|ELA.12.C.1.2:|| Write complex narratives using appropriate techniques to establish multiple perspectives and convey universal themes. |
|ELA.12.C.1.3:|| Write arguments to support claims based on an in-depth analysis of topics or texts using valid reasoning and credible evidence from sources, elaboration, and demonstrating a thorough understanding of the subject.|
Clarification 1: See Writing Types and Elaborative Techniques.
Clarification 2: These written works will take longer and are meant to reflect thorough research and analysis.
|ELA.12.C.1.4:|| Write an in-depth analysis of complex texts using logical organization and appropriate tone and voice, demonstrating a thorough understanding of the subject. |
|ELA.12.C.1.5:|| Improve writing by considering feedback from adults, peers, and/or online editing tools, revising to enhance purpose, clarity, structure, and style. |
|ELA.12.C.2.1:|| Present information orally, with a logical organization, coherent focus, and credible evidence while employing effective rhetorical devices where appropriate.|
Clarification 1: At this grade level, the emphasis is on the content, but students are still expected to follow earlier expectations: appropriate volume, pronunciation, and pacing. Students will be using rhetorical devices as introduced in the 11th grade benchmark. Added to this grade level is a responsiveness to the needs of the audience and adapting to audience response. Students will read the nonverbal cues of the audience to do this. Students first learned nonverbal cues in elementary for this benchmark.
Clarification 2: For further guidance, see the Secondary Oral Communication Rubric.
|ELA.12.C.3.1:|| Follow the rules of standard English grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling appropriate to grade level. |
|ELA.12.C.4.1:|| Conduct research on a topical issue to answer a question and synthesize information from a variety of sources.|
Clarification 1: While the benchmark does require that students consult multiple sources, there is no requirement that they use every source they consult. Part of the skill in researching is discernment—being able to tell which information is relevant and which sources are trustworthy enough to include.
|ELA.12.C.5.1:|| Design and evaluate digital presentations for effectiveness.|
Clarification 1: The presentation may be delivered live or delivered as a stand-alone digital experience.
|ELA.12.C.5.2:|| Create, publish, and share multimedia texts through a variety of digital formats. |
|ELA.12.R.1.1:|| Evaluate how key elements enhance or add layers of meaning and/or style in a literary text and explain the functional significance of those elements in interpreting the text.|
Clarification 1: Key elements of a literary text are setting, plot, characterization, conflict, point of view, theme, and tone.
Clarification 2: For layers of meaning, any methodology or model may be used as long as students understand that text may have multiple layers and that authors use techniques to achieve those layers. A very workable model for looking at layers of meaning is that of I.A. Richards:
Layer 1) the literal level, what the words actually mean
Layer 2) mood, those feelings that are evoked in the reader
Layer 3) tone, the author’s attitude
Layer 4) author’s purpose (interpretation of author’s purpose as it is often inferred)
Clarification 3: Style is the way in which the writer uses techniques for effect. It is distinct from meaning, but can be used to make the author’s message more effective. The components of style are diction, syntax, grammar, and use of figurative language. Style helps to create the author’s voice.
Clarification 4: Functional significance refers to the role each element plays in creating meaning or effect for the reader.
|ELA.12.R.1.2:|| Analyze two or more themes and evaluate their development throughout a literary text.|
Clarification 1: For the purposes of this benchmark, theme is not a one- or two-word topic, but a complete thought that communicates the author’s message.
|ELA.12.R.1.3:|| Evaluate the development of character perspective, including conflicting perspectives.|
Clarification 1: The term perspective means “a particular attitude toward or way of regarding something.” The term point of view is used when referring to the person of the narrator. This is to prevent confusion and conflation.
|ELA.12.R.1.4:|| Evaluate works of major poets in their historical context.|
Sample poets for this benchmark include:
Clarification 1: A poet’s historical context is the period in which the writing occurred, not when it was discovered or became resurgent.
- Emily Dickinson
- Langston Hughes
- Robert Frost
- Phillis Wheatley
- Edna St. Vincent Millay
- Countee Cullen
- Robert Burns
- Percy Bysshe Shelley
Clarification 2: Evaluation of a poet in context may include similarity to or differences from the work of contemporaries and the literary period, critical reception at the time, and scope of work.
Clarification 3: For more information, see Literary Periods.
|ELA.12.R.2.1:|| Evaluate the structure(s) and features in texts, identifying how the author could make the text(s) more effective.|
Clarification 1: Students will evaluate the use of the following structures: description, problem/solution, chronological, compare and contrast, cause and effect, and sequence.
