|SS.912.P.1.1:|| Define psychology as a discipline and identify its goals as a science.|
Examples of goals may include, but are not limited to, describing behavior, explaining why behaviors and mental processes occur, predicting future events, controlling/changing behaviors and mental processes, and observation of behavioral and mental problems.
|SS.912.P.1.2:|| Describe the emergence of psychology as a scientific discipline.|
Topics may include, but are not limited to, Wilhelm Wundt, structuralism, functionalism, William James, Sigmund Freud, Gestalt psychology, Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, behaviorism, B.F. Skinner, humanistic psychology, Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers Jean Piaget.
|SS.912.P.1.3:|| Describe perspectives employed to understand behavior and mental processes.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, cognitive perspective, biological perspective, social-cultural perspective, behavioral perspective, humanistic perspective, psychodynamic perspective.
|SS.912.P.1.4:|| Discuss the value of both basic and applied psychological research with human and non-human animals.|
Topics may include, but are not limited to, scientific method, bias, observations, case studies, correlational studies, surveys, random samples, longitudinal studies, cross-sectional studies, independent variable, dependent variable, confounding variable, experimental group, control group, double-blind procedure, placebo, replication, ethics.
|SS.912.P.1.5:|| Describe the major subfields of psychology.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, biopsychology, clinical psychology, developmental psychology, forensic psychology, industrial-organizational psychology, personality psychology, social psychology, school psychology.
|SS.912.P.6.1:|| Explain the interaction of environmental and biological factors in development, including the role of the brain in all aspects of development.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, the concept of “nature v. nurture.”
|SS.912.P.6.2:|| Explain issues of continuity/discontinuity and stability/change. |
|SS.912.P.6.3:|| Distinguish methods used to study development.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, cross-sectional research, longitudinal research, data collection, observation, case studies, questionnaires, and experimentation.
|SS.912.P.6.4:|| Describe the role of sensitive and critical periods in development. |
|SS.912.P.6.5:|| Discuss issues related to the end of life.|
Topics may include, but are not limited to, role of culture, Hospice care.
|SS.912.P.6.6:|| Discuss theories of cognitive development.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, the theories of Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, and Benjamin Spock.
|SS.912.P.6.7:|| Discuss theories of moral development. |
|SS.912.P.6.8:|| Discuss theories of social development.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, the theories of Harry Harlow, Konrad Lorenz, Erik Erikson, and Sigmund Freud.
|SS.912.P.6.9:|| Describe physical development from conception through birth and identify influences on prenatal development.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, zygote, genes, embryo, fetus, and teratogens.
|SS.912.P.6.10:|| Describe newborns’ reflexes, temperament, and abilities.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, rooting reflex, grasping reflex, fetal alcohol syndrome.
|SS.912.P.6.11:|| Describe physical and motor development in infancy. |
|SS.912.P.6.12:|| Describe how infant perceptual abilities and intelligence develop. |
|SS.912.P.6.13:|| Describe the development of attachment and the role of the caregiver. |
|SS.912.P.6.14:|| Describe the development of communication and language in infancy. |
|SS.912.P.6.15:|| Describe physical and motor development in childhood. |
|SS.912.P.6.16:|| Describe how memory and thinking ability develops in childhood. |
|SS.912.P.7.1:|| Describe the principles of classical conditioning.|
Topics may include, but are not limited to, unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus, conditioned response, acquisition, extinction, and spontaneous recovery.
|SS.912.P.7.2:|| Describe clinical and experimental examples of classical conditioning. |
|SS.912.P.7.3:|| Apply classical conditioning to everyday life. |
|SS.912.P.7.4:|| Describe the Law of Effect. |
|SS.912.P.7.5:|| Describe the principles of operant conditioning.|
Topics may include, but are not limited to, Edward Thorndike, B.F. Skinner, reinforcement, punishment, positive reinforcement, and negative reinforcement, primary reinforcement, secondary reinforcement, and partial reinforcement.
|SS.912.P.7.6:|| Describe clinical and experimental examples of operant conditioning. |
|SS.912.P.7.7:|| Apply operant conditioning to everyday life. |
|SS.912.P.7.8:|| Describe the principles of observational and cognitive learning.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, Albert Bandura, modeling, attention, retention, replication, motivation, antisocial behavior, prosocial behavior.
|SS.912.P.7.9:|| Apply observational and cognitive learning to everyday life. |
|SS.912.P.8.1:|| Describe the structure and function of language.|
Topics may include, but are not limited to, phoneme, morpheme, and grammar.
|SS.912.P.8.2:|| Discuss the relationship between language and thought. |
|SS.912.P.8.3:|| Explain the process of language acquisition.|
Topics may include, but are not limited to, Noam Chomsky, B. F. Skinner, babbling, one-word stage, two-word stage, association, imitation, and rewards.
|SS.912.P.8.4:|| Discuss how acquisition of a second language can affect language development and possibly other cognitive processes. |
|SS.912.P.8.5:|| Evaluate the theories of language acquisition.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, environmental influences, neural networks, biological influences, nature and nurture, influence of culture, semantic slanting, name calling, and bilingualism.
|SS.912.P.8.6:|| Identify the brain structures associated with language.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, Broca’s area and Wernicke’s area.
|SS.912.P.8.7:|| Discuss how damage to the brain may affect language. |
|SS.912.P.11.1:|| Identify factors that influence encoding.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, list position, distributed v. mass rehearsal, semantic encoding, visual encoding, mnemonic devices, chunking and hierarchy.
|SS.912.P.11.2:|| Characterize the difference between shallow (surface) and deep (elaborate) processing. |
|SS.912.P.11.3:|| Discuss strategies for improving the encoding of memory. |
|SS.912.P.11.4:|| Describe the differences between working memory and long-term memory. |
|SS.912.P.11.5:|| Identify and explain biological processes related to how memory is stored.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, sensory memory, long term potentiation, explicit memories, and implicit memories.
|SS.912.P.11.6:|| Discuss types of memory and memory disorders (e.g., amnesias, dementias).|
Examples may also include, but are not limited to, sensory, short-term, working,long-term, Alzheimer’s disease, brain injury, Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and stress.
|SS.912.P.11.7:|| Discuss strategies for improving the storage of memories. |
|SS.912.P.11.8:|| Analyze the importance of retrieval cues in memory.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, recall, recollection, recognition, and relearning.
|SS.912.P.11.9:|| Explain the role that interference plays in retrieval.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, proactive interference and retroactive interference.
|SS.912.P.11.10:|| Discuss the factors influencing how memories are retrieved.|
Topics may include, but are not limited to, context theory and state-dependent memory.
|SS.912.P.11.11:|| Explain how memories can be malleable. |
|SS.912.P.11.12:|| Discuss strategies for improving the retrieval of memories. |
|SS.912.P.12.1:|| Define cognitive processes involved in understanding information.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, encoding, storage, and retrieval.
|SS.912.P.12.2:|| Define processes involved in problem solving and decision making.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, identification, analysis, solution generation, plan, implement, and evaluate.
|SS.912.P.12.3:|| Discuss non-human problem-solving abilities. |
|SS.912.P.12.4:|| Describe obstacles to problem solving.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, fixation and functional fixedness.
|SS.912.P.12.5:|| Describe obstacles to decision making.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, confirmation bias, counterproductive heuristics, and overconfidence.
|SS.912.P.12.6:|| Describe obstacles to making good judgments.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, framing and belief perseverance.
|SS.912.P.16.1:|| Evaluate psychodynamic theories. |
|SS.912.P.16.2:|| Evaluate trait theories. |
|SS.912.P.16.3:|| Evaluate humanistic theories. |
|SS.912.P.16.4:|| Evaluate social-cognitive theories. |
|SS.912.P.16.5:|| Differentiate personality assessment techniques.|
Topics may include, but are not limited to Freud, Adler, Jung, Horney, thematic appreciation test, and Rorschach inkblot test.
