Fundamental Integrated Science 1   (#7920030)

Version for Academic Year:

Course Standards

General Course Information and Notes

General Notes

Laboratory investigations that include the use of scientific inquiry, research, measurement, problem solving, laboratory apparatus and technologies, experimental procedures, and safety procedures are an integral part of this course. The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) recommends that at the high school level, all students should be in the science lab or field, collecting data every week. School laboratory investigations (labs) are defined by the National Research Council (NRC) as an experience in the laboratory, classroom, or the field that provides students with opportunities to interact directly with natural phenomena or with data collected by others using tools, materials, data collection techniques, and models (NRC, 2006, p. 3).

Laboratory investigations in the high school classroom should help all students develop a growing understanding of the complexity and ambiguity of empirical work, as well as the skills to calibrate and troubleshoot equipment used to make observations. Learners should understand measurement error; and have the skills to aggregate, interpret, and present the resulting data (National Research Council, 2006, p.77; NSTA, 2007).

Special Notes:

Instructional Strategies


  1. Utilize UDL strategies when planning lessons for all students.
  2. Ensure that students have accessible instructional materials.
  3. Ensure that students read from text that varies in length and complexity.
  4. Provide graphic organizers and instruct students on how to use them properly to support understanding of concepts.
  5. Use rubrics for assignments that clearly outline expectations for students.
  6. Make close reading and rereading of texts central to lessons and provide guided practice and immediate feedback in how to do this.
  7. Provide multiple opportunities to practice new vocabulary.
  8. Provide explicit instruction in how students can locate evidence from text to support their answers.
  9. Provide extensive research and writing opportunities (claims and evidence) based on student interest.
  10. Provide students with outlines that assist them in note taking during teacher-led instruction.
  11. Teach students to utilize appropriate graphic organizers or organize thoughts when planning for writing assignments.

Literacy Standards in Science
Secondary science courses include reading standards for literacy in science and technical subjects 6-12 and writing standards for literacy in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects 6-12. The courses also include speaking and listening standards. For a complete list of standards required for this course click on the blue tile labeled course standards. You may also download the complete course including all required standards and notes sections using the export function located at the top of this page.

English Language Development ELD Standards Special Notes Section:

Teachers are required to provide listening, speaking, reading and writing instruction that allows English language learners (ELL) to communicate information, ideas and concepts for academic success in the content area of Science.  For the given level of English language proficiency and with visual, graphic, or interactive support, students will interact with grade level words, expressions, sentences and discourse to process or produce language necessary for academic success The ELD standard should specify a relevant content area concept or topic of study chosen by curriculum developers and teachers which maximizes an ELL’s need for communication and social skills. To access an ELL supporting document which delineates performance definitions and descriptors, please click on the following link: https://cpalmsmediaprod.blob.core.windows.net/uploads/docs/standards/eld/sc.pdf.



General Information

Course Number: 7920030
Course Path:
Abbreviated Title: FUND INTEG SCI 1
Course Length: Year (Y)
Course Status: Terminated

Educator Certifications

One of these educator certification options is required to teach this course.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this course.

Original Student Tutorials

Albino Alligators Part 3: Pedigrees:

Explore the inheritance of traits using a pedigree in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Albino Alligators Part 2: Punnett Squares:

Use Punnett squares to determine the probabilities of genotypes and phenotypes in this original tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Albino Alligators Part 1: Genotypes and Phenotypes:

Come investigate heredity using the American alligator to help you understand many of the terms and ideas associated with the passing on of genetic traits from parent to offspring, in this interactive tutorial. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Atom Part 2: The History of the Atom:

Follow the story of how the model of the atom has changed over time in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Atom Part 1: Big Things Come in Small Packages:

Explore atoms--the smallest unit of matter--and how they are made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Cells: Alike but Different:

Cells are very diverse, but are the foundation of all living things. Take a look at different types of cells and learn how they have similar needs. Cell are alike, but different!

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Family Trees and Pedigrees:

Learn how pedigree charts can represent inheritance patterns and how genetic diseases are passed down through generations in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Exploring the Periodic Table, Part 2: Groups:

Explore the organization of elements into groups on the periodic table and what the group location indicates about an element's atomic structure. 

This is part 2 of 2 in a series of tutorials on the periodic table. Click below to open part 1.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Exploring the Periodic Table Part 1: Periods:

Explore the organization of elements on the Periodic Table and pay special attention to energy levels of elements that share periods in this interactive tutorial.

This is part 1 of 2 in a series of tutorials on the periodic table. Click below to open part 2.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Genetics and Probabilities:

Learn to predict the probability of offspring inheriting different traits and combinations of genes using Punnett squares. In this interactive tutorial you also review genotypes and phenotypes.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Investigating Plant and Animal Cells:

Compare and contrast plant and animal cells in this interactive tutorial. You'll learn about the structure and function of major organelles of cells, including the cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplasts, mitochondria, and vacuoles. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Energy and Cellular Respiration:

Learn how food is broken down to produce energy for cells in the in the form of ATP in this interactive tutorial. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Transfer of Heat:

Explore the ways in which heat is transferred and some common examples of each type in our lives in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Tear Me Down and Build Me Up: The Story of Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition:

Weathering, erosion and deposition are driving forces in the development of land formations. Explore them in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Macromolecules of Life: Carbohydrates:

Learn about the basic molecular structures and primary functions of carbohydrates with this interactive tutorial.

This is part 2 in a five-part series. Click below to explore other tutorials in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Ecological Data Analysis:

See how data are interpreted to better understand the reproductive strategies taken by sea anemones with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Ecology Sampling Strategies:

Examine field sampling strategies used to gather data and avoid bias in ecology research. This interactive tutorial features the CPALMS Perspectives video .

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Heredity:

Explore heredity--how genetic information in DNA is passed from parents to offspring. In this interactive tutorial, you'll see how inherited genetic information impacts traits in offspring. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Macromolecules of Life: Lipids:

Learn about the basic molecular structures and primary functions of lipids with this interactive tutorial.

This is part 3 in a five-part series. Click below to explore other tutorials in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Classifying Living Things:

Learn how and why plants, animals, and other organisms are classified as you complete this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Cooking with Chef Ragu: Acids, Bases, and Salts:

Join Chef Ragu as he learns about acids, bases, and salts while he cooks up something special. In this interactive tutorial you will compare and classify the properties of compounds that are acids, bases, and salts and identify basic examples of these compounds.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Cell Theory:

Learn to identify and explain the three parts of the Cell Theory in this interactive, bee-themed tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Story of Our Start:

Compare and contrast asexual and sexual reproduction with Mix the Fish and Stan the Starfish in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Macromolecules of Life: Proteins:

Learn about the basic molecular structures and primary functions of proteins with this interactive tutorial.

This is part 4 in a five-part series. Click below to explore other tutorials in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Hot on the Trail:

Investigate how temperature affects the rate of chemical reactions in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Classifying and Comparing Physical Properties:

Learn to identify physical properties, compare and contrast substances based on their physical properties. In this interactive tutorial, you'll focus on density and determine whether physical properties have the ability to change.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Scientific Laws and Theories:

Learn what scientific laws and scientific theories are and how they are different from what we commonly call laws and theories outside of science with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Changing with the Times: Variation within Ecosystems:

 Explore how environmental changes at different time scales affect living organisms within ecosystems in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Antarctic Food Web Challenge:

Explore energy transfer in the Antarctic ecosystem to help Brian solve the mystery of the declining krill population in this interacitve tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Macromolecules of Life: Nucleic Acids:

Learn to identify and describe the structural and functional features of nucleic acids, one of the 4 primary macromolecule groups in biological systems, with this interactive tutorial.

