|SS.912.E.1.1:|| Identify the factors of production and why they are necessary for the production of goods and services.|
Examples are land, labor, capital, entrepreneurship.
|SS.912.E.1.2:|| Analyze production possibilities curves to explain choice, scarcity, and opportunity costs. |
|SS.912.E.1.3:|| Compare how the various economic systems (traditional, market, command, mixed) answer the questions: (1) What to produce?; (2) How to produce?; and (3) For whom to produce?
|SS.912.E.1.4:|| Define supply, demand, quantity supplied,and quantity demanded; graphically illustrate situations that would cause changes in each, and demonstrate how the equilibrium price of a product is determined by the interaction of supply and demand in the market place.
|SS.912.E.1.5:|| Compare different forms of business organizations.|
Examples are sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation, limited liability corporation.
|SS.912.E.1.6:|| Compare the basic characteristics of the four market structures (monopoly, oligopoly, monopolistic competition, pure competition).
|SS.912.E.1.7:|| Graph and explain how firms determine price and output through marginal cost analysis. |
|SS.912.E.1.8:|| Explain ways firms engage in price and nonprice competition. |
|SS.912.E.1.9:|| Describe how the earnings of workers are determined.|
Examples are minimum wage, the market value of the product produced, workers' productivity.
|SS.912.E.1.10:|| Explain the use of fiscal policy (taxation, spending) to promote price stability, full employment, and economic growth.
|SS.912.E.1.11:|| Explain how the Federal Reserve uses the tools of monetary policy (discount rate, reserve requirement, open market operations) to promote price stability, full employment, and economic growth.
|SS.912.E.1.12:|| Examine the four phases of the business cycle (peak, contraction - unemployment, trough, expansion - inflation).
|SS.912.E.1.13:|| Explain the basic functions and characteristics of money, and describe the composition of the money supply in the United States.
|SS.912.E.1.14:|| Compare credit, savings, and investment services available to the consumer from financial institutions. |
|SS.912.E.1.15:|| Describe the risk and return profiles of various investment vehicles and the importance of diversification.|
Examples are savings accounts, certificates of deposit, stocks, bonds, mutual funds, Individual Retirement Accounts.
|SS.912.E.1.16:|| Construct a one-year budget plan for a specific career path including expenses and construction of a credit plan for purchasing a major item.|
Examples of a career path are university student, trade school student, food service employee, retail employee, laborer, armed forces enlisted personnel.
Examples of a budget plan are housing expenses, furnishing, utilities, food costs, transportation, and personal expenses - medical, clothing, grooming, entertainment and recreation, and gifts and contributions.
Examples of a credit plan are interest rates, credit scores, payment plan.
|SS.912.E.2.1:|| Identify and explain broad economic goals.
Examples are freedom, efficiency, equity, security, growth, price stability, full employment.
|SS.912.E.2.2:|| Use a decision-making model to analyze a public policy issue affecting the student's community that incorporates defining a problem, analyzing the potential consequences, and considering the alternatives. |
|SS.912.E.2.3:|| Research contributions of entrepreneurs, inventors, and other key individuals from various gender, social, and ethnic backgrounds in the development of the United States. |
|SS.912.E.2.4:|| Diagram and explain the problems that occur when government institutes wage and price controls, and explain the rationale for these controls.|
Examples are shortage, surplus, other inefficiencies.
|SS.912.E.2.5:|| Analyze how capital investments may impact productivity and economic growth.
Examples are factories, machinery, technology, people.
|SS.912.E.2.6:|| Examine the benefits of natural monopolies and the purposes of government regulation of these monopolies.
Examples are electric, water, cable, waste management.
|SS.912.E.2.7:|| Identify the impact of inflation on society. |
|SS.912.E.2.8:|| Differentiate between direct and indirect taxes, and describe the progressivity of taxes (progressive, proportional, regressive).|
Examples are income, sales, social security.
|SS.912.E.2.9:|| Analyze how changes in federal spending and taxation affect budget deficits and surpluses and the national debt. |
|SS.912.E.2.10:|| Describe the organization and functions of the Federal Reserve System. |
|SS.912.E.2.11:|| Assess the economic impact of negative and positive externalities on the local, state, and national environment.|
Examples of negative are pollution, global warming.
