|MAFS.912.A-APR.1.1 (Archived Standard):|| Understand that polynomials form a system analogous to the integers,
namely, they are closed under the operations of addition, subtraction,
and multiplication; add, subtract, and multiply polynomials.|
Algebra 1 - Fluency Recommendations
Fluency in adding, subtracting, and multiplying polynomials supports students throughout their work in algebra, as well as in their symbolic work with functions. Manipulation can be more mindful when it is fluent.
|MAFS.912.A-APR.2.2 (Archived Standard):|| Know and apply the Remainder Theorem: For a polynomial p(x) and a
number a, the remainder on division by x – a is p(a), so p(a) = 0 if and
only if (x – a) is a factor of p(x). |
|MAFS.912.A-APR.2.3 (Archived Standard):|| Identify zeros of polynomials when suitable factorizations are available, and use the zeros to construct a rough graph of the function
defined by the polynomial.|
|MAFS.912.A-CED.1.1 (Archived Standard):|| Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. Include equations arising from linear and quadratic functions, and simple rational, absolute, and exponential functions. ★ |
|MAFS.912.A-CED.1.2 (Archived Standard):|| Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships
between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels
and scales. ★ |
|MAFS.912.A-CED.1.3 (Archived Standard):|| Represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and by systems of
equations and/or inequalities, and interpret solutions as viable or non-viable
options in a modeling context. For example, represent inequalities
describing nutritional and cost constraints on combinations of different
foods. ★ |
|MAFS.912.A-CED.1.4 (Archived Standard):|| Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same
reasoning as in solving equations. For example, rearrange Ohm’s law V =
IR to highlight resistance R. ★ |
|MAFS.912.A-REI.1.1 (Archived Standard):|| Explain each step in solving a simple equation as following from the
equality of numbers asserted at the previous step, starting from the
assumption that the original equation has a solution. Construct a
viable argument to justify a solution method. |
|MAFS.912.A-REI.1.2 (Archived Standard):|| Solve simple rational and radical equations in one variable, and give
examples showing how extraneous solutions may arise. |
|MAFS.912.A-REI.3.6 (Archived Standard):|| Solve systems of linear equations exactly and approximately (e.g., with graphs), focusing on pairs of linear equations in two variables.|
|MAFS.912.A-REI.3.7 (Archived Standard):|| Solve a simple system consisting of a linear equation and a quadratic
equation in two variables algebraically and graphically. For example,
find the points of intersection between the line y = –3x and the circle x² +
y² = 3. |
|MAFS.912.A-REI.3.8 (Archived Standard):|| Represent a system of linear equations as a single matrix equation
in a vector variable. |
|MAFS.912.A-REI.3.9 (Archived Standard):|| Find the inverse of a matrix if it exists and use it to solve systems
of linear equations (using technology for matrices of dimension 3 × 3
or greater). |
|MAFS.912.A-SSE.1.1 (Archived Standard):|| Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context. ★
- Interpret parts of an expression, such as terms, factors, and coefficients.
- Interpret complicated expressions by viewing one or more of their parts as a single entity. For example, interpret as the product of P and a factor not depending on P.
|MAFS.912.A-SSE.2.3 (Archived Standard):|| |
Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression.★
- Factor a quadratic expression to reveal the zeros of the function it defines.
- Complete the square in a quadratic expression to reveal the maximum or minimum value of the function it defines.
- Use the properties of exponents to transform expressions for exponential functions. For example the expression can be rewritten as ≈ to reveal the approximate equivalent monthly interest rate if the annual rate is 15%.
|MAFS.912.A-SSE.2.4 (Archived Standard):|| Derive the formula for the sum of a finite geometric series (when the
common ratio is not 1), and use the formula to solve problems. For
example, calculate mortgage payments. ★ |
|MAFS.912.F-BF.1.1 (Archived Standard):|| Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities. ★|
- Determine an explicit expression, a recursive process, or steps for calculation from a context.
- Combine standard function types using arithmetic operations. For example, build a function that models the temperature of a cooling body by adding a constant function to a decaying exponential, and relate these functions to the model.
- Compose functions. For example, if T(y) is the temperature in the atmosphere as a function of height, and h(t) is the height of a weather balloon as a function of time, then T(h(t)) is the temperature at the location of the weather balloon as a function of time.
|MAFS.912.F-BF.1.2 (Archived Standard):|| Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and
with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate
between the two forms. ★ |
|MAFS.912.F-BF.2.5 (Archived Standard):|| Understand the inverse relationship between exponents and
logarithms and use this relationship to solve problems involving
logarithms and exponents. |
|MAFS.912.F-IF.2.4 (Archived Standard):|| For a function that models a relationship between two quantities,
interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities,
and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description
of the relationship. Key features include: intercepts; intervals where the
function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums
and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity. ★ |
|MAFS.912.F-IF.2.5 (Archived Standard):|| Relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to
the quantitative relationship it describes. For example, if the function
h(n) gives the number of person-hours it takes to assemble engines in a
factory, then the positive integers would be an appropriate domain for the
function. ★ |
|MAFS.912.F-IF.2.6 (Archived Standard):|| Calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function
(presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval.
Estimate the rate of change from a graph. ★ |
|MAFS.912.F-IF.3.7 (Archived Standard):|| Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases. ★|
- Graph linear and quadratic functions and show intercepts, maxima, and minima.
- Graph square root, cube root, and piecewise-defined functions, including step functions and absolute value functions.
- Graph polynomial functions, identifying zeros when suitable factorizations are available, and showing end behavior.
- Graph rational functions, identifying zeros and asymptotes when suitable factorizations are available, and showing end behavior.
- Graph exponential and logarithmic functions, showing intercepts and end behavior, and trigonometric functions, showing period, midline, and amplitude, and using phase shift.
|MAFS.912.F-IF.3.8 (Archived Standard):|| Write a function defined by an expression in different but equivalent forms to reveal and explain different properties of the function.
- Use the process of factoring and completing the square in a quadratic function to show zeros, extreme values, and symmetry of the graph, and interpret these in terms of a context.
- Use the properties of exponents to interpret expressions for exponential functions. For example, identify percent rate of change in functions such as y = , y = , y = , y = , and classify them as representing exponential growth or decay.
|MAFS.912.F-LE.1.3 (Archived Standard):|| Observe using graphs and tables that a quantity increasing
exponentially eventually exceeds a quantity increasing linearly,
quadratically, or (more generally) as a polynomial function. ★ |
|MAFS.912.F-LE.1.4 (Archived Standard):|| For exponential models, express as a logarithm the solution to = d where a, c, and d are numbers and the base b is 2, 10, or e;
evaluate the logarithm using technology. ★ |
|MAFS.912.F-LE.2.5 (Archived Standard):|| Interpret the parameters in a linear or exponential function in terms of
a context. ★ |
|MAFS.912.N-Q.1.1 (Archived Standard):|| Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution
of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in
formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and
data displays. ★ |
|MAFS.912.N-Q.1.3 (Archived Standard):|| Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement
when reporting quantities. ★ |
|MAFS.912.S-IC.2.6 (Archived Standard):|| Evaluate reports based on data. ★ |
|MAFS.912.S-ID.2.6 (Archived Standard):|| Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how the variables are related. ★|
- Fit a function to the data; use functions fitted to data to solve problems in the context of the data. Use given functions or choose a function suggested by the context. Emphasize linear, and exponential models.
- Informally assess the fit of a function by plotting and analyzing residuals.
- Fit a linear function for a scatter plot that suggests a linear association.
Students take a more sophisticated look at using a linear function to model the relationship between two numerical variables. In addition to fitting a line to data, students assess how well the model fits by analyzing residuals.
|MAFS.912.S-MD.2.5 (Archived Standard):|| Weigh the possible outcomes of a decision by assigning probabilities to payoff values and finding expected values. ★
- Find the expected payoff for a game of chance. For example, find the expected winnings from a state lottery ticket or a game at a fast-food restaurant.
- Evaluate and compare strategies on the basis of expected values. For example, compare a high-deductible versus a low-deductible automobile insurance policy using various, but reasonable, chances of having a minor or a major accident.
|MAFS.K12.MP.1.1 (Archived Standard):|| |
Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
Mathematically proficient students start by explaining to themselves the meaning of a problem and looking for entry points to its solution. They analyze givens, constraints, relationships, and goals. They make conjectures about the form and meaning of the solution and plan a solution pathway rather than simply jumping into a solution attempt. They consider analogous problems, and try special cases and simpler forms of the original problem in order to gain insight into its solution. They monitor and evaluate their progress and change course if necessary. Older students might, depending on the context of the problem, transform algebraic expressions or change the viewing window on their graphing calculator to get the information they need. Mathematically proficient students can explain correspondences between equations, verbal descriptions, tables, and graphs or draw diagrams of important features and relationships, graph data, and search for regularity or trends. Younger students might rely on using concrete objects or pictures to help conceptualize and solve a problem. Mathematically proficient students check their answers to problems using a different method, and they continually ask themselves, “Does this make sense?” They can understand the approaches of others to solving complex problems and identify correspondences between different approaches.
|MAFS.K12.MP.2.1 (Archived Standard):|| |
Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
Mathematically proficient students make sense of quantities and their relationships in problem situations. They bring two complementary abilities to bear on problems involving quantitative relationships: the ability to decontextualize—to abstract a given situation and represent it symbolically and manipulate the representing symbols as if they have a life of their own, without necessarily attending to their referents—and the ability to contextualize, to pause as needed during the manipulation process in order to probe into the referents for the symbols involved. Quantitative reasoning entails habits of creating a coherent representation of the problem at hand; considering the units involved; attending to the meaning of quantities, not just how to compute them; and knowing and flexibly using different properties of operations and objects.
|MAFS.K12.MP.3.1 (Archived Standard):|| |
Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
Mathematically proficient students understand and use stated assumptions, definitions, and previously established results in constructing arguments. They make conjectures and build a logical progression of statements to explore the truth of their conjectures. They are able to analyze situations by breaking them into cases, and can recognize and use counterexamples. They justify their conclusions, communicate them to others, and respond to the arguments of others. They reason inductively about data, making plausible arguments that take into account the context from which the data arose. Mathematically proficient students are also able to compare the effectiveness of two plausible arguments, distinguish correct logic or reasoning from that which is flawed, and—if there is a flaw in an argument—explain what it is. Elementary students can construct arguments using concrete referents such as objects, drawings, diagrams, and actions. Such arguments can make sense and be correct, even though they are not generalized or made formal until later grades. Later, students learn to determine domains to which an argument applies. Students at all grades can listen or read the arguments of others, decide whether they make sense, and ask useful questions to clarify or improve the arguments.
|MAFS.K12.MP.4.1 (Archived Standard):|| |
Model with mathematics.
Mathematically proficient students can apply the mathematics they know to solve problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace. In early grades, this might be as simple as writing an addition equation to describe a situation. In middle grades, a student might apply proportional reasoning to plan a school event or analyze a problem in the community. By high school, a student might use geometry to solve a design problem or use a function to describe how one quantity of interest depends on another. Mathematically proficient students who can apply what they know are comfortable making assumptions and approximations to simplify a complicated situation, realizing that these may need revision later. They are able to identify important quantities in a practical situation and map their relationships using such tools as diagrams, two-way tables, graphs, flowcharts and formulas. They can analyze those relationships mathematically to draw conclusions. They routinely interpret their mathematical results in the context of the situation and reflect on whether the results make sense, possibly improving the model if it has not served its purpose.
|MAFS.K12.MP.5.1 (Archived Standard):|| Use appropriate tools strategically. |
Mathematically proficient students consider the available tools when solving a mathematical problem. These tools might include pencil and paper, concrete models, a ruler, a protractor, a calculator, a spreadsheet, a computer algebra system, a statistical package, or dynamic geometry software. Proficient students are sufficiently familiar with tools appropriate for their grade or course to make sound decisions about when each of these tools might be helpful, recognizing both the insight to be gained and their limitations. For example, mathematically proficient high school students analyze graphs of functions and solutions generated using a graphing calculator. They detect possible errors by strategically using estimation and other mathematical knowledge. When making mathematical models, they know that technology can enable them to visualize the results of varying assumptions, explore consequences, and compare predictions with data. Mathematically proficient students at various grade levels are able to identify relevant external mathematical resources, such as digital content located on a website, and use them to pose or solve problems. They are able to use technological tools to explore and deepen their understanding of concepts.
|MAFS.K12.MP.6.1 (Archived Standard):|| |
Attend to precision.