This is Part 3 in 5-part series. Click below to open the other tutorials in the series:

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Observation vs. Inference:

Learn how to identify explicit evidence and understand implicit meaning in a text and demonstrate how and why scientific inferences are drawn from scientific observation and be able to identify examples in biology.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Cool Case Files:

Learn that a scientific theory is the culmination of many experiments and supplies the most powerful explanation that scientists have to offer with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Defining Science:

Learn how to define what science is and what it is not. In this interactive tutorial, you will identify why certain ways of exploring the universe can and cannot be considered scientific practices.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Macromolecules of Life: Overview:

Learn to identify the four basic biological macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids) by structure and function with this interactive tutorial.

This is part 1 in a five-part series. Click below to explore other tutorials in the series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Water and Life:

Learn how the chemical properties of water relate to its physical properties and make it essential for life with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Photosynthesis: Capturing the Sun's Energy to Create Sugar:

Learn how to identify and describe the role of all of the major molecules needed for photosynthesis. You'll also be able to explain the role that photosynthesis plays in capturing carbon from the atmosphere to produce sugars. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

From Flowers To Freckles: Mendel's Mighty Model:

Learn how scientists use models to simplify and understand the world around us. In this interactive tutorial, you'll also explore the benefits and limitations of scientific models.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Photosynthesis:

Learn about the process of photosynthesis and ways that plants convert energy from the sun into glucose with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Your Ice Cream Is Moving:

Learn to sequence a series of diagrams to create a model of a substance transitioning from a solid state to a liquid state in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Lesson Plans

The Surprising World of Complex Systems:

This lesson introduces students to complex systems and to basic concepts from the field of system dynamics that lie at the heart of systems thinking. These concepts include stocks and flows, feedback loops, unintended consequences, and the basic principle that the behavior of complex systems can best be understood by looking at the system as a whole, and specifically by analyzing the system’s underlying structure. The lesson introduces these topics through an immersion in (and a role-play simulation of) the dynamics of urban recycling systems, many of which have been thrown into crisis in the past two years. Through this current-affairs example of complex systems in crisis, we identify some key structural features that help to explain how these systems behave over time. We also discover how well-intentioned action can cause negative unintended consequences when we try to intervene in a complex system without understanding how it operates.

Type: Lesson Plan

CO2: Find Out What It Means to You:

This BLOSSOMS lesson discusses Carbon Dioxide, and its impact on climate change. The main learning objective is for students to become more familiar with human production of Carbon Dioxide gas, as well as to gain an awareness of the potential for this gas to effect the temperature of Earth’s atmosphere. This lesson should take about an hour to complete. In order to complete the lesson, the teacher will need: printed copies of signs representing the different products and processes that take place in the carbon cycle (included), samples of matter that represent those products, handouts for the students to create a graphic of the carbon cycle (included) and graph paper or graphing software for students to create graphs. In the breaks of this BLOSSOMS lesson, students will be creating models of the carbon cycle as well as observing experiments and analyzing data from them. It is hoped that this lesson will familiarize students with ways in which carbon moves through our environment and provide them with some personal connection to the impact that an increased concentration of CO2 can have on air temperature. The goal is to spark their interest and hopefully to encourage them to ask and investigate more questions about the climate. 

Type: Lesson Plan

Perspectives Video: Experts

MicroGravity Sensors & Statistics:

Statistical analysis played an essential role in using microgravity sensors to determine location of caves in Wakulla County.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Oil Fingerprinting:

Humans aren't the only ones who get their fingerprints taken. Learn how this scientist is like a crime scene investigator using oil "fingerprints" to explain the orgins of spilled oil.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Photosynthesis in Space:

A NASA botanist explains how studying photosynthesis now can help feed astronauts in the future.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiasts

Properties of Materials:

This discussion about the physical properties of flamenco guitars is full of good vibes.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Making Candy: Energy Transfer:

Candy production requires lots of heat. If you can't stand it, get out of the kitchen so you can watch this video on the couch instead.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

How Material Properties affect Audio Recordings:

Want a clean sound in your recording? Oxidation will test your mettle. Make sure you choose the right material for the job.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Presentation/Slideshow

Cell Processes and Energy: Photosynthesis and Respirataion:

This presentation, a narrated PowerPoint, provides detailed information regarding photosynthesis and cellular respiration. It is provided by a teacher for his students, but is well-done and engaging enough to be useful for other students.