Examples of positive are pure water, better air quality.
|SS.912.E.2.12:|| Construct a circular flow diagram for an open-market economy including elements of households, firms, government, financial institutions, product and factor markets, and international trade. |
|SS.912.E.3.1:|| Demonstrate the impact of inflation on world economies.|
Examples are oil prices, 1973 oil crisis, Great Depression, World War II.
|SS.912.E.3.2:|| Examine absolute and comparative advantage, and explain why most trade occurs because of comparative advantage.
|SS.912.E.3.3:|| Discuss the effect of barriers to trade and why nations sometimes erect barriers to trade or establish free trade zones.|
Examples are NAFTA, CAFTA.
Examples are quotas, tariffs.
|SS.912.E.3.4:|| Assess the economic impact of negative and positive externalities on the international environment.|
Examples of negative are pollution, global warming.
Examples of positive are pure water, better air quality.
|SS.912.E.3.5:|| Compare the current United States economy with other developed and developing nations.|
Examples are standard of living, exchange rates, productivity, gross domestic product.
|SS.912.E.3.6:|| Differentiate and draw conclusions about historical economic thought theorized by economists.|
Examples are Adam Smith, Malthus, Ricardo, Keynes, Friedman, Say, Gilder.
|SS.912.FL.1.1:|| Discuss that people choose jobs or careers for which they are qualified based on non-income factors, such as job satisfaction, independence, risk, family, or location.|
Identify non-income factors that influence career or job choice by interviewing three individuals who work at different jobs.
|SS.912.FL.1.2:|| Explain that people vary in their willingness to obtain more education or training because these decisions involve incurring immediate costs to obtain possible future benefits. Describe how discounting the future benefits of education and training may lead some people to pass up potentially high rates of return that more education and training may offer.|
Explain how people’s willingness to wait or plan for the future affects their decision to get more education or job training in a dynamic and changing labor market.
Speculate how a high school student might assess the future benefits of going to college, and describe how that assessment will affect the student’s decision to attend college.
|SS.912.FL.1.3:|| Evaluate ways people can make more informed education, job, or career decisions by evaluating the benefits and costs of different choices.|
Compare the benefits and costs of a college education to those of a technical school.
Compare the unemployment rates of workers with different levels of education.
|SS.912.FL.1.4:|| Analyze the reasons why the wage or salary paid to workers in jobs is usually determined by the labor market and that businesses are generally willing to pay more productive workers higher wages or salaries than less productive workers.|
Explain why wages or salaries vary among workers in different types of jobs and among workers in the same jobs.
Discuss why the productivity of workers is important to businesses.
|SS.912.FL.1.5:|| Discuss reasons why changes in economic conditions or the labor market can cause changes in a worker’s income or may cause unemployment.|
Explain how an increase in the demand for mobile applications might impact the wages paid to software developers.
Explain the effects of a recession on the unemployment rate.
|SS.912.FL.1.6:|| Explain that taxes are paid to federal, state, and local governments to fund government goods and services and transfer payments from government to individuals and that the major types of taxes are income taxes, payroll (Social Security) taxes, property taxes, and sales taxes.|
Calculate the amount of taxes a person is likely to pay when given information or data about the person’s sources of income and amount of spending.