Mathematically proficient students try to communicate precisely to others. They try to use clear definitions in discussion with others and in their own reasoning. They state the meaning of the symbols they choose, including using the equal sign consistently and appropriately. They are careful about specifying units of measure, and labeling axes to clarify the correspondence with quantities in a problem. They calculate accurately and efficiently, express numerical answers with a degree of precision appropriate for the problem context. In the elementary grades, students give carefully formulated explanations to each other. By the time they reach high school they have learned to examine claims and make explicit use of definitions.
|MAFS.K12.MP.7.1 (Archived Standard):|| |
Look for and make use of structure.
Mathematically proficient students look closely to discern a pattern or structure. Young students, for example, might notice that three and seven more is the same amount as seven and three more, or they may sort a collection of shapes according to how many sides the shapes have. Later, students will see 7 × 8 equals the well remembered 7 × 5 + 7 × 3, in preparation for learning about the distributive property. In the expression x² + 9x + 14, older students can see the 14 as 2 × 7 and the 9 as 2 + 7. They recognize the significance of an existing line in a geometric figure and can use the strategy of drawing an auxiliary line for solving problems. They also can step back for an overview and shift perspective. They can see complicated things, such as some algebraic expressions, as single objects or as being composed of several objects. For example, they can see 5 – 3(x – y)² as 5 minus a positive number times a square and use that to realize that its value cannot be more than 5 for any real numbers x and y.
|MAFS.K12.MP.8.1 (Archived Standard):|| |
Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
Mathematically proficient students notice if calculations are repeated, and look both for general methods and for shortcuts. Upper elementary students might notice when dividing 25 by 11 that they are repeating the same calculations over and over again, and conclude they have a repeating decimal. By paying attention to the calculation of slope as they repeatedly check whether points are on the line through (1, 2) with slope 3, middle school students might abstract the equation (y – 2)/(x – 1) = 3. Noticing the regularity in the way terms cancel when expanding (x – 1)(x + 1), (x – 1)(x² + x + 1), and (x – 1)(x³ + x² + x + 1) might lead them to the general formula for the sum of a geometric series. As they work to solve a problem, mathematically proficient students maintain oversight of the process, while attending to the details. They continually evaluate the reasonableness of their intermediate results.
|SS.912.E.1.14:|| Compare credit, savings, and investment services available to the consumer from financial institutions. |
|SS.912.E.1.16:|| Construct a one-year budget plan for a specific career path including expenses and construction of a credit plan for purchasing a major item.|
Examples of a career path are university student, trade school student, food service employee, retail employee, laborer, armed forces enlisted personnel.
Examples of a budget plan are housing expenses, furnishing, utilities, food costs, transportation, and personal expenses - medical, clothing, grooming, entertainment and recreation, and gifts and contributions.
Examples of a credit plan are interest rates, credit scores, payment plan.
|SS.912.FL.1.6:|| Explain that taxes are paid to federal, state, and local governments to fund government goods and services and transfer payments from government to individuals and that the major types of taxes are income taxes, payroll (Social Security) taxes, property taxes, and sales taxes.|
Calculate the amount of taxes a person is likely to pay when given information or data about the person’s sources of income and amount of spending.