Clarification 2: Students will evaluate the use of the following features: table of contents, headings, captions, photographs, graphs, charts, illustrations, glossary, footnotes, annotations, and appendix.
|ELA.12.R.2.2:|| Evaluate how an author develops the central idea(s), identifying how the author could make the support more effective. |
|ELA.12.R.2.3:|| Evaluate an author’s choices in establishing and achieving purpose(s). |
|ELA.12.R.2.4:|| Compare the development of multiple arguments in related texts, evaluating the validity of the claims, the authors’ reasoning, use of the same information, and/or the authors’ rhetoric. |
|ELA.12.R.3.1:|| Evaluate an author’s use of figurative language.|
Clarification 1: Figurative language use that students will evaluate are metaphor, simile, alliteration, onomatopoeia, personification, hyperbole, meiosis (understatement), allusion, and idiom. Other examples can be used in instruction.
Clarification 2: See Secondary Figurative Language.
|ELA.12.R.3.2:|| Paraphrase content from grade-level texts.|
Clarification 1: Most grade-level texts are appropriate for this benchmark.
|ELA.12.R.3.3:|| Analyze the influence of classic literature on contemporary world texts.|
Clarification 1: Classic literature for this benchmark should be drawn from and representative of the following periods:
Clarification 2: Contemporary world texts are those written after World War II that, through quality of form and expression, convey ideas of permanent or universal interest.
- Classical Period (1200 BCE–455 CE)
- Medieval Period (455 CE–1485 CE)
- Renaissance Period (1300–1600)
- Restoration and 18th Century (1660–1790) British Literature
- Colonial and Early National Period (1600–1830) American Literature
- Romantic Period (1790–1870)
- Realism and Naturalism Period (1870–1930)
- Modernist Period (1910–1945)
|ELA.12.R.3.4:|| Evaluate rhetorical choices across multiple texts.|
Clarification 1: Students will evaluate the appropriateness of appeals and the effectiveness of devices. In this grade level, students are using and responsible for all four appeals; kairos was added in 11th grade. This differs from the 11th grade benchmark in that it is comparing the effectiveness of multiple texts.
Clarification 2: Rhetorical devices for the purposes of this benchmark are the figurative language devices from 11.R.3.1 with the addition of irony, rhetorical question, antithesis, zeugma, metonymy, synecdoche, asyndeton, and chiasmus.
Clarification 3: See Secondary Figurative Language.
Clarification 4: See Rhetorical Appeals and Rhetorical Devices.
|ELA.12.V.1.1:|| Integrate academic vocabulary appropriate to grade level in speaking and writing.|
Clarification 1: To integrate vocabulary, students will apply the vocabulary they have learned to authentic speaking and writing tasks independently. This use should be intentional, beyond responding to a prompt to use a word in a sentence.
Clarification 2: Academic vocabulary appropriate to grade level refers to words that are likely to appear across subject areas for the current grade level and beyond, vital to comprehension, critical for academic discussions and writing, and usually require explicit instruction.
|ELA.12.V.1.2:|| Apply knowledge of etymology, derivations, and commonly used foreign phrases to determine meanings of words and phrases in grade-level content.|
Clarification 1: Etymology refers to the study of word origins and the ways that words have changed over time.
Clarification 2: Derivation refers to making new words from an existing word by adding affixes.
Clarification 3: See Foreign Words and Phrases for a list of commonly used foreign phrases.
|ELA.12.V.1.3:|| Apply knowledge of context clues, figurative language, word relationships, reference materials, and/or background knowledge to determine the connotative and denotative meaning of words and phrases, appropriate to grade level. |
|ELA.K12.EE.1.1:|| Cite evidence to explain and justify reasoning.|
K-1 Students include textual evidence in their oral communication with guidance and support from adults. The evidence can consist of details from the text without naming the text. During 1st grade, students learn how to incorporate the evidence in their writing.
2-3 Students include relevant textual evidence in their written and oral communication. Students should name the text when they refer to it. In 3rd grade, students should use a combination of direct and indirect citations.
4-5 Students continue with previous skills and reference comments made by speakers and peers. Students cite texts that they’ve directly quoted, paraphrased, or used for information. When writing, students will use the form of citation dictated by the instructor or the style guide referenced by the instructor.