Identify which level of government receives the tax revenue for a particular tax and describe what is done with the tax revenue.
|SS.912.FL.1.7:|| Discuss how people’s sources of income, amount of income, as well as the amount and type of spending affect the types and amounts of taxes paid.|
Investigate the tax rates on different sources of income and on different types of goods that are purchased.
|SS.912.FL.2.1:|| Compare consumer decisions as they are influenced by the price of a good or service, the price of alternatives, and the consumer’s income as well as his or her preferences.|
Write scenarios explaining how an individual’s decision to buy athletic shoes may have been influenced by various factors.
|SS.912.FL.2.2:|| Analyze situations in which when people consume goods and services, their consumption can have positive and negative effects on others.|
Explain the positive or negative impacts of an activity such as smoking cigarettes or attending school, etc., might have on other individuals and the community.
|SS.912.FL.2.3:|| Discuss that when buying a good, consumers may consider various aspects of the product including the product’s features. Explain why for goods that last for a longer period of time, the consumer should consider the product’s durability and maintenance costs.|
Explain the factors that a consumer who is buying an automobile should consider before making a choice.
|SS.912.FL.2.4:|| Describe ways that consumers may be influenced by how the price of a good is expressed.|
Write a paragraph explaining why a store might advertise the price of a flat screen TV expressed as an amount per day or week rather than the actual full price.
List different ways retailers use to express the prices of their products.
|SS.912.FL.2.5:|| Discuss ways people incur costs and realize benefits when searching for information related to their purchases of goods and services and describe how the amount of information people should gather depends on the benefits and costs of the information.|
Write a newspaper column, “Tips for Consumers,” explaining why searching for information may be more important when purchasing expensive, durable goods and services than for inexpensive and nondurable products. Include an explanation of how impulse buying can be avoided by sleeping on a decision before making a big purchase.
|SS.912.FL.2.6:|| Explain that people may choose to donate money to charitable organizations and other not-for-profits because they gain satisfaction from donating.|
Brainstorm a list of charitable organizations that are operating in the students’ community. For each organization, list a possible reason that a donor might want to give to that charitable organization.
|SS.912.FL.2.7:|| Examine governments establishing laws and institutions to provide consumers with information about goods or services being purchased and to protect consumers from fraud.|
Draft a complaint letter to an appropriate firm or agency about a problem the consumer has encountered with a purchase.
|SS.912.FL.3.1:|| Discuss the reasons why some people have a tendency to be impatient and choose immediate spending over saving for the future.|
Identify instances in their lives where they decided to buy something immediately and then wished they had instead saved the money for future purchases.
|SS.912.FL.3.2:|| Examine the ideas that inflation reduces the value of money, including savings, that the real interest rate expresses the rate of return on savings, taking into account the effect of inflation and that the real interest rate is calculated as the nominal interest rate minus the rate of inflation.|
Explain why savers expect a higher nominal interest rate when inflation is expected to be high.
|SS.912.FL.3.3:|| Compare the difference between the nominal interest rate which tells savers how the dollar value of their savings or investments will grow, and the real interest rate which tells savers how the purchasing power of their savings or investments will grow.|
Given the nominal interest rate and the rate of inflation over the course of one year, explain what will happen to the purchasing power of savings.
|SS.912.FL.3.4:|| Describe ways that money received (or paid) in the future can be compared to money held today by discounting the future value based on the rate of interest.|
Use spreadsheet software to calculate the amount a 10-year-old would need to save today in order to pay for one year of college tuition eight years from now.
|SS.912.FL.3.5:|| Explain ways that government agencies supervise and regulate financial institutions to help protect the safety, soundness, and legal compliance of the nation’s banking and financial system.|
: Explain the role that government agencies charged with regulating financial institutions play in helping to protect the safety, soundness, and legal compliance of the nation’s banking system. These agencies include the Federal Reserve System, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, the FDIC, and state banking departments.
|SS.912.FL.3.6:|| Describe government policies that create incentives and disincentives for people to save.|
Explain why traditional IRAs (individual retirement accounts), Roth IRAs, and educational savings accounts provide incentives for people to save.
|SS.912.FL.3.7:|| Explain how employer benefit programs create incentives and disincentives to save and how an employee’s decision to save can depend on how the alternatives are presented by the employer.|
Explain why matches of retirement savings by employers substantially change the incentives for employees to save. Explain why having employees “opt out” of savings programs results in a higher level of saving than having them “opt in.”
|SS.912.FL.4.1:|| Discuss ways that consumers can compare the cost of credit by using the annual percentage rate (APR), initial fees charged, and fees charged for late payment or missed payments.|
Use the APR, initial fees, late fees, nonpayment fees, and other relevant information to compare the cost of credit from various sources for the purchase of a product.
|SS.912.FL.4.2:|| Discuss that banks and financial institutions sometimes compete by offering credit at low introductory rates, which increase after a set period of time or when the borrower misses a payment or makes a late payment.|
Explain why a bank may offer low-rate introductory credit offers.
|SS.912.FL.4.3:|| Explain that loans can be unsecured or secured with collateral, that collateral is a piece of property that can be sold by the lender to recover all or part of a loan if the borrower fails to repay. Explain why secured loans are viewed as having less risk and why lenders charge a lower interest rate than they charge for unsecured loans. |
|SS.912.FL.4.4:|| Describe why people often make a cash payment to the seller of a good—called a down payment—in order to reduce the amount they need to borrow. Describe why lenders may consider loans made with a down payment to have less risk because the down payment gives the borrower some equity or ownership right away and why these loans may carry a lower interest rate.|
Explain how a down payment reduces the total amount financed and why this reduces the monthly payment and/or the length of the loan.
Explain why a borrower who has made a down payment has an incentive to repay a loan or make payments on time.
|SS.912.FL.4.5:|| Explain that lenders make credit decisions based in part on consumer payment history. Credit bureaus record borrowers’ credit and payment histories and provide that information to lenders in credit reports.|
List factors from an individual’s credit history or credit application that may cause a lender to deny credit.
Explain what credit bureaus do.
|SS.912.FL.4.6:|| Discuss that lenders can pay to receive a borrower’s credit score from a credit bureau and that a credit score is a number based on information in a credit report and assesses a person’s credit risk.|
Explain the concept of a credit score and what it indicates about a borrower. Explain why certain factors, such as having many credit cards with large lines of credit and large balances, might hurt a credit score.
|SS.912.FL.4.7:|| Describe that, in addition to assessing a person’s credit risk, credit reports and scores may be requested and used by employers in hiring decisions, landlords in deciding whether to rent apartments, and insurance companies in charging premiums.|
Provide two examples of how having a good credit score can benefit a person financially. Explain why employers find it useful to hire someone with a better credit score.
|SS.912.FL.4.8:|| Examine the fact that failure to repay a loan has significant consequences for borrowers such as negative entries on their credit report, repossession of property (collateral), garnishment of wages, and the inability to obtain loans in the future.|
Write a scenario about the future opportunities a person can lose by failing to repay loans as agreed.
|SS.912.FL.4.9:|| Explain that consumers who have difficulty repaying debt can seek assistance through credit counseling services and by negotiating directly with creditors.|
Identify the costs and benefits associated with using different credit counseling services.
|SS.912.FL.4.10:|| Analyze the fact that, in extreme cases, bankruptcy may be an option for consumers who are unable to repay debt, and although bankruptcy provides some benefits, filing for bankruptcy also entails considerable costs, including having notice of the bankruptcy appear on a consumer’s credit report for up to 10 years.|
Investigate the costs of bankruptcy by examining the bankruptcy laws in Florida.
|SS.912.FL.4.11:|| Explain that people often apply for a mortgage to purchase a home and identify a mortgage is a type of loan that is secured by real estate property as collateral.|
Predict what might happen should a homeowner fail to make his or her mortgage payments.
|SS.912.FL.4.12:|| Discuss that consumers who use credit should be aware of laws that are in place to protect them and that these include requirements to provide full disclosure of credit terms such as APR and fees, as well as protection against discrimination and abusive marketing or collection practices.|
Explain why it is important that consumers have full information about loans. Explain the information on a credit disclosure statement.
