|SS.912.P.2.1:|| Describe the scientific method and its role in psychology. |
|SS.912.P.2.2:|| Describe and compare a variety of quantitative (e.g., surveys, correlations, experiments) and qualitative (e.g., interviews, narratives, focus groups) research methods. |
|SS.912.P.2.3:|| Define systematic procedures used to improve the validity of research findings, such as external validity.|
Examples may also include, but are not limited to internal validity.
|SS.912.P.2.4:|| Discuss how and why psychologists use non-human animals in research. |
|SS.912.P.2.5:|| Identify ethical standards psychologists must address regarding research with human participants.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, informed consent of participants, protection of participants from harm and discomfort, protection of participants’ privacy, and provision of full explanation of completed research to participants.
|SS.912.P.2.6:|| Identify ethical guidelines psychologists must address regarding research with non-human animals.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, justification of the research, informed personnel, and provision for safety and well-being of non-human research animals.
|SS.912.P.2.7:|| Define descriptive statistics and explain how they are used by psychological scientists. |
|SS.912.P.2.8:|| Define forms of qualitative data and explain how they are used by psychological scientists. |
|SS.912.P.2.9:|| Define correlation coefficients and explain their appropriate interpretation. |
|SS.912.P.2.10:|| Interpret graphical representations of data as used in both quantitative and qualitative methods. |
|SS.912.P.2.11:|| Explain other statistical concepts, such as statistical significance and effect size.|
Examples may also include, but are not limited to, inferential statistics, comparative statistics, statistical inference, and correlation coefficient.
|SS.912.P.2.12:|| Explain how validity and reliability of observations and measurements relate to data analysis. |
|SS.912.P.3.1:|| Identify the major divisions and subdivisions of the human nervous system.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, brain, spinal cord, somatic nervous system, autonomic nervous system, sympathetic division, and parasympathetic division.
|SS.912.P.3.2:|| Identify the parts of the neuron and describe the basic process of neural transmission.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, dendrites, soma, axon, neural impulse, myelin sheath, and terminal branches of the axon.
|SS.912.P.3.3:|| Differentiate between the structures and functions of the various parts of the central nervous system. |
|SS.912.P.3.4:|| Describe lateralization of brain functions. |
|SS.912.P.3.5:|| Discuss the mechanisms and the importance of plasticity of the nervous system. |
|SS.912.P.3.6:|| Describe how the endocrine glands are linked to the nervous system.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, hormones, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, adrenal gland.
|SS.912.P.3.7:|| Describe the effects of hormones on behavior and mental processes. |
|SS.912.P.3.8:|| Describe hormone effects on the immune system. |
|SS.912.P.3.9:|| Describe concepts in genetic transmission.|
Concepts may include, but are not limited to, mutation, natural selection, identical twins, fraternal twins, and heritability.
|SS.912.P.3.10:|| Describe the interactive effects of heredity and environment. |
|SS.912.P.4.1:|| Discuss processes of sensation and perception and how they interact |
|SS.912.P.4.2:|| Explain the concepts of threshold and adaptation. |
|SS.912.P.4.3:|| List forms of physical energy for which humans and non-human animals do and do not have sensory receptors.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, light, heat, wind and chemical substances.
|SS.912.P.4.4:|| Describe the visual sensory system. |
|SS.912.P.4.5:|| Describe the auditory sensory system. |
|SS.912.P.4.6:|| Describe other sensory systems, such as olfaction, gestation, and somesthesis (e.g., skin senses, kinesthesis, and vestibular sense). |
|SS.912.P.4.7:|| Explain Gestalt principles of perception.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, similarity, proximity, closure, and continuity.
|SS.912.P.4.8:|| Describe binocular and monocular depth cues. |
|SS.912.P.4.9:|| Describe the importance of perceptual constancies. |
|SS.912.P.4.10:|| Describe perceptual illusions. |
|SS.912.P.4.11:|| Describe the nature of attention. |
|SS.912.P.4.12:|| Explain how experiences and expectations influence perception. |
|SS.912.P.5.1:|| Identify states of consciousness.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, consciousness, sleep, dreams, hypnotic states, meditative states, and drug-induced states.