Type: Presentation/Slideshow

Text Resources

Sinkholes:

Sink your teeth into learning about how sinkholes form. In the video clip, three students investigate sinkholes to determine their cause, and then construct a functioning model. Directions for replicating this model, text and student activities are included.

Type: Text Resource

Concept 41: "Genes Come in Pairs":

This resource comes from the Cold Springs Harbor Laboratory: DNA from the Beginning online module series. There are 41 modules located on this site all focused on DNA and organized by individual concepts. The science behind each concept is explained in each module by: animations, an image gallery, video interviews, problems, biographies, and additional links. This is the 2nd module in the series, and it is focused on how genes come in pairs.

Type: Text Resource

Concept 41: "Some genes are dominant":

This resource comes from the Cold Springs Harbor Laboratory: DNA from the Beginning online module series. There are 41 modules located on this site all focused on DNA and organized by individual concepts. The science behind each concept is explained in each module by animations, an image gallery, video interviews, problems, biographies, and additional links. This is the 4th module in the series and it is focused on concept that some genes are dominant.

Type: Text Resource

Concept 41: "Genes don't blend":

This resource comes from the Cold Springs Harbor Laboratory: DNA from the Beginning online module series. There are 41 modules located on this site all focused on DNA and organized by individual concepts. The science behind each concept is explained in each module by animations, an image gallery, video interviews, problems, biographies, and additional links. This is the 3rd module in the series and it is focused on presenting the concept that genes don't blend.

Type: Text Resource

American Elements:

This web site features an interactive periodic chart that provides information on the elements, including a description, physical and thermal properties, abundance, isotopes, ionization energy, the element's discoverer, translations of element names into several languages, and bibliographic information on research-and-development publications involving the element. Additional information includes technical information and information on manufactured products for elemental metals, metallic compounds, and ceramic and crystalline products. The American Elements company manufactures engineered and advanced material products.

Type: Text Resource

Tutorials

Photosynthesis: The Calvin Cycle:


This tutorial is a step by step explanation of what occurs in photosynthesis during the Calvin Cycle. It describes and uses visuals for the chemical reactions in this biochemical pathway. This challenging tutorial addresses the standard at a high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

Photosynthesis: The Light Reaction:


This tutorial shows and describes what occurs during the light reactions of photosynthesis which is the first stage of photosynthesis when plants capture and store energy from sunlight. In this process, light energy is converted into chemical energy, in the form of the energy-carrying molecules ATP and NADPH.

Type: Tutorial

CAM Plants:

This Khan Academy video explains how CAM plants fix carbon dioxide at night so they do not lose water by opening their stomata during the day.

Type: Tutorial

C4 Photosynthesis:

The Khan Academy video discusses how some plants avoid photorespiration by fixing carbon in the bundle sheath cells instead of the mesophylll cells.

Type: Tutorial

Photorespiration:

This Khan Academy video reviews the Calvin Cycle in C3 photosynthesis and discusses the reactants and products of this process. The video then describes photorespiration which is what occurs when the enzyme RuBisCO fixes oxygen instead of carbon dioxide and explains why this is considered an inefficient pathway for plants.

Type: Tutorial

DNA:

This Khan Academy video describes the structure of the molecule DNA in great detail. It also discuses the role DNA plays in the process of protein synthesis, explaining transcription and translation. The video discusses the relationship between DNA and chromosomes as well.

Type: Tutorial

Photosynthesis: The Light Reactions:

This Khan Academy tutorial explains in detail the process of the light reactions of photosynthesis including the importance of the thylakoid membrane and the products that are produced from this reaction.

