Functional Basic Skills in Communications-Elementary (#5010030) 


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Course Standards


Name Description
ELA.1.C.1.1: Print all upper- and lowercase letters.
Clarifications:
Clarification 1: Students should have adequate spacing between letters and/or words.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.1.C.1.2: Write narratives that retell two or more appropriately sequenced events, including relevant details and a sense of closure.
Clarifications:
Clarification 1: See Writing Types.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.1.C.1.3: Write opinions about a topic or text with at least one supporting reason from a source and a sense of closure.
Clarifications:
Clarification 1: See Writing Types.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.1.C.1.4: Write expository texts about a topic, using a source, providing facts and a sense of closure.
Clarifications:
Clarification 1: See Writing Types.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.1.C.1.5: With guidance and support from adults, improve writing, as needed, by planning, revising, and editing.
Clarifications:
Clarification 1: As needed refers to the fact that sometimes instruction will focus on a specific skill or part of the process. In those instances, only the applicable activity will be engaged in.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.1.C.2.1: Present information orally using complete sentences and appropriate volume.
Clarifications:
Clarification 1: For further guidance, see the Elementary Oral Communication Rubric.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.1.C.3.1: Follow the rules of standard English grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling appropriate to grade level.
Clarifications:
Clarification 1: Skills to be mastered at this grade level are as follows: 
  • Capitalize proper nouns. 
  • Form and use simple verb tenses for regular verbs by adding the affix -ed. 
  • Form and use complete simple sentences. 
  • Use possessives. 
  • Use subject-verb agreement in simple sentences. 
Skills to be implemented but not yet mastered are as follows: 
  • Form plurals -y to -ies. 
  • Conjugate regular and irregular verb tenses. 
  • Form and use regular and frequently occurring irregular plural nouns. 
  • Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs. 
  • Use apostrophes to form contractions. 
  • Appropriately use pronouns. 
  • Use commas in a series. 
  • Use plural possessives. 
  • Use interjections. 
Clarification 2: See Convention Progression by Grade Level for more information. 

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.1.C.4.1: Participate in research to gather information to answer a question about a single topic.
Clarifications:
Clarification 1: The question could ask for an explanation or could ask how to do something, where the appropriate response could be to give a sequence of steps or instructions.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.1.C.5.1: Use a multimedia element to enhance oral or written tasks.
Clarifications:
Clarification 1: Multimedia elements may include, but are not limited to, a drawing, picture, artifact, audio or digital representation.
At this grade level, the element should relate to the task. As long as the student is able to explain how the picture relates, the multimedia element is suitable. The element may be shared at the beginning or added on to the end instead of shared during the course of the task. There is no expectation that the element be integrated into the task.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.1.C.5.2: Identify and use digital tools to produce and publish writing individually or with peers and with support from adults.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.1.F.1.1: Locate the title, table of contents, names of author(s) and illustrator(s), and glossary of books.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.1.F.1.2: Demonstrate phonological awareness.
  1. Segment spoken words into initial, medial, and final phonemes, including words with digraphs, blends, and trigraphs. 
  2. Orally blend initial, medial, and final phonemes together to produce a single-syllable word that includes digraphs, blends, or trigraphs.
  3. Blend single-syllable spoken words with at least five phonemes.
  4. Segment single-syllable spoken words with at least five phonemes.
  5. Segment and blend phonemes in multi-syllable spoken words.
Clarifications:
Clarification 1: Phonological awareness only refers to what can be done orally at both the sound and syllabic level. This includes isolating sounds, blending sounds, and orally segmenting words based on syllables. It does not involve print or letter knowledge.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.1.F.1.3: Use knowledge of grade-appropriate phonics and word-analysis skills to decode words accurately. 
  1. Decode words using knowledge of spelling-sound correspondences for common consonant digraphs, trigraphs, and blends. 
  2. Decode simple words with r-controlled vowels.  
  3. Decode and encode regularly spelled one-syllable words. 
  4. Decode words with inflectional endings. 
  5. Decode two-syllable words with regular patterns by breaking the words into syllables. 
  6. Decode words that use final –e and vowel teams to make long-vowel sound. 
Clarifications:

Clarification 1: Phonics refers to the relationship between graphemes (letters or letter combinations) and phonemes (speech sounds).