|SS.912.P.5.2:|| Distinguish between processing that is conscious (i.e., explicit) and other processing that happens without conscious awareness (i.e., implicit). |
|SS.912.P.5.3:|| Describe the circadian rhythm and its relation to sleep. |
|SS.912.P.5.4:|| Describe the sleep cycle.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, Stage 1 sleep, Stage 2 sleep, Stage 3 sleep, Stage 4 sleep, and REM sleep.
|SS.912.P.5.5:|| Compare theories about the functions of sleep.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, Repair and Restoration Theory, Evolutionary Theory, and Information Consolidation Theory.
|SS.912.P.5.6:|| Describe types of sleep disorders.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, insomnia, sleep apnea, narcolepsy, somnambulism, night terrors, bruxism enuresis, and myoclonus.
|SS.912.P.5.7:|| Compare theories about the functions of dreams.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, psychoanalytic theory, and activation-synthesis model.
|SS.912.P.5.8:|| Characterize the major categories of psychoactive drugs and their effects.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, depressants, opiates, stimulants, hallucinogens, and marijuana.
|SS.912.P.5.9:|| Describe how psychoactive drugs act at the synaptic level. |
|SS.912.P.9.1:|| Describe attributional explanations of behavior. |
|SS.912.P.9.2:|| Describe the relationship between attitudes (implicit and explicit) and behavior. |
|SS.912.P.9.3:|| Identify persuasive methods used to change attitudes.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, compliance, identification, internalization, emotion-based change.
|SS.912.P.9.4:|| Describe the power of the situation.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, the Zimbardo study and the Milgram study.
|SS.912.P.9.5:|| Describe effects of others’ presence on individuals’ behavior.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, altruism, the bystander effect, and Kitty Genovese.
|SS.912.P.9.6:|| Describe how group dynamics influence behavior. |
|SS.912.P.9.7:|| Discuss how an individual influences group behavior. |
|SS.912.P.9.8:|| Discuss the nature and effects of stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination. |
|SS.912.P.9.9:|| Describe determinants of prosocial behavior.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, genetic factors, social exchange theory, personal qualities, and situational determinants.
|SS.912.P.9.10:|| Discuss influences upon aggression and conflict.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, genetics, the nervous system, and biochemistry.
|SS.912.P.9.11:|| Discuss factors influencing attraction and relationships.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, proximity, physical attractiveness, and similarity.
|SS.912.P.10.1:|| Define culture and diversity. |
|SS.912.P.10.2:|| Identify how cultures change over time and vary within nations and internationally. |
|SS.912.P.10.3:|| Discuss the relationship between culture and conceptions of self and identity. |
|SS.912.P.10.4:|| Discuss psychological research examining race and ethnicity. |
|SS.912.P.10.5:|| Discuss psychological research examining socioeconomic status. |
|SS.912.P.10.6:|| Discuss how privilege and social power structures relate to stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination. |
|SS.912.P.10.7:|| Discuss psychological research examining gender identity. |
|SS.912.P.10.8:|| Discuss psychological research examining diversity in sexual orientation. |
|SS.912.P.10.9:|| Compare and contrast gender identity and sexual orientation. |
|SS.912.P.10.10:|| Discuss psychological research examining gender similarities and differences and the impact of gender discrimination. |
|SS.912.P.10.11:|| Discuss the psychological research on gender and how the roles of women and men in societies are perceived. |
|SS.912.P.10.12:|| Examine how perspectives affect stereotypes and treatment of minority and majority groups in society. |
|SS.912.P.10.13:|| Discuss psychological research examining differences in individual cognitive and physical abilities. |
|SS.912.P.10.14:|| Examine societal treatment of people with disabilities and the effect of treatment by others on individual identity/status. |
|SS.912.P.13.1:|| Discuss intelligence as a general factor. |
|SS.912.P.13.2:|| Discuss alternative conceptualizations of intelligence.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences, Daniel Goleman’s theory of emotional intelligence, and Robert Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence.