|SS.912.FL.4.13:|| Explain that consumers are entitled to a free copy of their credit report annually so that they can verify that no errors were made that might increase their cost of credit.|
Explain why it is important to check the accuracy of the information recorded on a credit report and know what steps to take to correct errors on credit reports.
|SS.912.FL.5.1:|| Compare the ways that federal, state, and local tax rates vary on different types of investments. Describe the taxes effect on the after-tax rate of return of an investment.|
Given tax rates and inflation rates, calculate the real, after-tax rates of return for groups of stocks and bonds.
|SS.912.FL.5.2:|| Explain how the expenses of buying, selling, and holding financial assets decrease the rate of return from an investment.|
Identify and compare the administrative costs of several mutual funds and estimate the differences in the total amount accumulated after 10 years for each mutual fund, assuming identical market performance.
|SS.912.FL.5.3:|| Discuss that buyers and sellers in financial markets determine prices of financial assets and therefore influence the rates of return on those assets.|
Predict what will happen to the price and rate of return on a bond if buyers believe that the bond has increased in risk.
|SS.912.FL.5.4:|| Explain that an investment with greater risk than another investment will commonly have a lower market price, and therefore a higher rate of return, than the other investment.|
Explain why the expected rate of return on a “blue chip” stock is likely to be lower than that of an Internet start-up company.
|SS.912.FL.5.5:|| Explain that shorter-term investments will likely have lower rates of return than longer-term investments.|
Explain how markets will determine the rates of return for two bonds if one is a long-term bond and the other a short-term bond, assuming each bond pays the same rate of interest.
|SS.912.FL.5.6:|| Describe how diversifying investments in different types of financial assets can lower investment risk.|
Compare the risk faced by two investors, both of whom own two businesses on a beach. One investor owns a suntan lotion business and a rain umbrella business.
The other investor owns two suntan lotion businesses. Explain why a financial advisor might encourage a client to include stocks, bonds, and real estate assets in his or her portfolio.
|SS.912.FL.5.7:|| Describe how financial markets adjust to new financial news and that prices in those markets reflect what is known about those financial assets.|
Explain how prices of financial investments can adjust when given specific news about a company’s or industry’s future profitability.
|SS.912.FL.5.8:|| Discuss ways that the prices of financial assets are affected by interest rates and explain that the prices of financial assets are also affected by changes in domestic and international economic conditions, monetary policy, and fiscal policy.|
Give an example of a change in interest rates affecting the current value of a financial asset that pays returns in the future. Explain why the current value increases when interest rates fall. Explain how a change in economic growth might change the value of a stock held by an investor.
|SS.912.FL.5.9:|| Examine why investors should be aware of tendencies that people have that may result in poor choices, which may include avoiding selling assets at a loss because they weigh losses more than they weigh gains and investing in financial assets with which they are familiar, such as their own employer’s stock or domestic rather than international stocks.|
Explain why investors may sell stocks that have gained in value, but hold ones that have lost value. Explain why this may not make sense.
Identify an example of why an investor may have a bias toward familiar investments and why this may or may not be a rational decision.
|SS.912.FL.5.10:|| Explain that people vary in their willingness to take risks because the willingness to take risks depends on factors such as personality, income, and family situation.|
Explain how the portfolio of a retiree might differ from that of a young, single person.
|SS.912.FL.5.11:|| Describe why an economic role for a government may exist if individuals do not have complete information about the nature of alternative investments or access to competitive financial markets.|
Explain why it is important for individuals to have accurate information about a company’s sales and profits when investing in that company.
|SS.912.FL.5.12:|| Compare the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the Federal Reserve, and other government agencies that regulate financial markets.|
Conduct research to learn about the SEC or the Federal Reserve and identify their roles in regulating financial markets.
|SS.912.FL.6.1:|| Describe how individuals vary with respect to their willingness to accept risk and why most people are willing to pay a small cost now if it means they can avoid a possible larger loss later.|
Discuss whether or not a premium paid to insure against an accident that never happens is wasted.
|SS.912.FL.6.2:|| Analyze how judgment regarding risky events is subject to errors because people tend to overestimate the probability of infrequent events, often because they’ve heard of or seen a recent example.|
Discuss how an extended warranty on a consumer product is like insurance. Evaluate the cost-effectiveness of extended warranties on three consumer products: a new automobile, a smart phone, and a dishwasher, considering the likelihood that the product will fail, the cost of replacing the item, and the price of the warranty.
|SS.912.FL.6.3:|| Describe why people choose different amounts of insurance coverage based on their willingness to accept risk, as well as their occupation, lifestyle, age, financial profile, and the price of insurance.|
Given hypothetical profiles for three types of individuals who differ with respect to occupation, age, lifestyle, marital status, and financial profile, assess the types and levels of personal financial risk faced by each and make recommendations for appropriate insurance.
|SS.912.FL.6.4:|| Explain that people may be required by governments or by certain types of contracts (e.g., home mortgages) to purchase some types of insurance.|
Explain why homeowners insurance is required by a lender when a homeowner takes out a mortgage.
Investigate Florida’s regulations regarding the amount of auto insurance that drivers are required to purchase as well as federal health insurance regulations.
|SS.912.FL.6.5:|| Describe how an insurance contract can increase the probability or size of a potential loss because having the insurance results in the person taking more risks, and that policy features such as deductibles and copayments are cost-sharing features that encourage the policyholder to take steps to reduce the potential size of a loss (claim).|
Given an accident scenario, calculate the amount that would be paid on an insurance claim after applying exclusions and deductibles.
|SS.912.FL.6.6:|| Explain that people can lower insurance premiums by behaving in ways that show they pose a lower risk.|
Explain why taking a safe-driving course can lower an auto insurance premium and why not smoking can lower the health insurance premium.
|SS.912.FL.6.7:|| Compare the purposes of various types of insurance, including that health insurance provides for funds to pay for health care in the event of illness and may also pay for the cost of preventative care; disability insurance is income insurance that provides funds to replace income lost while an individual is ill or injured and unable to work; property and casualty insurance pays for damage or loss to the insured’s property; life insurance benefits are paid to the insured’s beneficiaries in the event of the policyholder’s death.|
Compare the coverage and costs of hypothetical plans for a set of scenarios for various types of insurance.
|SS.912.FL.6.8:|| Discuss the fact that, in addition to privately purchased insurance, some government benefit programs provide a social safety net to protect individuals from economic hardship created by unexpected events.|
Describe examples of government transfer programs that compensate for unexpected losses, including Social Security Disability benefits, Medicare, Medicaid, unemployment insurance, and workers’ compensation.
|SS.912.FL.6.9:|| Explain that loss of assets, wealth, and future opportunities can occur if an individual’s personal information is obtained by others through identity theft and then used fraudulently, and that by managing their personal information and choosing the environment in which it is revealed, individuals can accept, reduce, and insure against the risk of loss due to identity theft.|
Describe problems that can occur when an individual is a victim of identity theft.
Give specific examples of how online transactions, online banking, email scams, and telemarketing calls can make consumers vulnerable to identity theft.
Describe the conditions under which individuals should and should not disclose their Social Security number, account numbers, or other sensitive personal information.
|SS.912.FL.6.10:|| Compare federal and state regulations that provide some remedies and assistance for victims of identity theft.|
Recommend actions a victim of identity theft should take to limit losses and restore personal security.
|SS.912.G.2.2:|| Describe the factors and processes that contribute to the differences between developing and developed regions of the world. |
|SS.912.G.3.3:|| Use geographic terms and tools to explain differing perspectives on the use of renewable and non-renewable resources in Florida, the United States, and the world. |
|SS.912.G.4.4:|| Use geographic terms and tools to analyze case studies of issues in globalization.|
Examples are cultural imperialism, outsourcing.
|MA.K12.MTR.1.1:|| Actively participate in effortful learning both individually and collectively. |
Mathematicians who participate in effortful learning both individually and with others:
- Analyze the problem in a way that makes sense given the task.