Clarification 2: Students will decode decodable high frequency words appropriate to the grade level. See 1.F.1.4 and Dolch and Fry word lists. Students will read grade-level appropriate high frequency words, decodable or not, with automaticity.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.1.F.1.4: Read grade-level texts with accuracy, automaticity, and appropriate prosody or expression.
  1. Recognize and read with automaticity the grade-level sight words.
Clarifications:
Clarification 1: See Dolch and Fry word lists. 
Clarification 2: Many of the high frequency words at this grade level are either irregularly spelled and therefore not decodable or are temporarily irregular, meaning that students have not yet learned the phonics rule that would enable them to decode the word. Those words that are decodable should be introduced to students using appropriate phonics rules. See 1.F.1.3. Students will read grade-level appropriate high frequency words, decodable or not, with automaticity. 
Clarification 3: See Fluency Norms for grade-level norms. Norms are expressed as words correct per minute (WCPM), a measure that combines accuracy with speed. 
Clarification 4: “Appropriate prosody” refers to pausing patterns during oral reading that reflect the punctuation and meaning of a text. See Sample Oral Reading Fluency Rubrics for prosody. 
Clarification 5: Grade-level texts, for the purposes of fluency, are those within the grade band on quantitative text complexity measures and appropriate in content and qualitative measures.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.1.R.1.1: Identify and describe the main story elements in a story.
Clarifications:
Clarification 1: Main story elements for the purpose of this benchmark are the setting, characters, and sequence of events of a story. 

Clarification 2: In describing the characters, students can describe appearance, actions, feelings, and thoughts of the characters. Students will explain what in the text their description is based on. 

Clarification 3: For setting, students will discuss where the events of the story are happening. The time element of setting should only be addressed in texts where it is explicitly indicated.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.1.R.1.2: Identify and explain the moral of a story.
Clarifications:
Clarification 1: This benchmark introduces the moral of a story as a precursor to theme in 2nd grade. A moral is the lesson of a story. During instruction, let students know that not all stories have a lesson by referring to stories read that did not have a moral or a lesson.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.1.R.1.3: Explain who is telling the story using context clues.
Clarifications:
Clarification 1: Students will use the term “narrator” to refer to the speaker telling the story. Students will determine if the narrator is a character in the story or a speaker outside of the story. Students will give reasons why they know who is speaking.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.1.R.1.4: Identify stanzas and line breaks in poems.
Clarifications:
Clarification 1: This benchmark can be paired with R.1.1, R.1.2, R.1.3 and R.3.2 for instruction with story poems.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.1.R.2.1: Use text features including titles, headings, captions, graphs, maps, glossaries, and/or illustrations to demonstrate understanding of texts.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.1.R.2.2: Identify the topic of and relevant details in a text.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.1.R.2.3: Explain similarities and differences between information provided in visuals and words in an informational text.
Clarifications:
Clarification 1: When explaining similarities and differences, students will also explain how the visuals and words help the reader make sense of the topic. 

Clarification 2: During instruction, give students opportunities to see visual representations of similarities and differences using tools such as Venn diagrams or T-charts.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.1.R.2.4: Identify an author’s opinion(s) about the topic.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.1.R.3.1: Identify and explain descriptive words and phrases in text(s).
Clarifications:
Clarification 1: Continue to expose students to the academic vocabulary word “adjective.” Discussion should focus on how the descriptive words add meaning to the text.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.1.R.3.2: Retell a text in oral or written form to enhance comprehension.
  1. Use main story elements at the beginning, middle, and end for a literary text.
  2. Use topic and important details for an informational text.
Clarifications:
Clarification 1: Most grade-level texts are appropriate for this benchmark.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.1.R.3.3: Compare and contrast two texts on the same topic.
Clarifications:
Clarification 1: Students are being asked to compare and contrast. During instruction, give students opportunities to see visual representations of similarities and differences using tools such as Venn diagrams or T-charts.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.1.V.1.1: Use grade-level academic vocabulary appropriately in speaking and writing.
Clarifications:
Clarification 1: Grade-level academic vocabulary consists of words that are likely to appear across subject areas for the current grade level and beyond, are vital to comprehension, critical for academic discussions and writing, and usually require explicit instruction.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.1.V.1.2: Identify and use frequently occurring base words and their common inflections in grade-level content.
Clarifications:
Clarification 1: See Base Words for frequently occurring base words. 

Clarification 2: Inflectional endings, the inflections referred to here, are added to the end of a word to add additional information. 

Example: Regular verbs add the inflectional ending -ed to indicate the past tense.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.1.V.1.3: Identify and use picture clues, context clues, word relationships, reference materials, and/or background knowledge to determine the meaning of unknown words.
Clarifications:
Clarification 1: Instruction for this benchmark should include text read-alouds and think-alouds aimed at building and activating background knowledge. Review of words learned in this way is critical to building background knowledge and related vocabulary. Texts read aloud can be two grade levels higher than student reading level. 

Clarification 2: See Context Clues and Word Relationships.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.2.C.1.1: Demonstrate legible printing skills.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.2.C.1.2: Write personal or fictional narratives using a logical sequence of events, transitions, and an ending.
Clarifications:
Clarification 1: See Writing Types.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.2.C.1.3: Write opinions about a topic or text with reasons supported by details from a source, use transitions, and provide a conclusion.
Clarifications:
Clarification 1: See Writing Types.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.2.C.1.4: Write expository texts about a topic, using a source, providing an introduction, facts, transitions, and a conclusion.
Clarifications:
Clarification 1: See Writing Types.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.2.C.1.5: Improve writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing with guidance and support from adults and feedback from peers.
Clarifications:
Clarification 1: “As needed” refers to the fact that sometimes instruction will focus on a specific skill or part of the process. In those instances, only the applicable activity will be engaged in.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.2.C.2.1: Present information orally using complete sentences, appropriate volume, and clear pronunciation.
Clarifications:
Clarification 1: Clear pronunciation shows an understanding and application of phonics rules and sight words as well as care taken in delivery. A student’s speech impediment should not be considered as impeding clear pronunciation.

Clarification 2: For further guidance, see the Elementary Oral Communication Rubric.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.2.C.3.1: Follow the rules of standard English grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling appropriate to grade level.
Clarifications:
Clarification 1: Skills to be mastered at this grade level are as follows:
  • Form plurals -y to -ies.
  • Use apostrophes to form contractions.
  • Appropriately use pronouns.
  • Use commas in a series.
  • Use plural possessives.
  • Use interjections. 
Skills to be implemented but not yet mastered are as follows:
  • Conjugate regular and irregular verb tenses.
  • Form and use regular and frequently occurring irregular plural nouns.
  • Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs.
  • Maintain consistent verb tense across paragraphs.
  • Form and use irregular plural nouns.
  • Form and use the progressive and perfect verb tenses.
  • Use simple modifiers.
  • Use prepositions and prepositional phrases.
  • Form and use compound sentences.
  • Use quotation marks with dialogue and direct quotations.
  • Use commas to indicate direct address.
  • Use subject-verb agreement with intervening clauses and phrases.
  • Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons. 
Clarification 2: See Convention Progression by Grade Level for more information.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.2.C.4.1: Participate in research to gather information to answer a question about a single topic using multiple sources.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.2.C.5.1: Use one or more multimedia element(s) to enhance oral or written tasks.
Clarifications:
Clarification 1: Multimedia elements may include, but are not limited to, drawings, pictures, artifacts, and audio or digital representation. At this grade level, the element(s) should relate directly to the task. There is no expectation that the element(s) be integrated into the task. The student can but is not required to use more than one multimedia element.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.2.C.5.2: Use digital tools to produce and publish writing individually or with peers and with support from adults.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.2.F.1.3: Use knowledge of grade-appropriate phonics and word-analysis skills to decode words.
  1. Decode words with variable vowel teams (e.g., oo, ea, ou) and vowel diphthongs (e.g., oi, oy, ow).
  2. Decode regularly spelled two-syllable words with long and short vowels.
  3. Decode words with open (e.g., hi, baby, moment) and closed (e.g., bag, sunshine, chop) syllables and consonant -le (e.g., purple, circle, stumble).
  4. Decode words with common prefixes and suffixes.
  5. Decode words with silent letter combinations (e.g., knight, comb, island, ghost).