|SS.912.P.13.3:|| Describe the extremes of intelligence. |
|SS.912.P.13.4:|| Discuss the history of intelligence testing, including historical use and misuse in the context of fairness.|
Topics may include, but are not limited to, Alfred Binet, Lewis Terman, David Weschler, mental age, chronological age, Stanford-Binet intelligence test, intelligence quotient, Weschler intelligence scales.
|SS.912.P.13.5:|| Identify current methods of assessing human abilities.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, individual tests, group tests, achievement tests, and aptitude tests.
|SS.912.P.13.6:|| Identify measures of and data on reliability and validity for intelligence test scores.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, test and retest reliability, alternate form reliability, split-half reliability, content validity, predictive validity, face validity, construct validity, and concurrent validity.
|SS.912.P.13.7:|| Discuss issues related to the consequences of intelligence testing. |
|SS.912.P.13.8:|| Discuss the influences of biological, cultural, and environmental factors on intelligence. |
|SS.912.P.14.1:|| Explain biologically based theories of motivation.|
Topics may include, but are not limited to, arousal theories, Yerkes-Dodson Law, and homeostasis.
|SS.912.P.14.2:|| Explain cognitively based theories of motivation.|
Topics may include, but are not limited to, extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation.
|SS.912.P.14.3:|| Explain humanistic theories of motivation.|
Topics may include, but are not limited to, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, achievement motivation, hunger, and eating disorders.
|SS.912.P.14.4:|| Explain the role of culture in human motivation. |
|SS.912.P.14.5:|| Discuss eating behavior. |
|SS.912.P.14.6:|| Discuss sexual behavior and orientation. |
|SS.912.P.14.7:|| Discuss achievement motivation. |
|SS.912.P.14.8:|| Discuss other ways in which humans and non-human animals are motivated. |
|SS.912.P.15.1:|| Explain the biological and cognitive components of emotion.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, physiological activation, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience.
|SS.912.P.15.2:|| Discuss psychological research on basic human emotions. |
|SS.912.P.15.3:|| Differentiate among theories of emotional experience.|
James-Lange Theory, Cannon-Bard Theory, Schacter’s Two-Factor Theory, Robert Zajonc, and Richard Lazarus.
|SS.912.P.15.4:|| Explain how biological factors influence emotional interpretation and expression. |
|SS.912.P.15.5:|| Explain how culture and gender influence emotional interpretation and expression.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, display rules.
|SS.912.P.15.6:|| Explain how other environmental factors influence emotional interpretation and expression. |
|SS.912.P.15.7:|| Identify biological and environmental influences on the expression experience of negative emotions, such as fear.|
Topics may include, but are not limited to, autonomic nervous system.
|SS.912.P.15.8:|| Identify biological and environmental influences on the expression and experience of positive emotions, such as happiness. |
|SS.912.P.20.1:|| Identify careers in psychological science and practice.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, biological psychologist, social psychologist, developmental psychologist, and cognitive psychologist.
|SS.912.P.20.2:|| Identify resources to help select psychology programs for further study.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to the Occupational Outlook Handbook.
|SS.912.P.20.3:|| Identify degree requirements for psychologists and psychology-related careers.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, bachelor’s degree, graduate degree, Ph.D., and Psy.D.
|SS.912.P.20.4:|| Identify careers related to psychology. |
|SS.912.P.20.5:|| Discuss ways in which psychological science addresses domestic and global issues. |
|SS.912.P.20.6:|| Identify careers in psychological science that have evolved as a result of domestic and global issues. |
|MA.K12.MTR.1.1:|| Actively participate in effortful learning both individually and collectively. |
Mathematicians who participate in effortful learning both individually and with others:
- Analyze the problem in a way that makes sense given the task.