Type: Tutorial

Photosynthesis: The Calvin Cycle:

This Khan Academy tutorial explains how the by-products from the light reactions of photosynthesis are used to produce sugar molecules in the Calvin Cycle.

Type: Tutorial

Calvin Cycle:

The Calvin cycle is a metabolic pathway found in the stroma of plant chloroplasts in which carbon enters in the form of carbon dioxide and leaves in the form of sugar. This tutorial will help you to understand how the Calvin cycle works.

This challenging tutorial addresses the standard at a high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

Mirror Processes:

This tutorial will help students to understand that both the process of photosynthesis and cellular respiration use hydrogen ions and high-energy electrons to make molecules of ATP. Learners will be able to compare the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis and the electron transport chain of cellular respiration.

Type: Tutorial

The Simple Story of Photosynthesis and Food :

Photosynthesis is an essential part of the exchange between humans and plants. Amanda Ooten walks us through the process of photosynthesis, also discussing the relationship between photosynthesis and carbohydrates, starch, and fiber -- and how the air we breathe is related to the food we ingest.

Type: Tutorial

How Polarity Makes Water Behave Strangely:

Water is both essential and unique. Many of its particular qualities stem from the fact that it consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen, therefore creating an unequal sharing of electrons. From fish in frozen lakes to ice floating on water, Christina Kleinberg describes the effects of polarity.

Type: Tutorial

Nature's Smallest Factory: The Calvin Cycle:

A hearty bowl of cereal gives you the energy to start your day, but how exactly did that energy make its way into your bowl? It all begins with photosynthesis, the process that converts the air we breathe into energizing glucose. Cathy Symington details the highly efficient second phase of photosynthesis -- called the Calvin cycle -- which converts carbon dioxide into sugar with some clever mix-and-match math.

Type: Tutorial

The Chemical Structure of DNA:


This tutorial will help the learners with their understanding of chemical structure of DNA.

Type: Tutorial

Interactive Carbon Lab:

This lab simulation will allow you to explore how carbon circulates through the environment. Through data collection and analysis, you will experiment with the impact that humans are having on the cycling of carbon and make data based predictions on how these impacts may change environmental outcomes to the year 2100.

Type: Tutorial

Video/Audio/Animations

Will an Ice Cube Melt Faster in Freshwater or Saltwater?:

With an often unexpected outcome from a simple experiment, students can discover the factors that cause and influence thermohaline circulation in our oceans. In two 45-minute class periods, students complete activities where they observe the melting of ice cubes in saltwater and freshwater, using basic materials: clear plastic cups, ice cubes, water, salt, food coloring, and thermometers. There are no prerequisites for this lesson but it is helpful if students are familiar with the concepts of density and buoyancy as well as the salinity of seawater. It is also helpful if students understand that dissolving salt in water will lower the freezing point of water. There are additional follow up investigations that help students appreciate and understand the importance of the ocean's influence on Earth's climate.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

How Mendel's Pea Plants Helped Us Understand Genetics:

This resource is a brief TED Ed video that covers Mendel's contributions to the field of genetics. It clearly and concisely explains genotype, phenotype, dominance, and Punnett squares in a kid-friendly way.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Photosynthesis:

  • Observe the photosynthesis mechanism in the plant
  • Learn about the main chemical reactions that takes place during photosynthesis
  • Learn how solar energy is converted into chemical energy

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Element Word Scramble:

Students test their knowledge about the names of elements and learn some of their properties through the hint provided with each scrambled word

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Element Math Game:

Students determine the number of protons, electrons, neutrons, and nucleons for different atoms

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Element Matching Game:

Students match the names of elements of the periodic table with their symbols

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Element Flash Cards:

This game tests students' knowledge about elements, such as their symbols, atomic numbers, and names

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Science Crossword Puzzles:

A collection of crossword puzzles that test the knowledge of students about some of the terms, processes, and classifications covered in science topics

