|SS.912.A.1.1:|| Describe the importance of historiography, which includes how historical knowledge is obtained and transmitted, when interpreting events in history. |
|SS.912.A.1.2:|| Utilize a variety of primary and secondary sources to identify author, historical significance, audience, and authenticity to understand a historical period. |
|SS.912.A.1.3:|| Utilize timelines to identify the time sequence of historical data. |
|SS.912.A.1.4:|| Analyze how images, symbols, objects, cartoons, graphs, charts, maps, and artwork may be used to interpret the significance of time periods and events from the past. |
|SS.912.A.1.5:|| Evaluate the validity, reliability, bias, and authenticity of current events and Internet resources. |
|SS.912.A.1.6:|| Use case studies to explore social, political, legal, and economic relationships in history. |
|SS.912.A.1.7:|| Describe various socio-cultural aspects of American life including arts, artifacts, literature, education, and publications. |
|SS.912.A.2.4:|| Distinguish the freedoms guaranteed to African Americans and other groups with the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution. |
|SS.912.A.2.5:|| Assess how Jim Crow Laws influenced life for African Americans and other racial/ethnic minority groups. |
|SS.912.CG.1.2:|| Explain the influence of Enlightenment ideas on the Declaration of Independence.|
- Students will identify grievances listed in the Declaration of Independence in terms of due process of law, individual rights, natural rights, popular sovereignty and social contract.
- Students will explain national sovereignty, natural law, self-evident truth, equality of all persons, due process of law, limited government, popular sovereignty, and unalienable rights of life, liberty and property as they relate to Enlightenment ideas in the Declaration of Independence.
- Students will recognize that national sovereignty, due process of law, natural law, self-evident truth, equality of all persons, limited government, popular sovereignty, and unalienable rights of life, liberty and property form the philosophical foundation of our government.
|SS.912.CG.1.3:|| Explain arguments presented in the Federalist Papers in support of ratifying the U.S. Constitution and a republican form of government.|
- Students will recognize that the Federalist Papers argued for a federal system of government, separation of powers and a representative form of government that is accountable to its citizens.
- Students will analyze Federalist and Anti-Federalist arguments concerning ratification of the U.S. Constitution and inclusion of a bill of rights.
|SS.912.CG.1.4:|| Analyze how the ideals and principles expressed in the founding documents shape America as a constitutional republic.|
- Students will differentiate among the documents and determine how each one was individually significant to the founding of the United States.
- Students will evaluate how the documents are connected to one another.
- Documents include, but are not limited to, the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, Federalist Papers (e.g., No. 10. No. 14, No. 31, No. 39, No. 51) and the U.S. Constitution.
- Students will identify key individuals who contributed to the founding documents (e.g., Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, James Madison, George Mason).
|SS.912.CG.1.5:|| Explain how the U.S. Constitution and its amendments uphold the following political principles: checks and balances, consent of the governed, democracy, due process of law, federalism, individual rights, limited government, representative government, republicanism, rule of law and separation of powers.|
- Students will explain how the structure and function of the U.S. government reflects these political principles.
- Students will differentiate between republicanism and democracy, and discuss how the United States reflects both.
- Students will describe compromises made during the Constitutional Convention (e.g., the Great Compromise, the Three-Fifths Compromise, the Electoral College).
|SS.912.CG.2.1:|| Explain the constitutional provisions that establish and affect citizenship.|
- Students will explain how the concept of citizenship in the United States has changed over the course of history (i.e., 13th, 14th, 15th and 19th Amendments).
- Students will compare birthright citizenship, permanent residency and naturalization in the United States.
- Students will differentiate the rights held by native-born citizens, permanent residents and naturalized citizens (e.g., running for public office).
|SS.912.CG.2.2:|| Explain the importance of political and civic participation to the success of the United States’ constitutional republic.|
- Students will discuss various ways in which U.S. citizens can exercise political and civic participation.
- Students will identify historical examples of political and civic participation (e.g., Civil Rights Movement, Women’s Suffrage Movement).
- Students will describe the ways in which individuals can be denied and limited in their right to practice political and civic participation (e.g., losing voting rights for felony conviction, limitations on political contributions, limits on the type of protesting).
|SS.912.CG.2.3:|| Explain the responsibilities of citizens at the local, state and national levels.|
- Students will identify various responsibilities held by citizens (e.g., voting, volunteering and being informed, respecting laws).