- Ask questions that will help with solving the task.
- Build perseverance by modifying methods as needed while solving a challenging task.
- Stay engaged and maintain a positive mindset when working to solve tasks.
- Help and support each other when attempting a new method or approach.
Teachers who encourage students to participate actively in effortful learning both individually and with others:
- Cultivate a community of growth mindset learners.
- Foster perseverance in students by choosing tasks that are challenging.
- Develop students’ ability to analyze and problem solve.
- Recognize students’ effort when solving challenging problems.
|MA.K12.MTR.2.1:|| Demonstrate understanding by representing problems in multiple ways. |
Mathematicians who demonstrate understanding by representing problems in multiple ways:
- Build understanding through modeling and using manipulatives.
- Represent solutions to problems in multiple ways using objects, drawings, tables, graphs and equations.
- Progress from modeling problems with objects and drawings to using algorithms and equations.
- Express connections between concepts and representations.
- Choose a representation based on the given context or purpose.
Teachers who encourage students to demonstrate understanding by representing problems in multiple ways:
- Help students make connections between concepts and representations.
- Provide opportunities for students to use manipulatives when investigating concepts.
- Guide students from concrete to pictorial to abstract representations as understanding progresses.
- Show students that various representations can have different purposes and can be useful in different situations.
|MA.K12.MTR.3.1:|| Complete tasks with mathematical fluency. |
Mathematicians who complete tasks with mathematical fluency:
- Select efficient and appropriate methods for solving problems within the given context.
- Maintain flexibility and accuracy while performing procedures and mental calculations.
- Complete tasks accurately and with confidence.
- Adapt procedures to apply them to a new context.
- Use feedback to improve efficiency when performing calculations.
Teachers who encourage students to complete tasks with mathematical fluency:
- Provide students with the flexibility to solve problems by selecting a procedure that allows them to solve efficiently and accurately.
- Offer multiple opportunities for students to practice efficient and generalizable methods.
- Provide opportunities for students to reflect on the method they used and determine if a more efficient method could have been used.
|MA.K12.MTR.4.1:|| Engage in discussions that reflect on the mathematical thinking of self and others. |
Mathematicians who engage in discussions that reflect on the mathematical thinking of self and others:
- Communicate mathematical ideas, vocabulary and methods effectively.
- Analyze the mathematical thinking of others.
- Compare the efficiency of a method to those expressed by others.
- Recognize errors and suggest how to correctly solve the task.
- Justify results by explaining methods and processes.
- Construct possible arguments based on evidence.
Teachers who encourage students to engage in discussions that reflect on the mathematical thinking of self and others:
- Establish a culture in which students ask questions of the teacher and their peers, and error is an opportunity for learning.
- Create opportunities for students to discuss their thinking with peers.
- Select, sequence and present student work to advance and deepen understanding of correct and increasingly efficient methods.
- Develop students’ ability to justify methods and compare their responses to the responses of their peers.
|MA.K12.MTR.5.1:|| Use patterns and structure to help understand and connect mathematical concepts. |
Mathematicians who use patterns and structure to help understand and connect mathematical concepts:
- Focus on relevant details within a problem.
- Create plans and procedures to logically order events, steps or ideas to solve problems.
- Decompose a complex problem into manageable parts.
- Relate previously learned concepts to new concepts.
- Look for similarities among problems.
- Connect solutions of problems to more complicated large-scale situations.
Teachers who encourage students to use patterns and structure to help understand and connect mathematical concepts:
- Help students recognize the patterns in the world around them and connect these patterns to mathematical concepts.
- Support students to develop generalizations based on the similarities found among problems.
- Provide opportunities for students to create plans and procedures to solve problems.
- Develop students’ ability to construct relationships between their current understanding and more sophisticated ways of thinking.
|MA.K12.MTR.6.1:|| Assess the reasonableness of solutions. |
Mathematicians who assess the reasonableness of solutions:
- Estimate to discover possible solutions.