 

Clarifications:

Clarification 1: Phonics refers to the relationship between graphemes (letters or letter combinations) and phonemes (speech sounds). 

Clarification 2: Students will decode decodable high frequency words appropriate to the grade level. See 2.F.1.4 and Dolch and Fry word lists. Students will read grade-level appropriate high frequency words, decodable or not, with automaticity.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.2.F.1.4: Read grade-level texts with accuracy, automaticity, and appropriate prosody or expression.
Clarifications:
Clarification 1: See Dolch and Fry word lists.

Clarification 2: Many of the high frequency words at this grade level are either irregularly spelled and therefore not decodable or are temporarily irregular, meaning that students have not yet learned the phonics rule that would enable them to decode the word. Those words that are decodable should be introduced to students using appropriate phonics rules. See 2.F.1.3. Students will read grade-level appropriate high frequency words, decodable or not, with automaticity.

Clarification 3: See Fluency Norms for grade-level norms. Norms are expressed as words correct per minute (WCPM), a measure that combines accuracy with rate.

Clarification 4: Appropriate prosody refers to pausing patterns during oral reading that reflect the punctuation and meaning of a text. See Sample Oral Reading Fluency Rubrics for prosody.

Clarification 5: Grade-level texts, for the purposes of fluency, are those within the grade band on quantitative text complexity measures and appropriate in content and qualitative measures.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.2.R.1.1: Identify plot structure and describe main story elements in a literary text.
Clarifications:
Clarification 1: Main story elements for the purpose of this benchmark are the setting, characters, and sequence of events of a story. 
Clarification 2: For setting, students will describe where and when the events of the story are happening. The time element of setting will be addressed even when not explicitly indicated in the text. 
Clarification 3: For character, student’s will describe characters’ traits, feelings, and behaviors.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.2.R.1.2: Identify and explain a theme of a literary text.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.2.R.1.3: Identify different characters’ perspectives in a literary text.
Clarifications:
Clarification 1: The term perspective means “a particular attitude toward or way of regarding something.” The term point of view is used when referring to the person of the narrator. This is to prevent confusion and conflation.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.2.R.1.4: Identify rhyme schemes in poems.
Clarifications:
Clarification 1: Students will mark rhyme scheme and recognize rhyme scheme notation. Rhyme scheme notation uses capital letters, starting with A to mark the end of each line, repeating the letter for each line in the poem that rhymes with that line and progressing through the alphabet for each new end rhyme. Lines designated with the same letter all rhyme with each other.

Examples:

I never saw a Purple Cow,  A
I never hope to see one;    B
But I can tell you, anyhow, A
I'd rather see than be one!  B

                                             –Gelett Burgess


Little Miss Muffet                         A
Sat on a tuffet,                           A
Eating her curds and whey;          B
Along came a spider                    C
Who sat down beside her             C
And frightened Miss Muffet away.  B

                                             –Traditional Nursery Rhyme

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.2.R.2.1: Explain how text features—including titles, headings, captions, graphs, maps, glossaries, and/or illustrations—contribute to the meaning of texts.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.2.R.2.2: Identify the central idea and relevant details in a text.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.2.R.2.3: Explain an author’s purpose in an informational text.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.2.R.2.4: Explain an author’s opinion(s) and supporting evidence.

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.2.R.3.1: Identify and explain similes, idioms, and alliteration in text(s).

Standard Relation to Course: Major

ELA.2.R.3.2: Retell a text to enhance comprehension. 
  1. Use main story elements in a logical sequence for a literary text.
  2. Use the central idea and relevant details for an informational text. 
    Clarifications:
    Clarification 1: Most grade-level texts are appropriate for this benchmark.

    Standard Relation to Course: Major

    ELA.2.R.3.3: Compare and contrast important details presented by two texts on the same topic or theme.
    Clarifications:
    Clarification 1: For literary texts, students can compare and contrast story elements such as characters, illustrations, and sequence of events. 

    Clarification 2: The different versions may be of the same or different formats. 

    Standard Relation to Course: Major

    ELA.2.V.1.1: Use grade-level academic vocabulary appropriately in speaking and writing.
    Clarifications:
    Clarification 1: Grade-level academic vocabulary consists of words that are likely to appear across subject areas for the current grade level and beyond, vital to comprehension, critical for academic discussions and writing, and usually require explicit instruction.

    Standard Relation to Course: Major

    ELA.2.V.1.2: Identify and use base words and affixes to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words in grade-level content.
    Clarifications:
    Clarification 1: See Base Words.

    Standard Relation to Course: Major

    ELA.2.V.1.3: Identify and use context clues, word relationships, reference materials, and/or background knowledge to determine the meaning of unknown words.
    Clarifications:
    Clarification 1: Instruction for this benchmark should include text read-alouds and think-alouds aimed at building and activating background knowledge. Review of words learned in this way is critical to building background knowledge and related vocabulary. Texts read aloud can be two grade levels higher than student reading level.

    Clarification 2: See Context Clues and Word Relationships.

    Standard Relation to Course: Major

    ELA.3.C.1.1: Write in cursive all upper- and lowercase letters.

    Standard Relation to Course: Major

    ELA.3.C.1.2: Write personal or fictional narratives using a logical sequence of events, appropriate descriptions, dialogue, a variety of transitional words or phrases, and an ending.
    Clarifications:
    Clarification 1: See Writing Types.

    Standard Relation to Course: Major

    ELA.3.C.1.3: Write opinions about a topic or text, include reasons supported by details from one or more sources, use transitions, and provide a conclusion.
    Clarifications:
    Clarification 1: See Writing Types.

    Standard Relation to Course: Major

    ELA.3.C.1.4: Write expository texts about a topic, using one or more sources, providing an introduction, facts and details, some elaboration, transitions, and a conclusion.
    Clarifications:
    Clarification 1: See Writing Types and Elaborative Techniques.

    Standard Relation to Course: Major

    ELA.3.C.1.5: Improve writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing with guidance and support from adults and feedback from peers.
    Clarifications:
    Clarification 1: As needed refers to the fact that sometimes instruction will focus on a specific skill or part of the process. In those instances, only the applicable activity will be engaged in.

    Standard Relation to Course: Major

    ELA.3.C.2.1: Present information orally, in a logical sequence, using nonverbal cues, appropriate volume, and clear pronunciation.
    Clarifications:
    Clarification 1: Nonverbal cues appropriate to this grade level are posture, tone, and expressive delivery. Clear pronunciation should be interpreted to mean an understanding and application of phonics rules and sight words as well as care taken in delivery. A student’s speech impediment should not be considered as impeding clear pronunciation. This grade level introduces an expectation that the information be presented in a logical sequence. A student may self-correct an error in sequence.

    Clarification 2: For further guidance, see the Elementary Oral Communication Rubric.

    Standard Relation to Course: Major

    ELA.3.C.3.1: Follow the rules of standard English grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling appropriate to grade level.
    Clarifications:
    Clarification 1: Skills to be mastered at this grade level are as follows: 
    • Conjugate regular and irregular verb tenses. 
    • Form and use regular and frequently occurring irregular plural nouns. 
    • Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs. • Maintain consistent verb tense across paragraphs. 
    • Form and use irregular plural nouns. 
    • Form and use the progressive and perfect verb tenses. 
    • Use simple modifiers. 
    • Use prepositions and prepositional phrases. 
    • Form and use compound sentences. 
    • Use quotation marks with dialogue and direct quotations. • Use commas to indicate direct address. 
    Skills to be implemented but not yet mastered are as follows: 
    • Use subject-verb agreement with intervening clauses and phrases. 
    • Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons. 
    • Use conjunctions. 
    • Use principal modals to indicate the mood of a verb. 
    • Use appositives, main clauses, and subordinate clauses. 
    Clarification 2: See Convention Progression by Grade Level for more information.

