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of communication skills and applications.

Language
Standard Notes:
The following language standards offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of language skills and applications. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each succeeding year's grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades. The following standards may be addressed again in higher grades at a more rigorous level of study: