|ELA.10.C.1.2:|| Write narratives using an appropriate pace to create tension, mood, and/or tone. |
|ELA.10.C.1.3:|| Write to argue a position, supporting claims using logical reasoning and credible evidence from multiple sources, rebutting counterclaims with relevant evidence, using a logical organizational structure, elaboration, purposeful transitions, and maintaining a formal and objective tone. |
|ELA.10.C.1.4:|| Write expository texts to explain and analyze information from multiple sources, using a logical organization, purposeful transitions, and a tone and voice appropriate to the task. |
|ELA.10.C.1.5:|| Improve writing by considering feedback from adults, peers, and/or online editing tools, revising to address the needs of a specific audience. |
|ELA.10.C.2.1:|| Present information orally, with a logical organization and coherent focus, with credible evidence, creating a clear perspective.|
Clarification 1: At this grade level, the emphasis is on the content, but students are still expected to follow earlier expectations: volume, pronunciation, and pacing. A clear perspective is the through-line that unites the elements of the presentation.
Clarification 2: For further guidance, see the Secondary Oral Communication Rubric.
|ELA.10.C.3.1:|| Follow the rules of standard English grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling appropriate to grade level.|
Clarification 1: Skills to be mastered at this grade level are as follows:
Skills to be implemented but not yet mastered are as follows:
- Add variety to writing or presentations by using parallel structure and various types of phrases and clauses.
Clarification 2: See Convention Progression by Grade Level for more information.
- Use knowledge of usage rules to create flow in writing and presenting.
|ELA.10.C.4.1:|| Conduct research to answer a question, refining the scope of the question to align with findings, and synthesizing information from multiple reliable and valid sources.|
Clarification 1: While the benchmark does require that students consult multiple sources, there is no requirement that they use every source they consult. Part of the skill in researching is discernment—being able to tell which information is relevant and which sources are trustworthy enough to include.
|ELA.10.C.5.1:|| Create digital presentations to improve understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence.|
Clarification 1: The presentation may be delivered live or delivered as a stand-alone digital experience.
|ELA.10.C.5.2:|| Use online collaborative platforms to create and export publication-ready quality writing tailored to a specific audience, integrating multimedia elements. |
|ELA.10.R.1.1:|| Analyze how key elements enhance or add layers of meaning and/or style in a literary text.|
Clarification 1: Key elements of a literary text are setting, plot, characterization, conflict, point of view, theme, and tone.
Clarification 2: For layers of meaning, any methodology or model may be used as long as students understand that text may have multiple layers and that authors use techniques to achieve those layers. A very workable model for looking at layers of meaning is that of I.A. Richards:
Layer 1) the literal level, what the words actually mean
Layer 2) mood, those feelings that are evoked in the reader
Layer 3) tone, the author’s attitude
Layer 4) author’s purpose (interpretation of author’s purpose as it is often inferred).
Clarification 3: Style is the way in which the writer uses techniques for effect. It is distinct from meaning but can be used to make the author’s message more effective. The components of style are diction, syntax, grammar, and use of figurative language. Style helps to create the author’s voice.
|ELA.10.R.1.2:|| Analyze and compare universal themes and their development throughout a literary text.|
Clarification 1: A universal theme is an idea that applies to anyone, anywhere, regardless of cultural differences. Examples include but are not limited to an individual’s or a community’s confrontation with nature; an individual’s struggle toward understanding, awareness, and/or spiritual enlightenment; the tension between the ideal and the real; the conflict between human beings and advancements in technology/science; the impact of the past on the present; the inevitability of fate; the struggle for equality; and the loss of innocence.
|ELA.10.R.1.3:|| Analyze coming of age experiences reflected in a text and how the author represents conflicting perspectives. |
|ELA.10.R.1.4:|| Analyze how authors create multiple layers of meaning and/or ambiguity in a poem. |
|ELA.10.R.2.1:|| Analyze the impact of multiple text structures and the use of features in text(s).|
Clarification 1: Students will evaluate the use of the following structures: description, problem/solution, chronological, compare and contrast, cause and effect, and sequence.
Clarification 2: Students will evaluate the use of the following features: table of contents, headings, captions, photographs, graphs, charts, illustrations, glossary, footnotes, annotations, and appendix.
|ELA.10.R.2.2:|| Analyze the central idea(s) of historical American speeches and essays. |
|ELA.10.R.2.3:|| Analyze an author’s choices in establishing and achieving purpose(s) in historical American speeches and essays.|
Clarification 1: In this grade level, students are using and responsible for the appeals of logos, ethos, and pathos.
Clarification 2: See Rhetorical Appeals and Rhetorical Devices.
|ELA.10.R.2.4:|| Compare the development of two opposing arguments on the same topic, evaluating the effectiveness and validity of the claims, and analyzing the ways in which the authors use the same information to achieve different ends.|
Clarification 1: Validity refers to the soundness of the arguments.
|ELA.10.R.3.1:|| Analyze how figurative language creates mood in text(s).|
Clarification 1: Figurative language use that students will analyze are metaphor, simile, alliteration, onomatopoeia, personification, hyperbole, meiosis (understatement), allusion, and idiom. Other examples can be used in instruction.
Clarification 2: See Secondary Figurative Language.
|ELA.10.R.3.2:|| Paraphrase content from grade-level texts.|
Clarification 1: Most grade-level texts are appropriate for this benchmark.
|ELA.10.R.3.3:|| Analyze how mythical, classical, or religious texts have been adapted.|
Clarification 1: The classical source texts for this benchmark should be from ancient Greece or Rome’s Classical period (1200 BCE–455 CE). Mythical texts for this benchmark can be from any civilization’s early history. Religious texts for this benchmark include works such as the Bible.
|ELA.10.R.3.4:|| Analyze an author’s use of rhetoric in a text.|
Clarification 1: Students will analyze the appropriateness of appeals and the effectiveness of devices. In this grade level, students are using and responsible for the appeals of logos, ethos, and pathos.
Clarification 2: Rhetorical devices for the purposes of this benchmark are the figurative language devices from 10.R.3.1 with the addition of irony, rhetorical question, antithesis, zeugma, metonymy, synecdoche, and asyndeton.
|ELA.10.V.1.1:|| Integrate academic vocabulary appropriate to grade level in speaking and writing.|
Clarification 1: To integrate vocabulary, students will apply the vocabulary they have learned to authentic speaking and writing tasks independently. This use should be intentional, beyond responding to a prompt to use a word in a sentence.
Clarification 2: Academic vocabulary appropriate to grade level refers to words that are likely to appear across subject areas for the current grade level and beyond, vital to comprehension, critical for academic discussions and writing, and usually require explicit instruction.
|ELA.10.V.1.2:|| Apply knowledge of etymology and derivations to determine meanings of words and phrases in grade-level content.|
Clarification 1: Etymology refers to the study of word origins and the ways that words have changed over time.
Clarification 2: Derivation refers to making new words from an existing word by adding affixes.
|ELA.10.V.1.3:|| Apply knowledge of context clues, figurative language, word relationships, reference materials, and/or background knowledge to determine the connotative and denotative meaning of words and phrases, appropriate to grade level. |
|ELA.K12.EE.1.1:|| Cite evidence to explain and justify reasoning.|
K-1 Students include textual evidence in their oral communication with guidance and support from adults. The evidence can consist of details from the text without naming the text. During 1st grade, students learn how to incorporate the evidence in their writing.
2-3 Students include relevant textual evidence in their written and oral communication. Students should name the text when they refer to it. In 3rd grade, students should use a combination of direct and indirect citations.
4-5 Students continue with previous skills and reference comments made by speakers and peers. Students cite texts that they’ve directly quoted, paraphrased, or used for information. When writing, students will use the form of citation dictated by the instructor or the style guide referenced by the instructor.
6-8 Students continue with previous skills and use a style guide to create a proper citation.
9-12 Students continue with previous skills and should be aware of existing style guides and the ways in which they differ.
|ELA.K12.EE.2.1:|| Read and comprehend grade-level complex texts proficiently.|
See Text Complexity for grade-level complexity bands and a text complexity rubric.
|ELA.K12.EE.3.1:|| Make inferences to support comprehension.|
Students will make inferences before the words infer or inference are introduced. Kindergarten students will answer questions like “Why is the girl smiling?” or make predictions about what will happen based on the title page.
Students will use the terms and apply them in 2nd grade and beyond.
|ELA.K12.EE.4.1:|| Use appropriate collaborative techniques and active listening skills when engaging in discussions in a variety of situations.|
In kindergarten, students learn to listen to one another respectfully.
In grades 1-2, students build upon these skills by justifying what they are thinking. For example: “I think ________ because _______.” The collaborative conversations are becoming academic conversations.
In grades 3-12, students engage in academic conversations discussing claims and justifying their reasoning, refining and applying skills. Students build on ideas, propel the conversation, and support claims and counterclaims with evidence.
|ELA.K12.EE.5.1:|| Use the accepted rules governing a specific format to create quality work.|
Students will incorporate skills learned into work products to produce quality work. For students to incorporate these skills appropriately, they must receive instruction. A 3rd grade student creating a poster board display must have instruction in how to effectively present information to do quality work.
|ELA.K12.EE.6.1:|| Use appropriate voice and tone when speaking or writing.|
In kindergarten and 1st grade, students learn the difference between formal and informal language. For example, the way we talk to our friends differs from the way we speak to adults. In 2nd grade and beyond, students practice appropriate social and academic language to discuss texts.
|ELD.K12.ELL.LA.1:|| English language learners communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Language Arts. |
|ELD.K12.ELL.SI.1:|| English language learners communicate for social and instructional purposes within the school setting. |
English Language Arts is not a discrete set of skills, but a rich discipline with meaningful, significant content, the knowledge of which helps all students actively and fully participate in our society.
Standards should not stand alone as a separate focus for instruction, but should be combined purposefully.
The texts students read should be meaningful and thought-provoking, preparing them to be informed, civic-minded members of their community.
Curricular content for all subjects must integrate critical-thinking, problem-solving, and workforce-literacy skills; communication, reading, and writing skills; mathematics skills; collaboration skills; contextual and applied-learning skills; technology-literacy skills; information and media-literacy skills; and civic-engagement skills.
English Language Development ELD Standards Special Notes Section:
Teachers are required to provide listening, speaking, reading and writing instruction that allows English language learners (ELL) to communicate information, ideas and concepts for academic success in the content area of Language Arts. For the given level of English language proficiency and with visual, graphic, or interactive support, students will interact with grade level words, expressions, sentences and discourse to process or produce language necessary for academic success. The ELD standard should specify a relevant content area concept or topic of study chosen by curriculum developers and teachers which maximizes an ELL’s need for communication and social skills. To access an ELL supporting document which delineates performance definitions and descriptors, please click on the following link: