|ELA.10.C.1.2:|| Write narratives using an appropriate pace to create tension, mood, and/or tone. |
|ELA.10.C.1.3:|| Write to argue a position, supporting claims using logical reasoning and credible evidence from multiple sources, rebutting counterclaims with relevant evidence, using a logical organizational structure, elaboration, purposeful transitions, and maintaining a formal and objective tone. |
|ELA.10.C.1.4:|| Write expository texts to explain and analyze information from multiple sources, using a logical organization, purposeful transitions, and a tone and voice appropriate to the task. |
|ELA.10.C.1.5:|| Improve writing by considering feedback from adults, peers, and/or online editing tools, revising to address the needs of a specific audience. |
|ELA.10.C.2.1:|| Present information orally, with a logical organization and coherent focus, with credible evidence, creating a clear perspective.|
Clarification 1: At this grade level, the emphasis is on the content, but students are still expected to follow earlier expectations: volume, pronunciation, and pacing. A clear perspective is the through-line that unites the elements of the presentation.
Clarification 2: For further guidance, see the Secondary Oral Communication Rubric.
|ELA.10.C.3.1:|| Follow the rules of standard English grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling appropriate to grade level.|
Clarification 1: Skills to be mastered at this grade level are as follows:
Skills to be implemented but not yet mastered are as follows:
- Add variety to writing or presentations by using parallel structure and various types of phrases and clauses.
Clarification 2: See Convention Progression by Grade Level for more information.
- Use knowledge of usage rules to create flow in writing and presenting.
|ELA.10.C.4.1:|| Conduct research to answer a question, refining the scope of the question to align with findings, and synthesizing information from multiple reliable and valid sources.|
Clarification 1: While the benchmark does require that students consult multiple sources, there is no requirement that they use every source they consult. Part of the skill in researching is discernment—being able to tell which information is relevant and which sources are trustworthy enough to include.
|ELA.10.C.5.1:|| Create digital presentations to improve understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence.|
Clarification 1: The presentation may be delivered live or delivered as a stand-alone digital experience.
|ELA.10.C.5.2:|| Use online collaborative platforms to create and export publication-ready quality writing tailored to a specific audience, integrating multimedia elements. |
|ELA.10.R.1.1:|| Analyze how key elements enhance or add layers of meaning and/or style in a literary text.|
Clarification 1: Key elements of a literary text are setting, plot, characterization, conflict, point of view, theme, and tone.
Clarification 2: For layers of meaning, any methodology or model may be used as long as students understand that text may have multiple layers and that authors use techniques to achieve those layers. A very workable model for looking at layers of meaning is that of I.A. Richards:
Layer 1) the literal level, what the words actually mean
Layer 2) mood, those feelings that are evoked in the reader
Layer 3) tone, the author’s attitude
Layer 4) author’s purpose (interpretation of author’s purpose as it is often inferred).
Clarification 3: Style is the way in which the writer uses techniques for effect. It is distinct from meaning but can be used to make the author’s message more effective. The components of style are diction, syntax, grammar, and use of figurative language. Style helps to create the author’s voice.
|ELA.10.R.1.2:|| Analyze and compare universal themes and their development throughout a literary text.|
Clarification 1: A universal theme is an idea that applies to anyone, anywhere, regardless of cultural differences. Examples include but are not limited to an individual’s or a community’s confrontation with nature; an individual’s struggle toward understanding, awareness, and/or spiritual enlightenment; the tension between the ideal and the real; the conflict between human beings and advancements in technology/science; the impact of the past on the present; the inevitability of fate; the struggle for equality; and the loss of innocence.
|ELA.10.R.1.3:|| Analyze coming of age experiences reflected in a text and how the author represents conflicting perspectives. |
|ELA.10.R.1.4:|| Analyze how authors create multiple layers of meaning and/or ambiguity in a poem. |
|ELA.10.R.2.1:|| Analyze the impact of multiple text structures and the use of features in text(s).|
Clarification 1: Students will evaluate the use of the following structures: description, problem/solution, chronological, compare and contrast, cause and effect, and sequence.
Clarification 2: Students will evaluate the use of the following features: table of contents, headings, captions, photographs, graphs, charts, illustrations, glossary, footnotes, annotations, and appendix.
|ELA.10.R.2.2:|| Analyze the central idea(s) of historical American speeches and essays. |
|ELA.10.R.2.3:|| Analyze an author’s choices in establishing and achieving purpose(s) in historical American speeches and essays.|
Clarification 1: In this grade level, students are using and responsible for the appeals of logos, ethos, and pathos.
