|ELA.2.C.1.1:|| Demonstrate legible printing skills. |
|ELA.2.C.1.2:|| Write personal or fictional narratives using a logical sequence of events, transitions, and an ending. |
|ELA.2.C.1.3:|| Write opinions about a topic or text with reasons supported by details from a source, use transitions, and provide a conclusion. |
|ELA.2.C.1.4:|| Write expository texts about a topic, using a source, providing an introduction, facts, transitions, and a conclusion. |
|ELA.2.C.1.5:|| Improve writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing with guidance and support from adults and feedback from peers.|
Clarification 1: “As needed” refers to the fact that sometimes instruction will focus on a specific skill or part of the process. In those instances, only the applicable activity will be engaged in.
|ELA.2.C.2.1:|| Present information orally using complete sentences, appropriate volume, and clear pronunciation.|
Clarification 1: Clear pronunciation shows an understanding and application of phonics rules and sight words as well as care taken in delivery. A student’s speech impediment should not be considered as impeding clear pronunciation.
Clarification 2: For further guidance, see the Elementary Oral Communication Rubric.
|ELA.2.C.3.1:|| Follow the rules of standard English grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling appropriate to grade level.|
Clarification 1: Skills to be mastered at this grade level are as follows:
Skills to be implemented but not yet mastered are as follows:
- Form plurals -y to -ies.
- Use apostrophes to form contractions.
- Appropriately use pronouns.
- Use commas in a series.
- Use plural possessives.
- Use interjections.
Clarification 2: See Convention Progression by Grade Level for more information.
- Conjugate regular and irregular verb tenses.
- Form and use regular and frequently occurring irregular plural nouns.
- Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs.
- Maintain consistent verb tense across paragraphs.
- Form and use irregular plural nouns.
- Form and use the progressive and perfect verb tenses.
- Use simple modifiers.
- Use prepositions and prepositional phrases.
- Form and use compound sentences.
- Use quotation marks with dialogue and direct quotations.
- Use commas to indicate direct address.
- Use subject-verb agreement with intervening clauses and phrases.
- Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.
|ELA.2.C.4.1:|| Participate in research to gather information to answer a question about a single topic using multiple sources. |
|ELA.2.C.5.1:|| Use one or more multimedia element(s) to enhance oral or written tasks.|
Clarification 1: Multimedia elements may include, but are not limited to, drawings, pictures, artifacts, and audio or digital representation. At this grade level, the element(s) should relate directly to the task. There is no expectation that the element(s) be integrated into the task. The student can but is not required to use more than one multimedia element.
|ELA.2.C.5.2:|| Use digital tools to produce and publish writing individually or with peers and with support from adults. |
|ELA.2.F.1.3:|| Use knowledge of grade-appropriate phonics and word-analysis skills to decode words.
- Decode words with variable vowel teams (e.g., oo, ea, ou) and vowel diphthongs (e.g., oi, oy, ow).
- Decode regularly spelled two-syllable words with long and short vowels.
- Decode words with open (e.g., hi, baby, moment) and closed (e.g., bag, sunshine, chop) syllables and consonant -le (e.g., purple, circle, stumble).
- Decode words with common prefixes and suffixes.
- Decode words with silent letter combinations (e.g., knight, comb, island, ghost).
Clarification 1: Phonics refers to the relationship between graphemes (letters or letter combinations) and phonemes (speech sounds).
Clarification 2: Students will decode decodable high frequency words appropriate to the grade level. See 2.F.1.4 and Dolch and Fry word lists. Students will read grade-level appropriate high frequency words, decodable or not, with automaticity.
|ELA.2.F.1.4:|| Read grade-level texts with accuracy, automaticity, and appropriate prosody or expression.|
Clarification 1: See Dolch and Fry word lists.