- Use benchmark quantities to determine if a solution makes sense.
- Check calculations when solving problems.
- Verify possible solutions by explaining the methods used.
- Evaluate results based on the given context.
Teachers who encourage students to assess the reasonableness of solutions:
- Have students estimate or predict solutions prior to solving.
- Prompt students to continually ask, “Does this solution make sense? How do you know?”
- Reinforce that students check their work as they progress within and after a task.
- Strengthen students’ ability to verify solutions through justifications.
|MA.K12.MTR.7.1:|| Apply mathematics to real-world contexts. |
Mathematicians who apply mathematics to real-world contexts:
- Connect mathematical concepts to everyday experiences.
- Use models and methods to understand, represent and solve problems.
- Perform investigations to gather data or determine if a method is appropriate.
• Redesign models and methods to improve accuracy or efficiency.
Teachers who encourage students to apply mathematics to real-world contexts:
- Provide opportunities for students to create models, both concrete and abstract, and perform investigations.
- Challenge students to question the accuracy of their models and methods.
- Support students as they validate conclusions by comparing them to the given situation.
- Indicate how various concepts can be applied to other disciplines.
|ELA.K12.EE.1.1:|| Cite evidence to explain and justify reasoning.|
K-1 Students include textual evidence in their oral communication with guidance and support from adults. The evidence can consist of details from the text without naming the text. During 1st grade, students learn how to incorporate the evidence in their writing.
2-3 Students include relevant textual evidence in their written and oral communication. Students should name the text when they refer to it. In 3rd grade, students should use a combination of direct and indirect citations.
4-5 Students continue with previous skills and reference comments made by speakers and peers. Students cite texts that they’ve directly quoted, paraphrased, or used for information. When writing, students will use the form of citation dictated by the instructor or the style guide referenced by the instructor.
6-8 Students continue with previous skills and use a style guide to create a proper citation.
9-12 Students continue with previous skills and should be aware of existing style guides and the ways in which they differ.
|ELA.K12.EE.2.1:|| Read and comprehend grade-level complex texts proficiently.|
See Text Complexity for grade-level complexity bands and a text complexity rubric.
|ELA.K12.EE.3.1:|| Make inferences to support comprehension.|
Students will make inferences before the words infer or inference are introduced. Kindergarten students will answer questions like “Why is the girl smiling?” or make predictions about what will happen based on the title page.
Students will use the terms and apply them in 2nd grade and beyond.
|ELA.K12.EE.4.1:|| Use appropriate collaborative techniques and active listening skills when engaging in discussions in a variety of situations.|
In kindergarten, students learn to listen to one another respectfully.
In grades 1-2, students build upon these skills by justifying what they are thinking. For example: “I think ________ because _______.” The collaborative conversations are becoming academic conversations.
In grades 3-12, students engage in academic conversations discussing claims and justifying their reasoning, refining and applying skills. Students build on ideas, propel the conversation, and support claims and counterclaims with evidence.
|ELA.K12.EE.5.1:|| Use the accepted rules governing a specific format to create quality work.|
Students will incorporate skills learned into work products to produce quality work. For students to incorporate these skills appropriately, they must receive instruction. A 3rd grade student creating a poster board display must have instruction in how to effectively present information to do quality work.
|ELA.K12.EE.6.1:|| Use appropriate voice and tone when speaking or writing.|
In kindergarten and 1st grade, students learn the difference between formal and informal language. For example, the way we talk to our friends differs from the way we speak to adults. In 2nd grade and beyond, students practice appropriate social and academic language to discuss texts.
|ELD.K12.ELL.SI.1:|| English language learners communicate for social and instructional purposes within the school setting. |
|ELD.K12.ELL.SS.1:|| English language learners communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Social Studies. |
|HE.912.C.2.4:|| Evaluate how public health policies and government regulations can influence health promotion and disease prevention.|
Seat-belt enforcement, underage alcohol sales, reporting communicable diseases, child care, and AED availability.