    Standard Relation to Course: Major

    ELA.3.C.4.1: Conduct research to answer a question, organizing information about the topic from multiple sources.
    Clarifications:
    Clarification 1: While the benchmark does require that students consult multiple sources, there is no requirement that they use every source they consult. Part of the skill in researching is discernment—being able to tell which information is relevant and which sources are trustworthy enough to include.

    Standard Relation to Course: Major

    ELA.3.C.5.1: Use two or more multimedia elements to enhance oral or written tasks.
    Clarifications:
    Clarification 1: Multimedia elements may include, but are not limited to, drawings, pictures, artifacts, and audio or digital representation. At this grade level, the elements should relate directly to the presentation. The elements can reinforce or complement the information being shared. There is no expectation that the elements be fully integrated into the presentation.

    Standard Relation to Course: Major

    ELA.3.C.5.2: Use digital writing tools individually or collaboratively to plan, draft, and revise writing.

    Standard Relation to Course: Major

    ELA.3.F.1.3: Use knowledge of grade-level phonics and word-analysis skills to decode words. 
    1. Decode words with common Greek and Latin roots and affixes. (See benchmark 3.V.1.2) 
    2. Decode words with common derivational suffixes and describe how they turn words into different parts of speech. (e.g., -ful, -less, -est).
    3. Decode multisyllabic words.
      Clarifications:
      Clarification 1: See Common Greek and Latin Roots 3-5 and Affixes

      Clarification 2: See Affixes and the Parts of Speech They Form.

      Standard Relation to Course: Major

      ELA.3.F.1.4: Read grade-level texts with accuracy, automaticity, and appropriate prosody or expression.
      Clarifications:
      Clarification 1: See Fluency Norms for grade-level norms. Norms are expressed as words correct per minute (WCPM), a measure that combines accuracy with rate. 
      Clarification 2: Appropriate prosody refers to pausing patterns during oral reading that reflect the punctuation and meaning of a text. See Sample Oral Reading Fluency Rubrics for prosody. 
      Clarification 3: Grade-level texts, for the purposes of fluency, are those within the grade band on quantitative text complexity measures and appropriate in content and qualitative measures.

      Standard Relation to Course: Major

      ELA.3.R.1.1: Explain how one or more characters develop throughout the plot in a literary text.
      Clarifications:
      Clarification 1: When explaining character development, students will include character traits, feelings, motivations, and responses to situations.

      Standard Relation to Course: Major

      ELA.3.R.1.2: Explain a theme and how it develops, using details, in a literary text.

      Standard Relation to Course: Major

      ELA.3.R.1.3: Explain different characters’ perspectives in a literary text.
      Clarifications:
      Clarification 1: The term perspective means “a particular attitude toward or way of regarding something.” The term point of view is used when referring to the person of the narrator. This is to prevent confusion and conflation.

      Standard Relation to Course: Major

      ELA.3.R.1.4: Identify types of poems: free verse, rhymed verse, haiku, and limerick.
      Clarifications:
      Clarification 1: For examples of these forms, see Appendix B.

      Standard Relation to Course: Major

      ELA.3.R.2.1: Explain how text features contribute to meaning and identify the text structures of chronology, comparison, and cause/effect in texts.

      Standard Relation to Course: Major

      ELA.3.R.2.2: Identify the central idea and explain how relevant details support that idea in a text.

      Standard Relation to Course: Major

      ELA.3.R.2.3: Explain the development of an author's purpose in an informational text.

      Standard Relation to Course: Major

      ELA.3.R.2.4: Identify an author’s claim and explain how an author uses evidence to support the claim.