Clarification 2: Many of the high frequency words at this grade level are either irregularly spelled and therefore not decodable or are temporarily irregular, meaning that students have not yet learned the phonics rule that would enable them to decode the word. Those words that are decodable should be introduced to students using appropriate phonics rules. See 2.F.1.3. Students will read grade-level appropriate high frequency words, decodable or not, with automaticity.
Clarification 3: See Fluency Norms for grade-level norms. Norms are expressed as words correct per minute (WCPM), a measure that combines accuracy with rate.
Clarification 4: Appropriate prosody refers to pausing patterns during oral reading that reflect the punctuation and meaning of a text. See Sample Oral Reading Fluency Rubrics for prosody.
Clarification 5: Grade-level texts, for the purposes of fluency, are those within the grade band on quantitative text complexity measures and appropriate in content and qualitative measures.
|ELA.2.R.1.1:|| Identify plot structure and describe main story elements in a literary text.|
Clarification 1: Main story elements for the purpose of this benchmark are the setting, characters, and sequence of events of a story.
Clarification 2: For setting, students will describe where and when the events of the story are happening. The time element of setting will be addressed even when not explicitly indicated in the text.
Clarification 3: For character, student’s will describe characters’ traits, feelings, and behaviors.
|ELA.2.R.1.2:|| Identify and explain a theme of a literary text. |
|ELA.2.R.1.3:|| Identify different characters’ perspectives in a literary text.|
Clarification 1: The term perspective means “a particular attitude toward or way of regarding something.” The term point of view is used when referring to the person of the narrator. This is to prevent confusion and conflation.
|ELA.2.R.1.4:|| Identify rhyme schemes in poems.|
Clarification 1: Students will mark rhyme scheme and recognize rhyme scheme notation. Rhyme scheme notation uses capital letters, starting with A to mark the end of each line, repeating the letter for each line in the poem that rhymes with that line and progressing through the alphabet for each new end rhyme. Lines designated with the same letter all rhyme with each other.
I never saw a Purple Cow, A
I never hope to see one; B
But I can tell you, anyhow, A
I'd rather see than be one! B
Little Miss Muffet A
Sat on a tuffet, A
Eating her curds and whey; B
Along came a spider C
Who sat down beside her C
And frightened Miss Muffet away. B
–Traditional Nursery Rhyme
|ELA.2.R.2.1:|| Explain how text features—including titles, headings, captions, graphs, maps, glossaries, and/or illustrations—contribute to the meaning of texts. |
|ELA.2.R.2.2:|| Identify the central idea and relevant details in a text. |
|ELA.2.R.2.3:|| Explain an author’s purpose in an informational text. |
|ELA.2.R.2.4:|| Explain an author’s opinion(s) and supporting evidence. |
|ELA.2.R.3.1:|| Identify and explain similes, idioms, and alliteration in text(s). |
|ELA.2.R.3.2:|| Retell a text to enhance comprehension. |
- Use main story elements in a logical sequence for a literary text.
- Use the central idea and relevant details for an informational text.
Clarification 1: Most grade-level texts are appropriate for this benchmark.
|ELA.2.R.3.3:|| Compare and contrast important details presented by two texts on the same topic or theme.|
Clarification 1: For literary texts, students can compare and contrast story elements such as characters, illustrations, and sequence of events.
Clarification 2: The different versions may be of the same or different formats.
|ELA.2.V.1.1:|| Use grade-level academic vocabulary appropriately in speaking and writing.|
Clarification 1: Grade-level academic vocabulary consists of words that are likely to appear across subject areas for the current grade level and beyond, vital to comprehension, critical for academic discussions and writing, and usually require explicit instruction.
|ELA.2.V.1.2:|| Identify and use base words and affixes to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words in grade-level content. |
|ELA.2.V.1.3:|| Identify and use context clues, word relationships, reference materials, and/or background knowledge to determine the meaning of unknown words.|
Clarification 1: Instruction for this benchmark should include text read-alouds and think-alouds aimed at building and activating background knowledge. Review of words learned in this way is critical to building background knowledge and related vocabulary. Texts read aloud can be two grade levels higher than student reading level.