Identify which level of government receives the tax revenue for a particular tax and describe what is done with the tax revenue.
|SS.912.FL.1.7:|| Discuss how people’s sources of income, amount of income, as well as the amount and type of spending affect the types and amounts of taxes paid.|
Investigate the tax rates on different sources of income and on different types of goods that are purchased.
|SS.912.FL.3.1:|| Discuss the reasons why some people have a tendency to be impatient and choose immediate spending over saving for the future.|
Identify instances in their lives where they decided to buy something immediately and then wished they had instead saved the money for future purchases.
|SS.912.FL.3.2:|| Examine the ideas that inflation reduces the value of money, including savings, that the real interest rate expresses the rate of return on savings, taking into account the effect of inflation and that the real interest rate is calculated as the nominal interest rate minus the rate of inflation.|
Explain why savers expect a higher nominal interest rate when inflation is expected to be high.
|SS.912.FL.3.3:|| Compare the difference between the nominal interest rate which tells savers how the dollar value of their savings or investments will grow, and the real interest rate which tells savers how the purchasing power of their savings or investments will grow.|
Given the nominal interest rate and the rate of inflation over the course of one year, explain what will happen to the purchasing power of savings.
|SS.912.FL.3.4:|| Describe ways that money received (or paid) in the future can be compared to money held today by discounting the future value based on the rate of interest.|
Use spreadsheet software to calculate the amount a 10-year-old would need to save today in order to pay for one year of college tuition eight years from now.
|SS.912.FL.3.6:|| Describe government policies that create incentives and disincentives for people to save.|
Explain why traditional IRAs (individual retirement accounts), Roth IRAs, and educational savings accounts provide incentives for people to save.
|SS.912.FL.3.7:|| Explain how employer benefit programs create incentives and disincentives to save and how an employee’s decision to save can depend on how the alternatives are presented by the employer.|
Explain why matches of retirement savings by employers substantially change the incentives for employees to save. Explain why having employees “opt out” of savings programs results in a higher level of saving than having them “opt in.”
|SS.912.FL.4.1:|| Discuss ways that consumers can compare the cost of credit by using the annual percentage rate (APR), initial fees charged, and fees charged for late payment or missed payments.|
Use the APR, initial fees, late fees, nonpayment fees, and other relevant information to compare the cost of credit from various sources for the purchase of a product.
|SS.912.FL.4.2:|| Discuss that banks and financial institutions sometimes compete by offering credit at low introductory rates, which increase after a set period of time or when the borrower misses a payment or makes a late payment.|
Explain why a bank may offer low-rate introductory credit offers.
|SS.912.FL.4.4:|| Describe why people often make a cash payment to the seller of a good—called a down payment—in order to reduce the amount they need to borrow. Describe why lenders may consider loans made with a down payment to have less risk because the down payment gives the borrower some equity or ownership right away and why these loans may carry a lower interest rate.|
Explain how a down payment reduces the total amount financed and why this reduces the monthly payment and/or the length of the loan.
Explain why a borrower who has made a down payment has an incentive to repay a loan or make payments on time.
|SS.912.FL.4.8:|| Examine the fact that failure to repay a loan has significant consequences for borrowers such as negative entries on their credit report, repossession of property (collateral), garnishment of wages, and the inability to obtain loans in the future.|
Write a scenario about the future opportunities a person can lose by failing to repay loans as agreed.
|SS.912.FL.4.11:|| Explain that people often apply for a mortgage to purchase a home and identify a mortgage is a type of loan that is secured by real estate property as collateral.|
Predict what might happen should a homeowner fail to make his or her mortgage payments.
|SS.912.FL.4.12:|| Discuss that consumers who use credit should be aware of laws that are in place to protect them and that these include requirements to provide full disclosure of credit terms such as APR and fees, as well as protection against discrimination and abusive marketing or collection practices.|
Explain why it is important that consumers have full information about loans. Explain the information on a credit disclosure statement.
|SS.912.FL.5.1:|| Compare the ways that federal, state, and local tax rates vary on different types of investments. Describe the taxes effect on the after-tax rate of return of an investment.|
Given tax rates and inflation rates, calculate the real, after-tax rates of return for groups of stocks and bonds.
|SS.912.FL.5.2:|| Explain how the expenses of buying, selling, and holding financial assets decrease the rate of return from an investment.|
Identify and compare the administrative costs of several mutual funds and estimate the differences in the total amount accumulated after 10 years for each mutual fund, assuming identical market performance.