- Students will understand the process of registering or preregistering to vote and how to complete a ballot in Florida (e.g., uniform primary and general election ballot).
- Students will discuss appropriate methods of communication with public officials (e.g., corresponding, attending public meetings, requesting a meeting and providing information).
- Students will participate in classroom activities that simulate exercising the responsibilities of citizenship.
|SS.912.CG.2.4:|| Evaluate, take and defend objective, evidence-based positions on issues that cause the government to balance the interests of individuals with the public good.|
- Students will examine situations when individuals’ rights have been restricted for the public good (e.g., limits on speech or rationing of goods during wartime, enactment of the Patriot Act).
- Students will analyze how environmental and financial policies place limitations on citizens and private industry for the public good.
- Students will explain different services provided by local, state and national governments to citizens to ensure their rights are protected (e.g., social services, law enforcement, defense, emergency response).
|SS.912.CG.2.5:|| Analyze contemporary and historical examples of government-imposed restrictions on rights.|
- Students will identify historical examples of government-imposed restrictions on rights (e.g., suspension of habeas corpus, rationing during wartime and limitations on speech).
- Students will examine the rationale for government-imposed restrictions on rights (e.g., inciting a crime, campaign contributions, defamation, military secrets).
|SS.912.CG.2.6:|| Explain how the principles contained in foundational documents contributed to the expansion of civil rights and liberties over time.|
- Students will explain how different groups of people (e.g., African Americans, immigrants, Native Americans, women) had their civil rights expanded through legislative action (e.g., Voting Rights Act, Civil Rights Act), executive action (e.g., Truman’s desegregation of the army, Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation) and the courts (e.g., Brown v. Board of Education; In re Gault).
- Students will explain the role founding documents, such as the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, had on setting precedent for the future granting of rights.
|SS.912.CG.2.7:|| Analyze the impact of civic engagement as a means of preserving or reforming institutions.|
- Students will identify legal methods that citizens can use to promote social and political change (e.g., voting, peaceful protests, petitioning, demonstrations, contacting government offices).
- Students will identify historical examples of citizens achieving or preventing political and social change through civic engagement (e.g., the Abolitionist Movement).
|SS.912.CG.2.8:|| Explain the impact of political parties, interest groups, media and individuals on determining and shaping public policy.|
- Students will explain the origins of the Republican and Democratic political parties and evaluate their roles in shaping public policy.
- Students will identify historical examples of interest groups, media and individuals influencing public policy.
- Students will compare and contrast how the free press influenced politics at major points in U.S. history (e.g., Vietnam War Era, Civil Rights Era).
|SS.912.CG.2.11:|| Evaluate political communication for bias, factual accuracy, omission and emotional appeal.|
- Students will compare the reporting on the same political event or issue from multiple perspectives.
- Students will identify various forms of propaganda (e.g., plain folks, glittering generalities, testimonial, fear, logical fallacies).
- Students will discuss the historical impact of political communication on American political process and public opinion.
- Examples of political communication may include, but are not limited to, political cartoons, propaganda, campaign advertisements, political speeches, bumper stickers, blogs, press and social media.
|SS.912.CG.2.12:|| Explain how interest groups, the media and public opinion influence local, state and national decision-making related to public issues.|
- Students will objectively discuss current public issues in Florida and use both the U.S. and Florida Constitutions to justify pro and con positions.
- Students will examine the relationship and responsibilities of both the state and national governments regarding these public issues.
- Students will analyze public policy solutions related to local, state and national issues.
|SS.912.CG.2.13:|| Analyze the influence and effects of various forms of media and the internet in political communication.|
- Students will explain how the methods of political communication has changed over time (e.g., television, radio, press, social media).
- Students will describe how the methods used by political officials to communicate with the public has changed over time.
- Students will discuss the strengths and weaknesses of different methods of political communication.
|SS.912.CG.3.1:|| Analyze how certain political ideologies conflict with the principles of freedom and democracy. |
- Students will analyze historic examples of governing systems (e.g., communism and totalitarianism) and actions that conflict with the principles of freedom and democracy (e.g., Mao Zedong and the Cultural Revolution, Stalin and the Soviet System, Fidel Castro and the Cuban Revolution, Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Revolution, Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge, Nicolás Maduro and the Chavismo movement).