6-8 Students continue with previous skills and use a style guide to create a proper citation.
9-12 Students continue with previous skills and should be aware of existing style guides and the ways in which they differ.
|ELA.K12.EE.2.1:|| Read and comprehend grade-level complex texts proficiently.|
See Text Complexity for grade-level complexity bands and a text complexity rubric.
|ELA.K12.EE.3.1:|| Make inferences to support comprehension.|
Students will make inferences before the words infer or inference are introduced. Kindergarten students will answer questions like “Why is the girl smiling?” or make predictions about what will happen based on the title page.
Students will use the terms and apply them in 2nd grade and beyond.
|ELA.K12.EE.4.1:|| Use appropriate collaborative techniques and active listening skills when engaging in discussions in a variety of situations.|
In kindergarten, students learn to listen to one another respectfully.
In grades 1-2, students build upon these skills by justifying what they are thinking. For example: “I think ________ because _______.” The collaborative conversations are becoming academic conversations.
In grades 3-12, students engage in academic conversations discussing claims and justifying their reasoning, refining and applying skills. Students build on ideas, propel the conversation, and support claims and counterclaims with evidence.
|ELA.K12.EE.5.1:|| Use the accepted rules governing a specific format to create quality work.|
Students will incorporate skills learned into work products to produce quality work. For students to incorporate these skills appropriately, they must receive instruction. A 3rd grade student creating a poster board display must have instruction in how to effectively present information to do quality work.
|ELA.K12.EE.6.1:|| Use appropriate voice and tone when speaking or writing.|
In kindergarten and 1st grade, students learn the difference between formal and informal language. For example, the way we talk to our friends differs from the way we speak to adults. In 2nd grade and beyond, students practice appropriate social and academic language to discuss texts.
|MA.K12.MTR.1.1:|| Actively participate in effortful learning both individually and collectively. |
Mathematicians who participate in effortful learning both individually and with others:
- Analyze the problem in a way that makes sense given the task.
- Ask questions that will help with solving the task.
- Build perseverance by modifying methods as needed while solving a challenging task.
- Stay engaged and maintain a positive mindset when working to solve tasks.
- Help and support each other when attempting a new method or approach.
Teachers who encourage students to participate actively in effortful learning both individually and with others:
- Cultivate a community of growth mindset learners.
- Foster perseverance in students by choosing tasks that are challenging.
- Develop students’ ability to analyze and problem solve.
- Recognize students’ effort when solving challenging problems.
|MA.K12.MTR.2.1:|| Demonstrate understanding by representing problems in multiple ways. |
Mathematicians who demonstrate understanding by representing problems in multiple ways:
- Build understanding through modeling and using manipulatives.
- Represent solutions to problems in multiple ways using objects, drawings, tables, graphs and equations.
- Progress from modeling problems with objects and drawings to using algorithms and equations.
- Express connections between concepts and representations.
- Choose a representation based on the given context or purpose.
Teachers who encourage students to demonstrate understanding by representing problems in multiple ways:
- Help students make connections between concepts and representations.
- Provide opportunities for students to use manipulatives when investigating concepts.
- Guide students from concrete to pictorial to abstract representations as understanding progresses.
- Show students that various representations can have different purposes and can be useful in different situations.
|MA.K12.MTR.3.1:|| Complete tasks with mathematical fluency. |
Mathematicians who complete tasks with mathematical fluency:
- Select efficient and appropriate methods for solving problems within the given context.
- Maintain flexibility and accuracy while performing procedures and mental calculations.
- Complete tasks accurately and with confidence.
- Adapt procedures to apply them to a new context.
- Use feedback to improve efficiency when performing calculations.
Teachers who encourage students to complete tasks with mathematical fluency:
- Provide students with the flexibility to solve problems by selecting a procedure that allows them to solve efficiently and accurately.
- Offer multiple opportunities for students to practice efficient and generalizable methods.
- Provide opportunities for students to reflect on the method they used and determine if a more efficient method could have been used.
|MA.K12.MTR.4.1:|| Engage in discussions that reflect on the mathematical thinking of self and others. |
Mathematicians who engage in discussions that reflect on the mathematical thinking of self and others:
- Communicate mathematical ideas, vocabulary and methods effectively.
- Analyze the mathematical thinking of others.
- Compare the efficiency of a method to those expressed by others.
- Recognize errors and suggest how to correctly solve the task.
- Justify results by explaining methods and processes.
- Construct possible arguments based on evidence.