Clarification 2: See Rhetorical Appeals and Rhetorical Devices.
|ELA.10.R.2.4:|| Compare the development of two opposing arguments on the same topic, evaluating the effectiveness and validity of the claims, and analyzing the ways in which the authors use the same information to achieve different ends.|
Clarification 1: Validity refers to the soundness of the arguments.
|ELA.10.R.3.1:|| Analyze how figurative language creates mood in text(s).|
Clarification 1: Figurative language use that students will analyze are metaphor, simile, alliteration, onomatopoeia, personification, hyperbole, meiosis (understatement), allusion, and idiom. Other examples can be used in instruction.
Clarification 2: See Secondary Figurative Language.
|ELA.10.R.3.2:|| Paraphrase content from grade-level texts.|
Clarification 1: Most grade-level texts are appropriate for this benchmark.
|ELA.10.R.3.3:|| Analyze how mythical, classical, or religious texts have been adapted.|
Clarification 1: The classical source texts for this benchmark should be from ancient Greece or Rome’s Classical period (1200 BCE–455 CE). Mythical texts for this benchmark can be from any civilization’s early history. Religious texts for this benchmark include works such as the Bible.
|ELA.10.R.3.4:|| Analyze an author’s use of rhetoric in a text.|
Clarification 1: Students will analyze the appropriateness of appeals and the effectiveness of devices. In this grade level, students are using and responsible for the appeals of logos, ethos, and pathos.
Clarification 2: Rhetorical devices for the purposes of this benchmark are the figurative language devices from 10.R.3.1 with the addition of irony, rhetorical question, antithesis, zeugma, metonymy, synecdoche, and asyndeton.
|ELA.10.V.1.1:|| Integrate academic vocabulary appropriate to grade level in speaking and writing.|
Clarification 1: To integrate vocabulary, students will apply the vocabulary they have learned to authentic speaking and writing tasks independently. This use should be intentional, beyond responding to a prompt to use a word in a sentence.
Clarification 2: Academic vocabulary appropriate to grade level refers to words that are likely to appear across subject areas for the current grade level and beyond, vital to comprehension, critical for academic discussions and writing, and usually require explicit instruction.
|ELA.10.V.1.2:|| Apply knowledge of etymology and derivations to determine meanings of words and phrases in grade-level content.|
Clarification 1: Etymology refers to the study of word origins and the ways that words have changed over time.
Clarification 2: Derivation refers to making new words from an existing word by adding affixes.
|ELA.10.V.1.3:|| Apply knowledge of context clues, figurative language, word relationships, reference materials, and/or background knowledge to determine the connotative and denotative meaning of words and phrases, appropriate to grade level. |
|ELA.K12.EE.1.1:|| Cite evidence to explain and justify reasoning.|
K-1 Students include textual evidence in their oral communication with guidance and support from adults. The evidence can consist of details from the text without naming the text. During 1st grade, students learn how to incorporate the evidence in their writing.
2-3 Students include relevant textual evidence in their written and oral communication. Students should name the text when they refer to it. In 3rd grade, students should use a combination of direct and indirect citations.
4-5 Students continue with previous skills and reference comments made by speakers and peers. Students cite texts that they’ve directly quoted, paraphrased, or used for information. When writing, students will use the form of citation dictated by the instructor or the style guide referenced by the instructor.
6-8 Students continue with previous skills and use a style guide to create a proper citation.
9-12 Students continue with previous skills and should be aware of existing style guides and the ways in which they differ.
|ELA.K12.EE.2.1:|| Read and comprehend grade-level complex texts proficiently.|
See Text Complexity for grade-level complexity bands and a text complexity rubric.
|ELA.K12.EE.3.1:|| Make inferences to support comprehension.|
Students will make inferences before the words infer or inference are introduced. Kindergarten students will answer questions like “Why is the girl smiling?” or make predictions about what will happen based on the title page.
Students will use the terms and apply them in 2nd grade and beyond.
|ELA.K12.EE.4.1:|| Use appropriate collaborative techniques and active listening skills when engaging in discussions in a variety of situations.|
In kindergarten, students learn to listen to one another respectfully.
In grades 1-2, students build upon these skills by justifying what they are thinking. For example: “I think ________ because _______.” The collaborative conversations are becoming academic conversations.
In grades 3-12, students engage in academic conversations discussing claims and justifying their reasoning, refining and applying skills. Students build on ideas, propel the conversation, and support claims and counterclaims with evidence.
|ELA.K12.EE.5.1:|| Use the accepted rules governing a specific format to create quality work.|
Students will incorporate skills learned into work products to produce quality work. For students to incorporate these skills appropriately, they must receive instruction. A 3rd grade student creating a poster board display must have instruction in how to effectively present information to do quality work.
|ELA.K12.EE.6.1:|| Use appropriate voice and tone when speaking or writing.|
In kindergarten and 1st grade, students learn the difference between formal and informal language. For example, the way we talk to our friends differs from the way we speak to adults. In 2nd grade and beyond, students practice appropriate social and academic language to discuss texts.
|MA.K12.MTR.1.1:|| Actively participate in effortful learning both individually and collectively. |
Mathematicians who participate in effortful learning both individually and with others:
- Analyze the problem in a way that makes sense given the task.