- Students will identify how authoritarian regimes victimize their citizens through restricting individual rights resulting in poverty, starvation, migration, systemic lethal violence, and suppression of speech.
- Students will analyze how the principles of checks and balances, consent of the governed, democracy, due process of law, federalism, individual rights, limited government, representative government, republicanism, rule of law and separation of powers contribute to the nation’s longevity and its ability to overcome challenges, and distinguish the United States’ constitutional republic from authoritarian and totalitarian nations.
Analyze how certain political ideologies conflict with the principles of freedom and democracy.
Note: The benchmark above has been revised to meet HB 395.
|SS.912.CG.3.2:|| Explain how the U.S. Constitution safeguards and limits individual rights.|
- Students will identify the individual rights protected by the U.S. Constitution, the Bill of Rights and other constitutional amendments.
- Students will describe the role of the Supreme Court in further defining the safeguards and limits of constitutional rights.
|SS.912.CG.3.3:|| Analyze the structures, functions and processes of the legislative branch as described in Article I of the U.S. Constitution.|
- Students will explain why Article I of the U.S. Constitution established a bicameral legislative body and how the House of Representatives functions differently from the Senate.
- Students will identify the methods for determining the number of members in the House of Representatives and the Senate.
- Students will identify and describe the “enumerated powers” delegated to Congress (e.g., assess taxes, borrow money, declare war, make laws).
- Students will analyze the role of the legislative branch in terms of its relationship with the judicial and executive branch of the government.
- Students will describe constitutional amendments that changed the role of Congress from its original description in Article I of the U.S. Constitution (i.e., 10th, 14th, 16th, 17th and 27th Amendments).
|SS.912.CG.3.4:|| Analyze the structures, functions and processes of the executive branch as described in Article II of the U.S. Constitution.|
- Students will explain the qualifications one must have to seek the office of president and the process of presidential elections.
- Students will explain different presidential responsibilities outlined in Article II (e.g., receiving foreign heads of state, delivering the State of the Union address, carrying out faithful execution of the law).
- Students will examine the role of the executive branch in terms of its relationship with the judicial and legislative branches of the government.
- Students will describe constitutional amendments (i.e., 12th, 20th, 22nd and 25th) that have changed the role of the executive branch from its original description in Article II.
- Students will describe the impeachment process.
|SS.912.CG.3.5:|| Describe how independent regulatory agencies interact with the three branches of government and with citizens.|
- Students will identify independent regulatory agencies (e.g., Federal Communications Commission, Federal Election Commission, National Labor Relations Board) and explain their purpose and effect.
- Students will describe the advantages and disadvantages of delegating power to independent regulatory agencies.
|SS.912.CG.3.6:|| Explain expressed, implied, concurrent and reserved powers in the U.S. Constitution.|
- Students will identify powers that are expressed in the U.S. Constitution to Congress (e.g., coin money, declare war, assess taxes, citizenship).
- Students will identify that expressed powers are also known as enumerated powers found in Article I of the U.S. Constitution.
- Students will analyze the role of the “general welfare clause” and “necessary and proper clause” in granting Congress implied powers.
- Students will describe examples of concurrent powers as those powers shared by both state and national governments (e.g., build roads, tax citizens, make laws).
- Students will explain how reserved powers define issues as matters for the people or the state governments.
- Students will compare the roles of expressed, implied, concurrent and reserved powers in United States’ federalism.
|SS.912.CG.3.7:|| Analyze the structures, functions and processes of the judicial branch as described in Article III of the U.S. Constitution.|
- Students will examine the role of the judicial branch in terms of its relationship with the legislative and executive branches of the government.
- Students will describe the role of the Supreme Court and lesser federal courts.
- Students will explain what Article III says about judicial tenure, appointment and salaries.
- Students will describe the powers delegated to the courts by Article III including, but not limited to, treason, jurisdiction and trial by jury.
|SS.912.CG.3.8:|| Describe the purpose and function of judicial review in the American constitutional government.|
- Students will examine the role of district courts, the courts of appeals and the Supreme Court in the judicial review process.