|SS.912.FL.5.4:|| Explain that an investment with greater risk than another investment will commonly have a lower market price, and therefore a higher rate of return, than the other investment.|
Explain why the expected rate of return on a “blue chip” stock is likely to be lower than that of an Internet start-up company.
|SS.912.FL.5.5:|| Explain that shorter-term investments will likely have lower rates of return than longer-term investments.|
Explain how markets will determine the rates of return for two bonds if one is a long-term bond and the other a short-term bond, assuming each bond pays the same rate of interest.
|SS.912.FL.5.6:|| Describe how diversifying investments in different types of financial assets can lower investment risk.|
Compare the risk faced by two investors, both of whom own two businesses on a beach. One investor owns a suntan lotion business and a rain umbrella business.
The other investor owns two suntan lotion businesses. Explain why a financial advisor might encourage a client to include stocks, bonds, and real estate assets in his or her portfolio.
|SS.912.FL.5.9:|| Examine why investors should be aware of tendencies that people have that may result in poor choices, which may include avoiding selling assets at a loss because they weigh losses more than they weigh gains and investing in financial assets with which they are familiar, such as their own employer’s stock or domestic rather than international stocks.|
Explain why investors may sell stocks that have gained in value, but hold ones that have lost value. Explain why this may not make sense.
Identify an example of why an investor may have a bias toward familiar investments and why this may or may not be a rational decision.
|SS.912.FL.6.3:|| Describe why people choose different amounts of insurance coverage based on their willingness to accept risk, as well as their occupation, lifestyle, age, financial profile, and the price of insurance.|
Given hypothetical profiles for three types of individuals who differ with respect to occupation, age, lifestyle, marital status, and financial profile, assess the types and levels of personal financial risk faced by each and make recommendations for appropriate insurance.
|SS.912.FL.6.7:|| Compare the purposes of various types of insurance, including that health insurance provides for funds to pay for health care in the event of illness and may also pay for the cost of preventative care; disability insurance is income insurance that provides funds to replace income lost while an individual is ill or injured and unable to work; property and casualty insurance pays for damage or loss to the insured’s property; life insurance benefits are paid to the insured’s beneficiaries in the event of the policyholder’s death.|
Compare the coverage and costs of hypothetical plans for a set of scenarios for various types of insurance.
|SS.912.FL.6.9:|| Explain that loss of assets, wealth, and future opportunities can occur if an individual’s personal information is obtained by others through identity theft and then used fraudulently, and that by managing their personal information and choosing the environment in which it is revealed, individuals can accept, reduce, and insure against the risk of loss due to identity theft.|
Describe problems that can occur when an individual is a victim of identity theft.
Give specific examples of how online transactions, online banking, email scams, and telemarketing calls can make consumers vulnerable to identity theft.
Describe the conditions under which individuals should and should not disclose their Social Security number, account numbers, or other sensitive personal information.
|LAFS.910.RST.1.3 (Archived Standard):|| Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks, attending to special cases or exceptions defined in the text. |
|LAFS.910.RST.2.4 (Archived Standard):|| Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 9–10 texts and topics. |
|LAFS.910.RST.3.7 (Archived Standard):|| Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words. |
|LAFS.910.SL.1.1 (Archived Standard):|| Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9–10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
- Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
- Work with peers to set rules for collegial discussions and decision-making (e.g., informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, presentation of alternate views), clear goals and deadlines, and individual roles as needed.
- Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.
- Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.
|LAFS.910.SL.1.2 (Archived Standard):|| Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source. |
|LAFS.910.SL.1.3 (Archived Standard):|| Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence. |
|LAFS.910.SL.2.4 (Archived Standard):|| Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task. |
|LAFS.910.WHST.1.1 (Archived Standard):|| Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content. |
- Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
- Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form and in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.
- Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
- Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
- Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented.
|LAFS.910.WHST.2.4 (Archived Standard):|| Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. |
|LAFS.910.WHST.3.9 (Archived Standard):|| Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. |
|ELD.K12.ELL.MA.1:|| English language learners communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Mathematics. |