      Standard Relation to Course: Major

      ELA.3.R.3.1: Identify and explain metaphors, personification, and hyperbole in text(s).
      Clarifications:
      Clarification 1: In addition to the types of figurative language listed in this benchmark, students are still working with types from previous grades such as simile, alliteration, and idiom. Other examples can be used in instruction. 

      Clarification 2: See Elementary Figurative Language. 

      Standard Relation to Course: Major

      ELA.3.R.3.2: Summarize a text to enhance comprehension.
      1. Include plot and theme for a literary text.
      2. Use the central idea and relevant details for an informational text.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Most grade-level texts are appropriate for this benchmark.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.3.R.3.3: Compare and contrast how two authors present information on the same topic or theme.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.3.V.1.1: Use grade-level academic vocabulary appropriately in speaking and writing.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Grade-level academic vocabulary consists of words that are likely to appear across subject areas for the current grade level and beyond, vital to comprehension, critical for academic discussions and writing, and usually require explicit instruction.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.3.V.1.2: Identify and apply knowledge of common Greek and Latin roots, base words, and affixes to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words in grade-level content.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: See Common Greek and Latin Roots 3-5 and Affixes.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.3.V.1.3: Use context clues, figurative language, word relationships, reference materials, and/or background knowledge to determine the meaning of multiple-meaning and unknown words and phrases, appropriate to grade level.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Instruction for this benchmark should include text read-alouds and think-alouds aimed at building and activating background knowledge. Review of words learned in this way is critical to building background knowledge and related vocabulary. Texts read aloud can be two grade levels higher than student reading level. 
        Clarification 2: See Context Clues and Word Relationships.

        Clarification 3: See ELA.3.R.3.1 and Elementary Figurative Language.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.4.C.1.1: Demonstrate legible cursive writing skills.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Students will produce cursive writing that can be consistently read by others.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.4.C.1.2: Write personal or fictional narratives using a logical sequence of events and demonstrating an effective use of techniques such as descriptions and transitional words and phrases.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Students were introduced to dialogue in 3rd grade. Although it is not mentioned specifically in this benchmark, students should continue to practice the technique and receive instruction in it. Dialogue is included for mastery in the 5th grade benchmark. 

        Clarification 2: See Writing Types.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.4.C.1.3: Write to make a claim supporting a perspective with logical reasons, using evidence from multiple sources, elaboration, and an organizational structure with transitions.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: See Writing Types and Elaborative Techniques.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.4.C.1.4: Write expository texts about a topic, using multiple sources, elaboration, and an organizational structure with transitions.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: See Writing Types and Elaborative Techniques.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.4.C.1.5: Improve writing by planning, revising, and editing, with guidance and support from adults and feedback from peers.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.4.C.2.1: Present information orally, in a logical sequence, using nonverbal cues, appropriate volume, and clear pronunciation.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Nonverbal cues appropriate to this grade level are posture, tone, expressive delivery, focus on the audience, and facial expression. Clear pronunciation should be interpreted to mean an understanding and application of phonics rules and sight words as well as care taken in delivery. A student’s speech impediment should not be considered as impeding clear pronunciation. 

        Clarification 2: For further guidance, see the Elementary Oral Communication Rubric.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.4.C.3.1: Follow the rules of standard English grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling appropriate to grade level.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Skills to be mastered at this grade level are as follows: 
        • Use subject-verb agreement with intervening clauses and phrases. 
        • Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons. 
        • Use conjunctions. 
        Skills to be implemented but not yet mastered are as follows: 
        • Use principal modals to indicate the mood of a verb. 
        • Use appositives, main clauses, and subordinate clauses. 
        • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in tense and number. 
        • Use conjunctions correctly to join words and phrases in a sentence. 
        • Use verbals including gerunds, infinitives, and participial phrases. 
        • Use pronouns correctly with regard to case, number, and person, correcting for vague pronoun reference. 
        Clarification 2: See Convention Progression by Grade Level for more information. 