- Students will explain the relationship between the concept of judicial review and the language of the Supremacy Clause in Article VI of the U.S. Constitution.
|SS.912.CG.3.9:|| Compare the role of state and federal judges with other elected officials.|
- Students will compare the ways state and federal judges are appointed compared to other elected officials.
- Students will distinguish the qualifications needed for a judge at the state or federal level versus other elected officials.
- Students will compare the decision-making process of judges compared to other political figures.
|SS.912.CG.3.10:|| Analyze the levels and responsibilities of state and federal courts.|
- Students will describe what Article III of the U.S. Constitution states about the relationship between state and federal courts.
- Students will recognize the role of the Federal Judiciary Act of 1789 in establishing the structure and jurisdiction of the federal court system.
- Students will contrast the differences among civil trials and criminal trials at the state level.
- Students will describe the relationship among the Supreme Court, federal appellate courts and federal district courts (e.g., Erie Doctrine, Rooker-Feldman Doctrine).
|SS.912.CG.3.11:|| Evaluate how landmark Supreme Court decisions affect law, liberty and the interpretation of the U.S. Constitution.|
- Students will recognize landmark Supreme Court cases (e.g., Marbury v. Madison; McCulloch v. Maryland; Dred Scott v. Sandford; Plessy v. Ferguson; Brown v. Board of Education; Gideon v. Wainwright; Miranda v. Arizona; Korematsu v. United States; Mapp v. Ohio; In re Gault; United States v. Nixon; Regents of the University of California v. Bakke; Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier; District of Columbia v. Heller).
- Students will explain the foundational constitutional issues underlying landmark Supreme Court decisions related to the Bill of Rights and other amendments.
- Students will explain the outcomes of landmark Supreme Court cases related to the Bill of Rights and other amendments.
|SS.912.CG.3.12:|| Analyze the concept of federalism in the United States and its role in establishing the relationship between the state and national governments.|
- Students will identify examples of the powers reserved and shared among state and the national governments in the American federal system of government.
- Students will examine the role the Great Compromise had on the eventual establishment of a federal system of fifty equal states.
- Students will explain specific rights that are granted to the states in the language of the U.S. Constitution and its amendments (e.g., 10th Amendment, defense and extradition).
- Students will analyze how states have challenged the national government regarding states’ rights (e.g., Civil War, the New Deal, No Child Left Behind, Affordable Health Care Act, Civil Rights Movement).
|SS.912.CG.3.14:|| Explain the judicial decision-making process in interpreting law at the state and national levels.|
- Students will explain the role of the U.S. Constitution in interpreting law at the state and national levels.
- Students will explain the process used by judges at the state and national levels when making a decision or writing summary opinions.
- Students will incorporate language from the U.S. Constitution or court briefs to justify a legal decision when interpreting state or national law.
|SS.912.CG.3.15:|| Explain how citizens are affected by the local, state and national governments.|
- Students will identify local government officials and employees who affect the daily lives of citizens.
- Students will identify the role of state governmental officials and employees who affect the daily lives of citizens.
- Students will identify the role of national governmental officials and employees who affect the daily lives of citizens.
- Students will explain how government at all levels impacts the daily lives of citizens.
|SS.912.CG.4.3:|| Explain how U.S. foreign policy supports democratic principles and protects human rights around the world. |
- Students will explain how U.S. foreign policy aims to protect liberty around the world and describe how the founding documents support the extension of liberty to all mankind.
|SS.912.E.2.2:|| Use a decision-making model to analyze a public policy issue affecting the student's community that incorporates defining a problem, analyzing the potential consequences, and considering the alternatives. |
|SS.912.G.1.2:|| Use spatial perspective and appropriate geographic terms and tools, including the Six Essential Elements, as organizational schema to describe any given place. |
|SS.912.G.1.4:|| Analyze geographic information from a variety of sources including primary sources, atlases, computer, and digital sources, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and a broad variety of maps. |
|SS.912.G.4.1:|| Interpret population growth and other demographic data for any given place. |
|SS.912.H.1.6:|| Analyze how current events are explained by artistic and cultural trends of the past. |
|SS.912.W.1.1:|| Use timelines to establish cause and effect relationships of historical events. |
|SS.912.W.1.2:|| Compare time measurement systems used by different cultures.