Clarification 2: See Context Clues and Word Relationships.
|ELA.K12.EE.1.1:|| Cite evidence to explain and justify reasoning.|
K-1 Students include textual evidence in their oral communication with guidance and support from adults. The evidence can consist of details from the text without naming the text. During 1st grade, students learn how to incorporate the evidence in their writing.
2-3 Students include relevant textual evidence in their written and oral communication. Students should name the text when they refer to it. In 3rd grade, students should use a combination of direct and indirect citations.
4-5 Students continue with previous skills and reference comments made by speakers and peers. Students cite texts that they’ve directly quoted, paraphrased, or used for information. When writing, students will use the form of citation dictated by the instructor or the style guide referenced by the instructor.
6-8 Students continue with previous skills and use a style guide to create a proper citation.
9-12 Students continue with previous skills and should be aware of existing style guides and the ways in which they differ.
|ELA.K12.EE.2.1:|| Read and comprehend grade-level complex texts proficiently.|
See Text Complexity for grade-level complexity bands and a text complexity rubric.
|ELA.K12.EE.3.1:|| Make inferences to support comprehension.|
Students will make inferences before the words infer or inference are introduced. Kindergarten students will answer questions like “Why is the girl smiling?” or make predictions about what will happen based on the title page.
Students will use the terms and apply them in 2nd grade and beyond.
|ELA.K12.EE.4.1:|| Use appropriate collaborative techniques and active listening skills when engaging in discussions in a variety of situations.|
In kindergarten, students learn to listen to one another respectfully.
In grades 1-2, students build upon these skills by justifying what they are thinking. For example: “I think ________ because _______.” The collaborative conversations are becoming academic conversations.
In grades 3-12, students engage in academic conversations discussing claims and justifying their reasoning, refining and applying skills. Students build on ideas, propel the conversation, and support claims and counterclaims with evidence.
|ELA.K12.EE.5.1:|| Use the accepted rules governing a specific format to create quality work.|
Students will incorporate skills learned into work products to produce quality work. For students to incorporate these skills appropriately, they must receive instruction. A 3rd grade student creating a poster board display must have instruction in how to effectively present information to do quality work.
|ELA.K12.EE.6.1:|| Use appropriate voice and tone when speaking or writing.|
In kindergarten and 1st grade, students learn the difference between formal and informal language. For example, the way we talk to our friends differs from the way we speak to adults. In 2nd grade and beyond, students practice appropriate social and academic language to discuss texts.
|ELD.K12.ELL.LA.1:|| English language learners communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Language Arts. |
|ELD.K12.ELL.SI.1:|| English language learners communicate for social and instructional purposes within the school setting. |
English Language Arts is not a discrete set of skills, but a rich discipline with meaningful, significant content, the knowledge of which helps all students actively and fully participate in our society.
Standards should not stand alone as a separate focus for instruction, but should be combined purposefully.
The texts students read should be meaningful and thought-provoking, preparing them to be informed, civic-minded members of their community.
Curricular content for all subjects must integrate critical-thinking, problem-solving, and workforce-literacy skills; communication, reading, and writing skills; mathematics skills; collaboration skills; contextual and applied-learning skills; technology-literacy skills; information and media-literacy skills; and civic-engagement skills.
English Language Development ELD Standards Special Notes Section:
Teachers are required to provide listening, speaking, reading and writing instruction that allows English language learners (ELL) to communicate information, ideas and concepts for academic success in the content area of Language Arts. For the given level of English language proficiency and with visual, graphic, or interactive support, students will interact with grade level words, expressions, sentences and discourse to process or produce language necessary for academic success. The ELD standard should specify a relevant content area concept or topic of study chosen by curriculum developers and teachers which maximizes an ELL's need for communication and social skills. To access an ELL supporting document which delineates performance definitions and descriptors, please click on the following link: https://cpalmsmediaprod.blob.core.windows.net/uploads/docs/standards/eld/la.pdf