Teachers who encourage students to engage in discussions that reflect on the mathematical thinking of self and others:
- Establish a culture in which students ask questions of the teacher and their peers, and error is an opportunity for learning.
- Create opportunities for students to discuss their thinking with peers.
- Select, sequence and present student work to advance and deepen understanding of correct and increasingly efficient methods.
- Develop students’ ability to justify methods and compare their responses to the responses of their peers.
|MA.K12.MTR.5.1:|| Use patterns and structure to help understand and connect mathematical concepts. |
Mathematicians who use patterns and structure to help understand and connect mathematical concepts:
- Focus on relevant details within a problem.
- Create plans and procedures to logically order events, steps or ideas to solve problems.
- Decompose a complex problem into manageable parts.
- Relate previously learned concepts to new concepts.
- Look for similarities among problems.
- Connect solutions of problems to more complicated large-scale situations.
Teachers who encourage students to use patterns and structure to help understand and connect mathematical concepts:
- Help students recognize the patterns in the world around them and connect these patterns to mathematical concepts.
- Support students to develop generalizations based on the similarities found among problems.
- Provide opportunities for students to create plans and procedures to solve problems.
- Develop students’ ability to construct relationships between their current understanding and more sophisticated ways of thinking.
|MA.K12.MTR.6.1:|| Assess the reasonableness of solutions. |
Mathematicians who assess the reasonableness of solutions:
- Estimate to discover possible solutions.
- Use benchmark quantities to determine if a solution makes sense.
- Check calculations when solving problems.
- Verify possible solutions by explaining the methods used.
- Evaluate results based on the given context.
Teachers who encourage students to assess the reasonableness of solutions:
- Have students estimate or predict solutions prior to solving.
- Prompt students to continually ask, “Does this solution make sense? How do you know?”
- Reinforce that students check their work as they progress within and after a task.
- Strengthen students’ ability to verify solutions through justifications.
|MA.K12.MTR.7.1:|| Apply mathematics to real-world contexts. |
Mathematicians who apply mathematics to real-world contexts:
- Connect mathematical concepts to everyday experiences.
- Use models and methods to understand, represent and solve problems.
- Perform investigations to gather data or determine if a method is appropriate.
• Redesign models and methods to improve accuracy or efficiency.
Teachers who encourage students to apply mathematics to real-world contexts:
- Provide opportunities for students to create models, both concrete and abstract, and perform investigations.
- Challenge students to question the accuracy of their models and methods.
- Support students as they validate conclusions by comparing them to the given situation.
- Indicate how various concepts can be applied to other disciplines.
|SS.912.CG.2.7:|| Analyze the impact of civic engagement as a means of preserving or reforming institutions.|
Clarification 1: Students will identify legal methods that citizens can use to promote social and political change (e.g., voting, peaceful protests, petitioning, demonstrations, contacting government offices).
Clarification 2: Students will identify historical examples of citizens achieving or preventing political and social change through civic engagement (e.g., the Abolitionist Movement).
|SS.912.CG.3.15:|| Explain how citizens are affected by the local, state and national governments.|
Clarification 1: Students will identify local government officials and employees who affect the daily lives of citizens.
Clarification 2: Students will identify the role of state governmental officials and employees who affect the daily lives of citizens.
Clarification 3: Students will identify the role of national governmental officials and employees who affect the daily lives of citizens.
Clarification 4: Students will explain how government at all levels impacts the daily lives of citizens.
|SS.912.CG.4.3:|| Explain how U.S. foreign policy supports democratic principles and protects human rights around the world.|
Clarification 1: Students will explain how U.S. foreign policy aims to protect liberty around the world and describe how the founding documents support the extension of liberty to all mankind.
|SS.912.CG.4.4:|| Identify indicators of democratization in foreign countries.|
Clarification 1: Students will recognize indicators of democratization as a system of free and fair elections, active civic participation, the protection of human rights, and the rule of law.
|SS.912.H.2.2:|| Classify styles, forms, types, and genres within art forms.
|ELD.K12.ELL.LA.1:|| English language learners communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Language Arts. |
|ELD.K12.ELL.SI.1:|| English language learners communicate for social and instructional purposes within the school setting. |
|HE.912.B.4.3 (Archived Standard):|| Demonstrate strategies to prevent, manage, or resolve interpersonal conflicts without harming self or others. |
|HE.912.B.4.4 (Archived Standard):|| Analyze the validity of ways to ask for and offer assistance to enhance the health of self and others. |
This course defines what students should understand and be able to do by the end of 12th grade. Knowledge acquisition should be the primary purpose of any reading approach as the systematic building of a wide range of knowledge across domains is a prerequisite to higher literacy. At this grade level, students are working with universal themes and archetypes. They are also continuing to build their facility with rhetoric, the craft of using language in writing and speaking, using classic literature, essays, and speeches as mentor texts.