|SS.912.P.16.6:|| Discuss the reliability and validity of personality assessment techniques. |
|SS.912.P.16.7:|| Discuss biological and situational influences. |
|SS.912.P.16.8:|| Discuss stability and change. |
|SS.912.P.16.9:|| Discuss connection to health and work on personality. |
|SS.912.P.16.10:|| Discuss self-concept. |
|SS.912.P.16.11:|| Analyze how individualistic and collectivistic cultural perspectives relate to personality. |
|SS.912.P.17.1:|| Define psychologically abnormal behavior. |
|SS.912.P.17.2:|| Describe historical and cross-cultural views of abnormality. |
|SS.912.P.17.3:|| Describe major models of abnormality.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, medical model and bio-psycho-social model
|SS.912.P.17.4:|| Discuss how stigma relates to abnormal behavior. |
|SS.912.P.17.5:|| Discuss the impact of psychological disorders on the individual, family, and society. |
|SS.912.P.17.6:|| Describe the classification of psychological disorders. |
|SS.912.P.17.7:|| Discuss the challenges associated with diagnosis. |
|SS.912.P.17.8:|| Describe symptoms and causes of major categories of psychological disorders (including schizophrenic, mood, anxiety, and personality disorders).|
Examples may also include, but are not limited to, dissociative disorders and schizophrenia.
|SS.912.P.17.9:|| Evaluate how different factors influence an individual’s experience of psychological disorders. |
|SS.912.P.18.1:|| Explain how psychological treatments have changed over time and among cultures. |
|SS.912.P.18.2:|| Match methods of treatment to psychological perspectives. |
|SS.912.P.18.3:|| Explain why psychologists use a variety of treatment options. |
|SS.912.P.18.4:|| Identify biomedical treatments.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, aversive conditioning, drug therapy, electroconvulsive therapy, and psychosurgery.
|SS.912.P.18.5:|| Identify psychological treatments.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, psychotherapy, psychoanalysis, client-centered therapy, active listening, behavior therapy, systematic desensitization, token economy, cognitive therapy, family therapy, therapeutic touch therapy, and light exposure therapy.
|SS.912.P.18.6:|| Describe appropriate treatments for different age groups. |
|SS.912.P.18.7:|| Evaluate the efficacy of treatments for particular disorders. |
|SS.912.P.18.8:|| Identify other factors that improve the efficacy of treatment. |
|SS.912.P.18.9:|| Identify treatment providers for psychological disorders and the training required for each. |
|SS.912.P.18.10:|| Identify ethical challenges involved in delivery of treatment. |
|SS.912.P.19.1:|| Define stress as a psychophysiological reaction. |
|SS.912.P.19.2:|| Identify and explain potential sources of stress.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, physical illness, major work or family events, debt, unemployment, lack of ability to accept uncertainty, negativity, perfectionism, low self-esteem, and loneliness.
|SS.912.P.19.3:|| Explain physiological and psychological consequences of stress for health. |
|SS.912.P.19.4:|| Identify and explain physiological, cognitive, and behavioral strategies to deal with stress.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to healthy lifestyles, positive experiences, sense of well-being, and overcoming illness-related behaviors.
|SS.912.P.19.5:|| Identify ways to promote mental health and physical fitness. |
|SS.912.P.19.6:|| Describe the characteristics of and factors that promote resilience and optimism. |
|SS.912.P.19.7:|| Distinguish between effective and ineffective means of dealing with stressors and other health issues. |
|MA.K12.MTR.1.1:|| Actively participate in effortful learning both individually and collectively. |
Mathematicians who participate in effortful learning both individually and with others:
- Analyze the problem in a way that makes sense given the task.
- Ask questions that will help with solving the task.