- Ask questions that will help with solving the task.
- Build perseverance by modifying methods as needed while solving a challenging task.
- Stay engaged and maintain a positive mindset when working to solve tasks.
- Help and support each other when attempting a new method or approach.
Teachers who encourage students to participate actively in effortful learning both individually and with others:
- Cultivate a community of growth mindset learners.
- Foster perseverance in students by choosing tasks that are challenging.
- Develop students’ ability to analyze and problem solve.
- Recognize students’ effort when solving challenging problems.
|MA.K12.MTR.2.1:|| Demonstrate understanding by representing problems in multiple ways. |
Mathematicians who demonstrate understanding by representing problems in multiple ways:
- Build understanding through modeling and using manipulatives.
- Represent solutions to problems in multiple ways using objects, drawings, tables, graphs and equations.
- Progress from modeling problems with objects and drawings to using algorithms and equations.
- Express connections between concepts and representations.
- Choose a representation based on the given context or purpose.
Teachers who encourage students to demonstrate understanding by representing problems in multiple ways:
- Help students make connections between concepts and representations.
- Provide opportunities for students to use manipulatives when investigating concepts.
- Guide students from concrete to pictorial to abstract representations as understanding progresses.
- Show students that various representations can have different purposes and can be useful in different situations.
|MA.K12.MTR.3.1:|| Complete tasks with mathematical fluency. |
Mathematicians who complete tasks with mathematical fluency:
- Select efficient and appropriate methods for solving problems within the given context.
- Maintain flexibility and accuracy while performing procedures and mental calculations.
- Complete tasks accurately and with confidence.
- Adapt procedures to apply them to a new context.
- Use feedback to improve efficiency when performing calculations.
Teachers who encourage students to complete tasks with mathematical fluency:
- Provide students with the flexibility to solve problems by selecting a procedure that allows them to solve efficiently and accurately.
- Offer multiple opportunities for students to practice efficient and generalizable methods.
- Provide opportunities for students to reflect on the method they used and determine if a more efficient method could have been used.
|MA.K12.MTR.4.1:|| Engage in discussions that reflect on the mathematical thinking of self and others. |
Mathematicians who engage in discussions that reflect on the mathematical thinking of self and others:
- Communicate mathematical ideas, vocabulary and methods effectively.
- Analyze the mathematical thinking of others.
- Compare the efficiency of a method to those expressed by others.
- Recognize errors and suggest how to correctly solve the task.
- Justify results by explaining methods and processes.
- Construct possible arguments based on evidence.
Teachers who encourage students to engage in discussions that reflect on the mathematical thinking of self and others:
- Establish a culture in which students ask questions of the teacher and their peers, and error is an opportunity for learning.
- Create opportunities for students to discuss their thinking with peers.
- Select, sequence and present student work to advance and deepen understanding of correct and increasingly efficient methods.
- Develop students’ ability to justify methods and compare their responses to the responses of their peers.
|MA.K12.MTR.5.1:|| Use patterns and structure to help understand and connect mathematical concepts. |
Mathematicians who use patterns and structure to help understand and connect mathematical concepts:
- Focus on relevant details within a problem.
- Create plans and procedures to logically order events, steps or ideas to solve problems.
- Decompose a complex problem into manageable parts.
- Relate previously learned concepts to new concepts.
- Look for similarities among problems.
- Connect solutions of problems to more complicated large-scale situations.
Teachers who encourage students to use patterns and structure to help understand and connect mathematical concepts:
- Help students recognize the patterns in the world around them and connect these patterns to mathematical concepts.
- Support students to develop generalizations based on the similarities found among problems.
- Provide opportunities for students to create plans and procedures to solve problems.
- Develop students’ ability to construct relationships between their current understanding and more sophisticated ways of thinking.
|MA.K12.MTR.6.1:|| Assess the reasonableness of solutions. |
Mathematicians who assess the reasonableness of solutions:
- Estimate to discover possible solutions.
- Use benchmark quantities to determine if a solution makes sense.
- Check calculations when solving problems.
- Verify possible solutions by explaining the methods used.
- Evaluate results based on the given context.
Teachers who encourage students to assess the reasonableness of solutions:
- Have students estimate or predict solutions prior to solving.
- Prompt students to continually ask, “Does this solution make sense? How do you know?”
- Reinforce that students check their work as they progress within and after a task.
- Strengthen students’ ability to verify solutions through justifications.
|MA.K12.MTR.7.1:|| Apply mathematics to real-world contexts. |
Mathematicians who apply mathematics to real-world contexts:
- Connect mathematical concepts to everyday experiences.