This course is designed to be paired with Humane Letters 4 – History. Emphasizing the classical approach to teaching and learning, this course is devoted to reading, discussing, and writing based-on great works from Roman antiquity through the 19th century. In this course students strive to better understand the world around them through the evolution of the ideas of those who came before us. Through careful reading, thoughtful discussion, and persuasive writing, students will sharpen their abilities to think analytically and critically. Recommended texts for this course include, but are not limited to: Aeneid, Augustine’s Confessions, Aquinas’ Treatise on Law, Dante’s Inferno, Machiavelli’s Prince, the philosophy of Descartes, and The Brothers Karamazov (The recommended texts list entirely overlaps with Humane Letters 4—History, but the two complementary courses make use of these texts for different purposes).
The benchmarks in this course are mastery goals that students are expected to attain by the end of the year. To build mastery, students will continue to review and apply earlier grade-level benchmarks and expectations.
The Humane Letters course focuses on the great literature and texts of the American canon with special attention to the historical progression of the United States from its founding to the present. The course explores the ideas, principles, and stories that have shaped this nation into a modern republic and how these ideas are reflected in representative literature and primary source texts. Through careful reading, thoughtful discussion, and persuasive writing, students will sharpen their abilities to think analytically and critically. The curriculum acquaints students with the American tradition and encourages them to search for truthful conclusions concerning the critical questions and ideas raised during class discussions.
The primary mode of instruction in Humane Letters is the seminar, which is supplemented with direct instruction through lecture or coaching. The seminar format requires that students participate actively in their search for the fullest understanding of the texts under examination. While the instructor serves as a guide in this project, the students and the instructor together investigate and explore the many complex ideas presented in the texts.
The content should include readings from classic American literature and selected primary source documents, but not be limited to, the following:
- active reading of varied texts for what they say explicitly, as well as the logical inferences that can be drawn
- analysis of literature and informational texts from varied literary periods to examine:
- text craft and structure
- elements of literature
- arguments and claims supported by textual evidence
- power and impact of language
- influence of history, culture, and setting on language
- personal critical and aesthetic response
- writing for varied purposes
- developing and supporting argumentative claims
- crafting coherent, supported informative/expository texts
- responding to literature for personal and analytical purposes
- writing narratives to develop real or imagined events
- writing to sources using text- based evidence and reasoning
- effective listening, speaking, and viewing strategies with emphasis on the use of evidence to support or refute a claim in multimedia presentations, class discussions, and extended text discussions
- collaboration amongst peers
Honors and Advanced Level Course Note: Advanced courses require a greater demand on students through increased academic rigor. Academic rigor is obtained through the application, analysis, evaluation, and creation of complex ideas that are often abstract and multi-faceted. Students are challenged to think and collaborate critically on the content they are learning. Honors level rigor will be achieved by increasing text complexity through text selection, focus on high-level qualitative measures, and complexity of task. Instruction will be structured to give students a deeper understanding of conceptual themes and organization within and across disciplines. Academic rigor is more than simply assigning to students a greater quantity of work.
Literacy Standards in Social Studies:
Secondary social studies courses include reading standards for literacy in history/social studies 6-12, and writing standards for literacy in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects 6-12. This course also includes speaking and listening standards. For a complete list of standards required for this course click on the blue tile labeled course standards. You may also download the complete course including all required standards and notes sections using the export function located at the top of this page.
English Language Development ELD Standards Special Notes Section:
Teachers are required to provide listening, speaking, reading and writing instruction that allows English language learners (ELL) to communicate information, ideas and concepts for academic success in the content area of Social Studies. For the given level of English language proficiency and with visual, graphic, or interactive support, students will interact with grade level words, expressions, sentences and discourse to process or produce language necessary for academic success. The ELD standard should specify a relevant content area concept or topic of study chosen by curriculum developers and teachers which maximizes an ELL's need for communication and social skills. To access an ELL supporting document which delineates performance definitions and descriptors, please click on the following link: SS.pdf