|SS.912.W.1.3:|| Interpret and evaluate primary and secondary sources. |
|SS.912.W.1.4:|| Explain how historians use historical inquiry and other sciences to understand the past. |
|SS.912.W.1.6:|| Evaluate the role of history in shaping identity and character. |
|SS.912.W.2.18:|| Describe developments in medieval English legal and constitutional history and their importance to the rise of modern democratic institutions and procedures. |
|SS.912.W.5.4:|| Evaluate the impact of Enlightenment ideals on the development of economic, political, and religious structures in the Western world. |
|MA.K12.MTR.1.1:|| Actively participate in effortful learning both individually and collectively. |
Mathematicians who participate in effortful learning both individually and with others:
- Analyze the problem in a way that makes sense given the task.
- Ask questions that will help with solving the task.
- Build perseverance by modifying methods as needed while solving a challenging task.
- Stay engaged and maintain a positive mindset when working to solve tasks.
- Help and support each other when attempting a new method or approach.
Teachers who encourage students to participate actively in effortful learning both individually and with others:
- Cultivate a community of growth mindset learners.
- Foster perseverance in students by choosing tasks that are challenging.
- Develop students’ ability to analyze and problem solve.
- Recognize students’ effort when solving challenging problems.
|MA.K12.MTR.2.1:|| Demonstrate understanding by representing problems in multiple ways. |
Mathematicians who demonstrate understanding by representing problems in multiple ways:
- Build understanding through modeling and using manipulatives.
- Represent solutions to problems in multiple ways using objects, drawings, tables, graphs and equations.
- Progress from modeling problems with objects and drawings to using algorithms and equations.
- Express connections between concepts and representations.
- Choose a representation based on the given context or purpose.
Teachers who encourage students to demonstrate understanding by representing problems in multiple ways:
- Help students make connections between concepts and representations.
- Provide opportunities for students to use manipulatives when investigating concepts.
- Guide students from concrete to pictorial to abstract representations as understanding progresses.
- Show students that various representations can have different purposes and can be useful in different situations.
|MA.K12.MTR.3.1:|| Complete tasks with mathematical fluency. |
Mathematicians who complete tasks with mathematical fluency:
- Select efficient and appropriate methods for solving problems within the given context.
- Maintain flexibility and accuracy while performing procedures and mental calculations.
- Complete tasks accurately and with confidence.
- Adapt procedures to apply them to a new context.
- Use feedback to improve efficiency when performing calculations.
Teachers who encourage students to complete tasks with mathematical fluency:
- Provide students with the flexibility to solve problems by selecting a procedure that allows them to solve efficiently and accurately.
- Offer multiple opportunities for students to practice efficient and generalizable methods.
- Provide opportunities for students to reflect on the method they used and determine if a more efficient method could have been used.
|MA.K12.MTR.4.1:|| Engage in discussions that reflect on the mathematical thinking of self and others. |
Mathematicians who engage in discussions that reflect on the mathematical thinking of self and others:
- Communicate mathematical ideas, vocabulary and methods effectively.
- Analyze the mathematical thinking of others.
- Compare the efficiency of a method to those expressed by others.
- Recognize errors and suggest how to correctly solve the task.
- Justify results by explaining methods and processes.
- Construct possible arguments based on evidence.
Teachers who encourage students to engage in discussions that reflect on the mathematical thinking of self and others:
- Establish a culture in which students ask questions of the teacher and their peers, and error is an opportunity for learning.
- Create opportunities for students to discuss their thinking with peers.
- Select, sequence and present student work to advance and deepen understanding of correct and increasingly efficient methods.
- Develop students’ ability to justify methods and compare their responses to the responses of their peers.
|MA.K12.MTR.5.1:|| Use patterns and structure to help understand and connect mathematical concepts. |
Mathematicians who use patterns and structure to help understand and connect mathematical concepts:
- Focus on relevant details within a problem.
- Create plans and procedures to logically order events, steps or ideas to solve problems.
- Decompose a complex problem into manageable parts.
- Relate previously learned concepts to new concepts.
- Look for similarities among problems.
- Connect solutions of problems to more complicated large-scale situations.
Teachers who encourage students to use patterns and structure to help understand and connect mathematical concepts:
- Help students recognize the patterns in the world around them and connect these patterns to mathematical concepts.