- Ask questions that will help with solving the task.
- Build perseverance by modifying methods as needed while solving a challenging task.
- Stay engaged and maintain a positive mindset when working to solve tasks.
- Help and support each other when attempting a new method or approach.
Teachers who encourage students to participate actively in effortful learning both individually and with others:
- Cultivate a community of growth mindset learners.
- Foster perseverance in students by choosing tasks that are challenging.
- Develop students’ ability to analyze and problem solve.
- Recognize students’ effort when solving challenging problems.
|MA.K12.MTR.2.1:|| Demonstrate understanding by representing problems in multiple ways. |
Mathematicians who demonstrate understanding by representing problems in multiple ways:
- Build understanding through modeling and using manipulatives.
- Represent solutions to problems in multiple ways using objects, drawings, tables, graphs and equations.
- Progress from modeling problems with objects and drawings to using algorithms and equations.
- Express connections between concepts and representations.
- Choose a representation based on the given context or purpose.
Teachers who encourage students to demonstrate understanding by representing problems in multiple ways:
- Help students make connections between concepts and representations.
- Provide opportunities for students to use manipulatives when investigating concepts.
- Guide students from concrete to pictorial to abstract representations as understanding progresses.
- Show students that various representations can have different purposes and can be useful in different situations.
|MA.K12.MTR.3.1:|| Complete tasks with mathematical fluency. |
Mathematicians who complete tasks with mathematical fluency:
- Select efficient and appropriate methods for solving problems within the given context.
- Maintain flexibility and accuracy while performing procedures and mental calculations.
- Complete tasks accurately and with confidence.
- Adapt procedures to apply them to a new context.
- Use feedback to improve efficiency when performing calculations.
Teachers who encourage students to complete tasks with mathematical fluency:
- Provide students with the flexibility to solve problems by selecting a procedure that allows them to solve efficiently and accurately.
- Offer multiple opportunities for students to practice efficient and generalizable methods.
- Provide opportunities for students to reflect on the method they used and determine if a more efficient method could have been used.
|MA.K12.MTR.4.1:|| Engage in discussions that reflect on the mathematical thinking of self and others. |
Mathematicians who engage in discussions that reflect on the mathematical thinking of self and others:
- Communicate mathematical ideas, vocabulary and methods effectively.
- Analyze the mathematical thinking of others.
- Compare the efficiency of a method to those expressed by others.
- Recognize errors and suggest how to correctly solve the task.
- Justify results by explaining methods and processes.
- Construct possible arguments based on evidence.
Teachers who encourage students to engage in discussions that reflect on the mathematical thinking of self and others:
- Establish a culture in which students ask questions of the teacher and their peers, and error is an opportunity for learning.
- Create opportunities for students to discuss their thinking with peers.
- Select, sequence and present student work to advance and deepen understanding of correct and increasingly efficient methods.
- Develop students’ ability to justify methods and compare their responses to the responses of their peers.
|MA.K12.MTR.5.1:|| Use patterns and structure to help understand and connect mathematical concepts. |
Mathematicians who use patterns and structure to help understand and connect mathematical concepts:
- Focus on relevant details within a problem.
- Create plans and procedures to logically order events, steps or ideas to solve problems.
- Decompose a complex problem into manageable parts.
- Relate previously learned concepts to new concepts.
- Look for similarities among problems.
- Connect solutions of problems to more complicated large-scale situations.
Teachers who encourage students to use patterns and structure to help understand and connect mathematical concepts:
- Help students recognize the patterns in the world around them and connect these patterns to mathematical concepts.
- Support students to develop generalizations based on the similarities found among problems.
- Provide opportunities for students to create plans and procedures to solve problems.
- Develop students’ ability to construct relationships between their current understanding and more sophisticated ways of thinking.
|MA.K12.MTR.6.1:|| Assess the reasonableness of solutions. |
Mathematicians who assess the reasonableness of solutions:
- Estimate to discover possible solutions.