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Introduction to Basic Genetics Terminology:

This website allows students and/or teachers to refresh their memory on terms such as DNA, traits, heredity, and genetics.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Deep Sea Vents and Life:

Excerpted from NOVA: "Volcanoes of the Deep", this video segment reveals strange and luminescent forms of life, such as giant tube worms, spider crabs, and billions of microbes clumped together like a cottony web. The site where life began on Earth may have been where black smokers stream from hydrothermal vents and chimneys along the sea floor.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Decomposers:

This video segment from Interactive NOVA: "Earth" describes the role of decomposers in the living world. We've all been victimized by decomposers: Lettuce rots; bread becomes moldy. Bacteria and fungi often consume our food before we have a chance to. However, if we stop to consider the important work that decomposers do, we may be a little less disgruntled by their presence.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Autism Genes:

This 13-minute video segment produced by NOVA Science Now explores the work by one committed family and researchers to identify patterns in the genetic information of autism patients.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Evolving Ideas: Isn't evolution just a theory?:

This video examines the vocabulary essential for understanding the nature of science and evolution and illustrates how evolution is a powerful, well-supported scientific explanation for the relatedness of all life. A clear definition and description of scientific theory is given.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Photosynthesis:

This video provides an overview of photosynthesis.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Photosynthesis: Light Reactions and Photophosphorylation:

This video gives more detail on the light reaction and photophosphorylation that occur in photosynthesis.


Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Citizen Science:

In this National Science Foundation video and reading selection lab ecologist Janis Dickinson explains how she depends on citizen scientists to help her track the effects of disease, land-use change and environmental contaminants on the nesting success of birds.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Coffee to Carbon:

This site explores the relationship of the size of the cell and many other common objects, molecules, and atoms. It is an interactive website that shows the scale of the objects in relations to each other. 

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Photosynthesis animation and other cell processes in animation:

This site has fantastic short Flash animations of intricate cell processes, including photosynthesis and the electron transport chain.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Virtual Manipulatives

Build an Atom:

Build an atom out of protons, neutrons, and electrons, and see how the element, charge, and mass change. Then play a game to test your ideas!

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Split Brain Experiments:

The split brain experiments revealed that the right and the left hemisphere in the brain are good at different things. For instance, the right hemisphere is good at space perception tasks and music while the left is good at verbal and analytic tasks. This game guides students through some examples of the split-brain phenomenon and how the differences are understood.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

States of Matter: Basics:

This simulation will allow you to heat, cool and compress atoms and molecules and watch as they change between solid, liquid and gas phase.
Ideas to investigate:

  • Describe characteristics of three states of matter: solid, liquid and gas.
  • Predict how varying the temperature or pressure changes the behavior of particles.
  • Compare particles in the three different phases.
  • Explain freezing and melting with molecular level detail.
  • Recognize that different substances have different properties, including melting, freezing and boiling temperatures.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Gas Properties:


Students will pump gas molecules to a box and see what happens as they change the volume, add or remove heat, change gravity, and more. Measure the temperature and pressure, and discover how the properties of the gas vary in relation to each other.

  • Students can predict how changing a variable among pressure, volume, temperature and number influences other gas properties.
  • Students can predict how changing temperature will affect the speed of molecules.
  • Students can rank the speed of molecules in thermal equilibrium based on the relative masses of molecules.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

pH Scale:

Students can test the pH of several substances and visualize hydronium, hydroxide, and water molecules in solution by concentration or the number of molecules. Students can add water to a given substance to see the effects it will have on the pH of that substance; or they can create their own custom substance.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

PhET Gas Properties:

This virtual manipulative allows you to investigate various aspects of gases through virtual experimentation. From the site: Pump gas molecules to a box and see what happens as you change the volume, add or remove heat, change gravity, and more (open the box, change the molecular weight of the molecule). Measure the temperature and pressure, and discover how the properties of the gas vary in relation to each other.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this course.