- Build perseverance by modifying methods as needed while solving a challenging task.
- Stay engaged and maintain a positive mindset when working to solve tasks.
- Help and support each other when attempting a new method or approach.
Teachers who encourage students to participate actively in effortful learning both individually and with others:
- Cultivate a community of growth mindset learners.
- Foster perseverance in students by choosing tasks that are challenging.
- Develop students’ ability to analyze and problem solve.
- Recognize students’ effort when solving challenging problems.
|MA.K12.MTR.2.1:|| Demonstrate understanding by representing problems in multiple ways. |
Mathematicians who demonstrate understanding by representing problems in multiple ways:
- Build understanding through modeling and using manipulatives.
- Represent solutions to problems in multiple ways using objects, drawings, tables, graphs and equations.
- Progress from modeling problems with objects and drawings to using algorithms and equations.
- Express connections between concepts and representations.
- Choose a representation based on the given context or purpose.
Teachers who encourage students to demonstrate understanding by representing problems in multiple ways:
- Help students make connections between concepts and representations.
- Provide opportunities for students to use manipulatives when investigating concepts.
- Guide students from concrete to pictorial to abstract representations as understanding progresses.
- Show students that various representations can have different purposes and can be useful in different situations.
|MA.K12.MTR.3.1:|| Complete tasks with mathematical fluency. |
Mathematicians who complete tasks with mathematical fluency:
- Select efficient and appropriate methods for solving problems within the given context.
- Maintain flexibility and accuracy while performing procedures and mental calculations.
- Complete tasks accurately and with confidence.
- Adapt procedures to apply them to a new context.
- Use feedback to improve efficiency when performing calculations.
Teachers who encourage students to complete tasks with mathematical fluency:
- Provide students with the flexibility to solve problems by selecting a procedure that allows them to solve efficiently and accurately.
- Offer multiple opportunities for students to practice efficient and generalizable methods.
- Provide opportunities for students to reflect on the method they used and determine if a more efficient method could have been used.
|MA.K12.MTR.4.1:|| Engage in discussions that reflect on the mathematical thinking of self and others. |
Mathematicians who engage in discussions that reflect on the mathematical thinking of self and others:
- Communicate mathematical ideas, vocabulary and methods effectively.
- Analyze the mathematical thinking of others.
- Compare the efficiency of a method to those expressed by others.
- Recognize errors and suggest how to correctly solve the task.
- Justify results by explaining methods and processes.
- Construct possible arguments based on evidence.
Teachers who encourage students to engage in discussions that reflect on the mathematical thinking of self and others:
- Establish a culture in which students ask questions of the teacher and their peers, and error is an opportunity for learning.
- Create opportunities for students to discuss their thinking with peers.
- Select, sequence and present student work to advance and deepen understanding of correct and increasingly efficient methods.
- Develop students’ ability to justify methods and compare their responses to the responses of their peers.
|MA.K12.MTR.5.1:|| Use patterns and structure to help understand and connect mathematical concepts. |
Mathematicians who use patterns and structure to help understand and connect mathematical concepts:
- Focus on relevant details within a problem.
- Create plans and procedures to logically order events, steps or ideas to solve problems.
- Decompose a complex problem into manageable parts.
- Relate previously learned concepts to new concepts.
- Look for similarities among problems.
- Connect solutions of problems to more complicated large-scale situations.
Teachers who encourage students to use patterns and structure to help understand and connect mathematical concepts:
- Help students recognize the patterns in the world around them and connect these patterns to mathematical concepts.
- Support students to develop generalizations based on the similarities found among problems.
- Provide opportunities for students to create plans and procedures to solve problems.
- Develop students’ ability to construct relationships between their current understanding and more sophisticated ways of thinking.
|MA.K12.MTR.6.1:|| Assess the reasonableness of solutions. |
Mathematicians who assess the reasonableness of solutions:
- Estimate to discover possible solutions.
- Use benchmark quantities to determine if a solution makes sense.
