|ELA.12.C.1.2:|| Write complex narratives using appropriate techniques to establish multiple perspectives and convey universal themes. |
|ELA.12.C.1.3:|| Write arguments to support claims based on an in-depth analysis of topics or texts using valid reasoning and credible evidence from sources, elaboration, and demonstrating a thorough understanding of the subject.|
Clarification 1: See Writing Types and Elaborative Techniques.
Clarification 2: These written works will take longer and are meant to reflect thorough research and analysis.
|ELA.12.C.1.4:|| Write an in-depth analysis of complex texts using logical organization and appropriate tone and voice, demonstrating a thorough understanding of the subject. |
|ELA.12.C.1.5:|| Improve writing by considering feedback from adults, peers, and/or online editing tools, revising to enhance purpose, clarity, structure, and style. |
|ELA.12.C.2.1:|| Present information orally, with a logical organization, coherent focus, and credible evidence while employing effective rhetorical devices where appropriate.|
Clarification 1: At this grade level, the emphasis is on the content, but students are still expected to follow earlier expectations: appropriate volume, pronunciation, and pacing. Students will be using rhetorical devices as introduced in the 11th grade benchmark. Added to this grade level is a responsiveness to the needs of the audience and adapting to audience response. Students will read the nonverbal cues of the audience to do this. Students first learned nonverbal cues in elementary for this benchmark.
Clarification 2: For further guidance, see the Secondary Oral Communication Rubric.
|ELA.12.C.3.1:|| Follow the rules of standard English grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling appropriate to grade level. |
|ELA.12.C.4.1:|| Conduct research on a topical issue to answer a question and synthesize information from a variety of sources.|
Clarification 1: While the benchmark does require that students consult multiple sources, there is no requirement that they use every source they consult. Part of the skill in researching is discernment—being able to tell which information is relevant and which sources are trustworthy enough to include.
|ELA.12.C.5.1:|| Design and evaluate digital presentations for effectiveness.|
Clarification 1: The presentation may be delivered live or delivered as a stand-alone digital experience.
|ELA.12.C.5.2:|| Create, publish, and share multimedia texts through a variety of digital formats. |
|ELA.12.R.1.1:|| Evaluate how key elements enhance or add layers of meaning and/or style in a literary text and explain the functional significance of those elements in interpreting the text.|
Clarification 1: Key elements of a literary text are setting, plot, characterization, conflict, point of view, theme, and tone.
Clarification 2: For layers of meaning, any methodology or model may be used as long as students understand that text may have multiple layers and that authors use techniques to achieve those layers. A very workable model for looking at layers of meaning is that of I.A. Richards:
Layer 1) the literal level, what the words actually mean
Layer 2) mood, those feelings that are evoked in the reader
Layer 3) tone, the author’s attitude
Layer 4) author’s purpose (interpretation of author’s purpose as it is often inferred)
Clarification 3: Style is the way in which the writer uses techniques for effect. It is distinct from meaning, but can be used to make the author’s message more effective. The components of style are diction, syntax, grammar, and use of figurative language. Style helps to create the author’s voice.
Clarification 4: Functional significance refers to the role each element plays in creating meaning or effect for the reader.
|ELA.12.R.1.2:|| Analyze two or more themes and evaluate their development throughout a literary text.|
Clarification 1: For the purposes of this benchmark, theme is not a one- or two-word topic, but a complete thought that communicates the author’s message.
|ELA.12.R.1.3:|| Evaluate the development of character perspective, including conflicting perspectives.|
Clarification 1: The term perspective means “a particular attitude toward or way of regarding something.” The term point of view is used when referring to the person of the narrator. This is to prevent confusion and conflation.
|ELA.12.R.1.4:|| Evaluate works of major poets in their historical context.|
Sample poets for this benchmark include:
Clarification 1: A poet’s historical context is the period in which the writing occurred, not when it was discovered or became resurgent.
- Emily Dickinson
- Langston Hughes
- Robert Frost
- Phillis Wheatley
- Edna St. Vincent Millay
- Countee Cullen
- Robert Burns
- Percy Bysshe Shelley
Clarification 2: Evaluation of a poet in context may include similarity to or differences from the work of contemporaries and the literary period, critical reception at the time, and scope of work.
Clarification 3: For more information, see Literary Periods.
|ELA.12.R.2.1:|| Evaluate the structure(s) and features in texts, identifying how the author could make the text(s) more effective.|
Clarification 1: Students will evaluate the use of the following structures: description, problem/solution, chronological, compare and contrast, cause and effect, and sequence.
Clarification 2: Students will evaluate the use of the following features: table of contents, headings, captions, photographs, graphs, charts, illustrations, glossary, footnotes, annotations, and appendix.
|ELA.12.R.2.2:|| Evaluate how an author develops the central idea(s), identifying how the author could make the support more effective. |
|ELA.12.R.2.3:|| Evaluate an author’s choices in establishing and achieving purpose(s). |
|ELA.12.R.2.4:|| Compare the development of multiple arguments in related texts, evaluating the validity of the claims, the authors’ reasoning, use of the same information, and/or the authors’ rhetoric. |
|ELA.12.R.3.1:|| Evaluate an author’s use of figurative language.|
Clarification 1: Figurative language use that students will evaluate are metaphor, simile, alliteration, onomatopoeia, personification, hyperbole, meiosis (understatement), allusion, and idiom. Other examples can be used in instruction.
Clarification 2: See Secondary Figurative Language.
|ELA.12.R.3.2:|| Paraphrase content from grade-level texts.|
Clarification 1: Most grade-level texts are appropriate for this benchmark.
|ELA.12.R.3.3:|| Analyze the influence of classic literature on contemporary world texts.|
Clarification 1: Classic literature for this benchmark should be drawn from and representative of the following periods:
Clarification 2: Contemporary world texts are those written after World War II that, through quality of form and expression, convey ideas of permanent or universal interest.
- Classical Period (1200 BCE–455 CE)
- Medieval Period (455 CE–1485 CE)
- Renaissance Period (1300–1600)
- Restoration and 18th Century (1660–1790) British Literature
- Colonial and Early National Period (1600–1830) American Literature
- Romantic Period (1790–1870)
- Realism and Naturalism Period (1870–1930)
- Modernist Period (1910–1945)
|ELA.12.R.3.4:|| Evaluate rhetorical choices across multiple texts.|
Clarification 1: Students will evaluate the appropriateness of appeals and the effectiveness of devices. In this grade level, students are using and responsible for all four appeals; kairos was added in 11th grade. This differs from the 11th grade benchmark in that it is comparing the effectiveness of multiple texts.
Clarification 2: Rhetorical devices for the purposes of this benchmark are the figurative language devices from 11.R.3.1 with the addition of irony, rhetorical question, antithesis, zeugma, metonymy, synecdoche, asyndeton, and chiasmus.
Clarification 3: See Secondary Figurative Language.
Clarification 4: See Rhetorical Appeals and Rhetorical Devices.
|ELA.12.V.1.1:|| Integrate academic vocabulary appropriate to grade level in speaking and writing.|
Clarification 1: To integrate vocabulary, students will apply the vocabulary they have learned to authentic speaking and writing tasks independently. This use should be intentional, beyond responding to a prompt to use a word in a sentence.
Clarification 2: Academic vocabulary appropriate to grade level refers to words that are likely to appear across subject areas for the current grade level and beyond, vital to comprehension, critical for academic discussions and writing, and usually require explicit instruction.
|ELA.12.V.1.2:|| Apply knowledge of etymology, derivations, and commonly used foreign phrases to determine meanings of words and phrases in grade-level content.|
Clarification 1: Etymology refers to the study of word origins and the ways that words have changed over time.
Clarification 2: Derivation refers to making new words from an existing word by adding affixes.