- Support students to develop generalizations based on the similarities found among problems.
- Provide opportunities for students to create plans and procedures to solve problems.
- Develop students’ ability to construct relationships between their current understanding and more sophisticated ways of thinking.
|MA.K12.MTR.6.1:|| Assess the reasonableness of solutions. |
Mathematicians who assess the reasonableness of solutions:
- Estimate to discover possible solutions.
- Use benchmark quantities to determine if a solution makes sense.
- Check calculations when solving problems.
- Verify possible solutions by explaining the methods used.
- Evaluate results based on the given context.
Teachers who encourage students to assess the reasonableness of solutions:
- Have students estimate or predict solutions prior to solving.
- Prompt students to continually ask, “Does this solution make sense? How do you know?”
- Reinforce that students check their work as they progress within and after a task.
- Strengthen students’ ability to verify solutions through justifications.
|MA.K12.MTR.7.1:|| Apply mathematics to real-world contexts. |
Mathematicians who apply mathematics to real-world contexts:
- Connect mathematical concepts to everyday experiences.
- Use models and methods to understand, represent and solve problems.
- Perform investigations to gather data or determine if a method is appropriate.
• Redesign models and methods to improve accuracy or efficiency.
Teachers who encourage students to apply mathematics to real-world contexts:
- Provide opportunities for students to create models, both concrete and abstract, and perform investigations.
- Challenge students to question the accuracy of their models and methods.
- Support students as they validate conclusions by comparing them to the given situation.
- Indicate how various concepts can be applied to other disciplines.
|ELA.K12.EE.1.1:|| Cite evidence to explain and justify reasoning.|
K-1 Students include textual evidence in their oral communication with guidance and support from adults. The evidence can consist of details from the text without naming the text. During 1st grade, students learn how to incorporate the evidence in their writing.
2-3 Students include relevant textual evidence in their written and oral communication. Students should name the text when they refer to it. In 3rd grade, students should use a combination of direct and indirect citations.
4-5 Students continue with previous skills and reference comments made by speakers and peers. Students cite texts that they’ve directly quoted, paraphrased, or used for information. When writing, students will use the form of citation dictated by the instructor or the style guide referenced by the instructor.
6-8 Students continue with previous skills and use a style guide to create a proper citation.
9-12 Students continue with previous skills and should be aware of existing style guides and the ways in which they differ.
|ELA.K12.EE.2.1:|| Read and comprehend grade-level complex texts proficiently.|
See Text Complexity for grade-level complexity bands and a text complexity rubric.
|ELA.K12.EE.3.1:|| Make inferences to support comprehension.|
Students will make inferences before the words infer or inference are introduced. Kindergarten students will answer questions like “Why is the girl smiling?” or make predictions about what will happen based on the title page.
Students will use the terms and apply them in 2nd grade and beyond.
|ELA.K12.EE.4.1:|| Use appropriate collaborative techniques and active listening skills when engaging in discussions in a variety of situations.|
In kindergarten, students learn to listen to one another respectfully.
In grades 1-2, students build upon these skills by justifying what they are thinking. For example: “I think ________ because _______.” The collaborative conversations are becoming academic conversations.
In grades 3-12, students engage in academic conversations discussing claims and justifying their reasoning, refining and applying skills. Students build on ideas, propel the conversation, and support claims and counterclaims with evidence.
|ELA.K12.EE.5.1:|| Use the accepted rules governing a specific format to create quality work.|
Students will incorporate skills learned into work products to produce quality work. For students to incorporate these skills appropriately, they must receive instruction. A 3rd grade student creating a poster board display must have instruction in how to effectively present information to do quality work.
|ELA.K12.EE.6.1:|| Use appropriate voice and tone when speaking or writing.|
In kindergarten and 1st grade, students learn the difference between formal and informal language. For example, the way we talk to our friends differs from the way we speak to adults. In 2nd grade and beyond, students practice appropriate social and academic language to discuss texts.
|ELD.K12.ELL.SI.1:|| English language learners communicate for social and instructional purposes within the school setting. |
|ELD.K12.ELL.SS.1:|| English language learners communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Social Studies. |
|HE.912.C.2.4:|| Evaluate how public health policies and government regulations can influence health promotion and disease prevention. |