- Use models and methods to understand, represent and solve problems.
- Perform investigations to gather data or determine if a method is appropriate.
• Redesign models and methods to improve accuracy or efficiency.
Teachers who encourage students to apply mathematics to real-world contexts:
- Provide opportunities for students to create models, both concrete and abstract, and perform investigations.
- Challenge students to question the accuracy of their models and methods.
- Support students as they validate conclusions by comparing them to the given situation.
- Indicate how various concepts can be applied to other disciplines.
|ELD.K12.ELL.LA.1:|| English language learners communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Language Arts. |
|ELD.K12.ELL.SI.1:|| English language learners communicate for social and instructional purposes within the school setting. |
The purpose of this Pre-IB course is to prepare students for the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (DP). As such, this course will provide academic rigor and relevance through a comprehensive curriculum based on the standards taught with reference to the unique facets of the IB. These facets include interrelatedness of subject areas, a holistic view of knowledge, intercultural awareness, embracing international issues, and communication as fundamental to learning. Instructional design must provide students with values and opportunities that enable them to develop respect for others and an appreciation of similarities and differences. Learning how to learn and how to critically evaluate information is as important as the content of the disciplines themselves.
Special Notes: Pre-IB courses have been created by individual schools or school districts since before the MYP started. These courses mapped backwards the Diploma Programme (DP) to prepare students as early as age 14. The IB was never involved in creating or approving these courses. The IB acknowledges that it is important for students to receive preparation for taking part in the DP, and that preparation is the MYP. The IB designed the MYP to address the whole child, which, as a result, has a very different philosophical approach that aims at educating all students aged 11-16. Pre-IB courses usually deal with content, with less emphasis upon the needs of the whole child or the affective domain than the MYP. A school can have a course that it calls “pre-IB” as long as it makes it clear that the course and any supporting material have been developed independently of the IB. For this reason, the school must name the course along the lines of, for example, the “Any School pre-IB course”.
The IB does not recognize pre-IB courses or courses labeled IB by different school districts which are not an official part of the IBDP or IBCC curriculum. Typically, students enrolled in grade 9 or 10 are not in the IBDP or IBCC programmes.
https://ibanswers.ibo.org/app/answers/detail/a_id/5414/kw/pre-ib. Florida’s Pre-IB courses should only be used in schools where MYP is not offered in order to prepare students to enter the IBDP. Teachers of Florida’s Pre-IB courses should have undergone IB training in order to ensure seamless articulation for students within the subject area.
This course defines what students should understand and be able to do by the end of 10th grade. Knowledge acquisition should be the primary purpose of any reading approach as the systematic building of a wide range of knowledge across domains is a prerequisite to higher literacy. At this grade level, students are working with universal themes and archetypes. They are also continuing to build their facility with rhetoric, the craft of using language in writing and speaking, using classic literature, essays, and speeches as mentor texts.
The benchmarks in this course are mastery goals that students are expected to attain by the end of the year. To build mastery, students will continue to review and apply earlier grade-level benchmarks and expectations.
English Language Arts is not a discrete set of skills, but a rich discipline with meaningful, significant content, the knowledge of which helps all students actively and fully participate in our society.
Standards should not stand alone as a separate focus for instruction, but should be combined purposefully.
The texts students read should be meaningful and thought-provoking, preparing them to be informed, civic-minded members of their community.
Curricular content for all subjects must integrate critical-thinking, problem-solving, and workforce-literacy skills; communication, reading, and writing skills; mathematics skills; collaboration skills; contextual and applied-learning skills; technology-literacy skills; information and media-literacy skills; and civic-engagement skills.
Approximately one-third of the titles from the 10th Grade Sample Book List should be used in instruction.
Honors and Advanced Level Course Note: Advanced courses require a greater demand on students through increased academic rigor. Academic rigor is obtained through the application, analysis, evaluation, and creation of complex ideas that are often abstract and multi-faceted. Students are challenged to think and collaborate critically on the content they are learning. Honors level rigor will be achieved by increasing text complexity through text selection, focus on high-level qualitative measures, and complexity of task. Instruction will be structured to give students a deeper understanding of conceptual themes and organization within and across disciplines. Academic rigor is more than simply assigning to students a greater quantity of work.
Florida’s Benchmarks for Excellent Student Thinking (B.E.S.T.) Standards
This course includes Florida’s B.E.S.T. ELA Expectations (EE) and Mathematical Thinking and Reasoning Standards (MTRs) for students. Florida educators should intentionally embed these standards within the content and their instruction as applicable. For guidance on the implementation of the EEs and MTRs, please visit https://www.cpalms.org/Standards/BEST_Standards.aspx and select the appropriate B.E.S.T. Standards package.