Clarification 3: See Foreign Words and Phrases for a list of commonly used foreign phrases.
|ELA.12.V.1.3:|| Apply knowledge of context clues, figurative language, word relationships, reference materials, and/or background knowledge to determine the connotative and denotative meaning of words and phrases, appropriate to grade level. |
|ELA.K12.EE.1.1:|| Cite evidence to explain and justify reasoning.|
K-1 Students include textual evidence in their oral communication with guidance and support from adults. The evidence can consist of details from the text without naming the text. During 1st grade, students learn how to incorporate the evidence in their writing.
2-3 Students include relevant textual evidence in their written and oral communication. Students should name the text when they refer to it. In 3rd grade, students should use a combination of direct and indirect citations.
4-5 Students continue with previous skills and reference comments made by speakers and peers. Students cite texts that they’ve directly quoted, paraphrased, or used for information. When writing, students will use the form of citation dictated by the instructor or the style guide referenced by the instructor.
6-8 Students continue with previous skills and use a style guide to create a proper citation.
9-12 Students continue with previous skills and should be aware of existing style guides and the ways in which they differ.
|ELA.K12.EE.2.1:|| Read and comprehend grade-level complex texts proficiently.|
See Text Complexity for grade-level complexity bands and a text complexity rubric.
|ELA.K12.EE.3.1:|| Make inferences to support comprehension.|
Students will make inferences before the words infer or inference are introduced. Kindergarten students will answer questions like “Why is the girl smiling?” or make predictions about what will happen based on the title page.
Students will use the terms and apply them in 2nd grade and beyond.
|ELA.K12.EE.4.1:|| Use appropriate collaborative techniques and active listening skills when engaging in discussions in a variety of situations.|
In kindergarten, students learn to listen to one another respectfully.
In grades 1-2, students build upon these skills by justifying what they are thinking. For example: “I think ________ because _______.” The collaborative conversations are becoming academic conversations.
In grades 3-12, students engage in academic conversations discussing claims and justifying their reasoning, refining and applying skills. Students build on ideas, propel the conversation, and support claims and counterclaims with evidence.
|ELA.K12.EE.5.1:|| Use the accepted rules governing a specific format to create quality work.|
Students will incorporate skills learned into work products to produce quality work. For students to incorporate these skills appropriately, they must receive instruction. A 3rd grade student creating a poster board display must have instruction in how to effectively present information to do quality work.
|ELA.K12.EE.6.1:|| Use appropriate voice and tone when speaking or writing.|
In kindergarten and 1st grade, students learn the difference between formal and informal language. For example, the way we talk to our friends differs from the way we speak to adults. In 2nd grade and beyond, students practice appropriate social and academic language to discuss texts.
|ELD.K12.ELL.LA.1:|| English language learners communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Language Arts. |
|ELD.K12.ELL.SI.1:|| English language learners communicate for social and instructional purposes within the school setting. |
English Language Arts is not a discrete set of skills, but a rich discipline with meaningful, significant content, the knowledge of which helps all students actively and fully participate in our society.
Standards should not stand alone as a separate focus for instruction, but should be combined purposefully.
The texts students read should be meaningful and thought-provoking, preparing them to be informed, civic-minded members of their community.
Curricular content for all subjects must integrate critical-thinking, problem-solving, and workforce-literacy skills; communication, reading, and writing skills; mathematics skills; collaboration skills; contextual and applied-learning skills; technology-literacy skills; information and media-literacy skills; and civic-engagement skills.
English Language Development ELD Standards Special Notes Section:
Teachers are required to provide listening, speaking, reading and writing instruction that allows English language learners (ELL) to communicate information, ideas and concepts for academic success in the content area of Language Arts. For the given level of English language proficiency and with visual, graphic, or interactive support, students will interact with grade level words, expressions, sentences and discourse to process or produce language necessary for academic success. The ELD standard should specify a relevant content area concept or topic of study chosen by curriculum developers and teachers which maximizes an ELL’s need for communication and social skills. To access an ELL supporting document which delineates performance definitions and descriptors, please click on the following link: https://cpalmsmediaprod.blob.core.windows.net/uploads/docs/standards/eld/la.pdf