- Check calculations when solving problems.
- Verify possible solutions by explaining the methods used.
- Evaluate results based on the given context.
Teachers who encourage students to assess the reasonableness of solutions:
- Have students estimate or predict solutions prior to solving.
- Prompt students to continually ask, “Does this solution make sense? How do you know?”
- Reinforce that students check their work as they progress within and after a task.
- Strengthen students’ ability to verify solutions through justifications.
|MA.K12.MTR.7.1:|| Apply mathematics to real-world contexts. |
Mathematicians who apply mathematics to real-world contexts:
- Connect mathematical concepts to everyday experiences.
- Use models and methods to understand, represent and solve problems.
- Perform investigations to gather data or determine if a method is appropriate.
• Redesign models and methods to improve accuracy or efficiency.
Teachers who encourage students to apply mathematics to real-world contexts:
- Provide opportunities for students to create models, both concrete and abstract, and perform investigations.
- Challenge students to question the accuracy of their models and methods.
- Support students as they validate conclusions by comparing them to the given situation.
- Indicate how various concepts can be applied to other disciplines.
|ELA.K12.EE.1.1:|| Cite evidence to explain and justify reasoning.|
K-1 Students include textual evidence in their oral communication with guidance and support from adults. The evidence can consist of details from the text without naming the text. During 1st grade, students learn how to incorporate the evidence in their writing.
2-3 Students include relevant textual evidence in their written and oral communication. Students should name the text when they refer to it. In 3rd grade, students should use a combination of direct and indirect citations.
4-5 Students continue with previous skills and reference comments made by speakers and peers. Students cite texts that they’ve directly quoted, paraphrased, or used for information. When writing, students will use the form of citation dictated by the instructor or the style guide referenced by the instructor.
6-8 Students continue with previous skills and use a style guide to create a proper citation.
9-12 Students continue with previous skills and should be aware of existing style guides and the ways in which they differ.
|ELA.K12.EE.2.1:|| Read and comprehend grade-level complex texts proficiently.|
See Text Complexity for grade-level complexity bands and a text complexity rubric.
|ELA.K12.EE.3.1:|| Make inferences to support comprehension.|
Students will make inferences before the words infer or inference are introduced. Kindergarten students will answer questions like “Why is the girl smiling?” or make predictions about what will happen based on the title page.
Students will use the terms and apply them in 2nd grade and beyond.
|ELA.K12.EE.4.1:|| Use appropriate collaborative techniques and active listening skills when engaging in discussions in a variety of situations.|
In kindergarten, students learn to listen to one another respectfully.
In grades 1-2, students build upon these skills by justifying what they are thinking. For example: “I think ________ because _______.” The collaborative conversations are becoming academic conversations.
In grades 3-12, students engage in academic conversations discussing claims and justifying their reasoning, refining and applying skills. Students build on ideas, propel the conversation, and support claims and counterclaims with evidence.
|ELA.K12.EE.5.1:|| Use the accepted rules governing a specific format to create quality work.|
Students will incorporate skills learned into work products to produce quality work. For students to incorporate these skills appropriately, they must receive instruction. A 3rd grade student creating a poster board display must have instruction in how to effectively present information to do quality work.
|ELA.K12.EE.6.1:|| Use appropriate voice and tone when speaking or writing.|
In kindergarten and 1st grade, students learn the difference between formal and informal language. For example, the way we talk to our friends differs from the way we speak to adults. In 2nd grade and beyond, students practice appropriate social and academic language to discuss texts.
|ELD.K12.ELL.SI.1:|| English language learners communicate for social and instructional purposes within the school setting. |
|ELD.K12.ELL.SS.1:|| English language learners communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Social Studies. |
|HE.912.C.2.4:|| Evaluate how public health policies and government regulations can influence health promotion and disease prevention.|
Seat-belt enforcement, underage alcohol sales, reporting communicable diseases, child care, and AED availability.