- Use benchmark quantities to determine if a solution makes sense.
- Check calculations when solving problems.
- Verify possible solutions by explaining the methods used.
- Evaluate results based on the given context.
Teachers who encourage students to assess the reasonableness of solutions:
- Have students estimate or predict solutions prior to solving.
- Prompt students to continually ask, “Does this solution make sense? How do you know?”
- Reinforce that students check their work as they progress within and after a task.
- Strengthen students’ ability to verify solutions through justifications.
|MA.K12.MTR.7.1:|| Apply mathematics to real-world contexts. |
Mathematicians who apply mathematics to real-world contexts:
- Connect mathematical concepts to everyday experiences.
- Use models and methods to understand, represent and solve problems.
- Perform investigations to gather data or determine if a method is appropriate.
• Redesign models and methods to improve accuracy or efficiency.
Teachers who encourage students to apply mathematics to real-world contexts:
- Provide opportunities for students to create models, both concrete and abstract, and perform investigations.
- Challenge students to question the accuracy of their models and methods.
- Support students as they validate conclusions by comparing them to the given situation.
- Indicate how various concepts can be applied to other disciplines.
|ELA.K12.EE.1.1:|| Cite evidence to explain and justify reasoning.|
K-1 Students include textual evidence in their oral communication with guidance and support from adults. The evidence can consist of details from the text without naming the text. During 1st grade, students learn how to incorporate the evidence in their writing.
2-3 Students include relevant textual evidence in their written and oral communication. Students should name the text when they refer to it. In 3rd grade, students should use a combination of direct and indirect citations.
4-5 Students continue with previous skills and reference comments made by speakers and peers. Students cite texts that they’ve directly quoted, paraphrased, or used for information. When writing, students will use the form of citation dictated by the instructor or the style guide referenced by the instructor.
6-8 Students continue with previous skills and use a style guide to create a proper citation.
9-12 Students continue with previous skills and should be aware of existing style guides and the ways in which they differ.
|ELA.K12.EE.2.1:|| Read and comprehend grade-level complex texts proficiently.|
See Text Complexity for grade-level complexity bands and a text complexity rubric.
|ELA.K12.EE.3.1:|| Make inferences to support comprehension.|
Students will make inferences before the words infer or inference are introduced. Kindergarten students will answer questions like “Why is the girl smiling?” or make predictions about what will happen based on the title page.
Students will use the terms and apply them in 2nd grade and beyond.
|ELA.K12.EE.4.1:|| Use appropriate collaborative techniques and active listening skills when engaging in discussions in a variety of situations.|
In kindergarten, students learn to listen to one another respectfully.
In grades 1-2, students build upon these skills by justifying what they are thinking. For example: “I think ________ because _______.” The collaborative conversations are becoming academic conversations.
In grades 3-12, students engage in academic conversations discussing claims and justifying their reasoning, refining and applying skills. Students build on ideas, propel the conversation, and support claims and counterclaims with evidence.
|ELA.K12.EE.5.1:|| Use the accepted rules governing a specific format to create quality work.|
Students will incorporate skills learned into work products to produce quality work. For students to incorporate these skills appropriately, they must receive instruction. A 3rd grade student creating a poster board display must have instruction in how to effectively present information to do quality work.
|ELA.K12.EE.6.1:|| Use appropriate voice and tone when speaking or writing.|
In kindergarten and 1st grade, students learn the difference between formal and informal language. For example, the way we talk to our friends differs from the way we speak to adults. In 2nd grade and beyond, students practice appropriate social and academic language to discuss texts.
|ELD.K12.ELL.SI.1:|| English language learners communicate for social and instructional purposes within the school setting. |
|ELD.K12.ELL.SS.1:|| English language learners communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Social Studies. |
|HE.912.C.2.4:|| Evaluate how public health policies and government regulations can influence health promotion and disease prevention.|
Seat-belt enforcement, underage alcohol sales, reporting communicable diseases, child care, and AED availability.