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.4.C.4.1: Conduct research to answer a question, organizing information about the topic, using multiple valid sources.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: While the benchmark does require that students consult multiple sources, there is no requirement that they use every source they consult. Part of the skill in researching is discernment—being able to tell which information is relevant and which sources are trustworthy enough to include.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.4.C.5.1: Arrange multimedia elements to create emphasis in oral or written tasks.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Multimedia elements may include, but are not limited to, drawings, pictures, artifacts, and audio or digital representation. At this grade level, students are using more than one element. The elements may be of the same type (for example, two pictures or a picture and an audio recording). The elements should relate directly to the task and emphasize a point made within the task, perhaps by showing examples or data to emphasize a point. The elements should be smoothly integrated.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.4.C.5.2: Use digital writing tools individually or collaboratively to plan, draft, and revise writing.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.4.F.1.3: Use knowledge of grade-level phonics and word-analysis skills to decode words.
        1. Apply knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology to read and write unfamiliar single-syllable and multisyllabic words in and out of context. 
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: At this level of reading, a student who is decoding at the phoneme level (i.e., “e-n-t-er-t-ai-n”) may decode a given text but will struggle with fluency and comprehension.
        As such, phonics instruction should move toward decoding at the syllabication and morpheme level. For example, when a 4th-grader encounters the word “entertain” in text, we want him or her to segment by syllable (i.e., “en-ter-tain”) or by morphological structure (i.e., “enter-tain”).

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.4.F.1.4: Read grade-level texts with accuracy, automaticity, and appropriate prosody or expression.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: See Fluency Norms for grade-level norms. Norms are expressed as words correct per minute (WCPM), a measure that combines accuracy with rate. 

        Clarification 2: Appropriate prosody refers to pausing patterns during oral reading that reflect the punctuation and meaning of a text. See Sample Oral Reading Fluency Rubrics for prosody. 

        Clarification 3: Grade-level texts, for the purposes of fluency, are those within the grade band on quantitative text complexity measures and appropriate in content and qualitative measures.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.4.R.1.1: Explain how setting, events, conflict, and character development contribute to the plot in a literary text.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.4.R.1.2: Explain a stated or implied theme and how it develops, using details, in a literary text.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: An explanation of how the theme develops should include how characters respond to situations and how the speaker reflects upon a topic in a literary text.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.4.R.1.3: Identify the narrator’s point of view and explain the difference between a narrator’s point of view and character perspective in a literary text.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: The term perspective means “a particular attitude toward or way of regarding something.” The term point of view is used when referring to the person of the narrator. This is to prevent confusion and conflation.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.4.R.1.4: Explain how rhyme and structure create meaning in a poem.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.4.R.2.1: Explain how text features contribute to the meaning and identify the text structures of problem/solution, sequence, and description in texts.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.4.R.2.2: Explain how relevant details support the central idea, implied or explicit.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.4.R.2.3: Explain an author’s perspective toward a topic in an informational text.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: The term perspective means “a particular attitude toward or way of regarding something.”

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.4.R.2.4: Explain an author’s claim and the reasons and evidence used to support the claim.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.4.R.3.1: Explain how figurative language contributes to meaning in text(s).
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Figurative language for the purposes of this benchmark refers to metaphor, simile, alliteration, personification, hyperbole, and idiom. Other examples can be used in instruction. 

        Clarification 2: See Elementary Figurative Language.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.4.R.3.2: Summarize a text to enhance comprehension.
        1. Include plot and theme for a literary text. 
        2. Include the central idea and relevant details for an informational text. 
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Most grade-level texts are appropriate for this benchmark.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.4.R.3.3: Compare and contrast accounts of the same event using primary and/or secondary sources.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Introduce the terms “primary sources” and “secondary sources.”

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.4.V.1.1: Use grade-level academic vocabulary appropriately in speaking and writing.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Grade-level academic vocabulary consists of words that are likely to appear across subject areas for the current grade level and beyond, vital to comprehension, critical for academic discussions and writing, and usually require explicit instruction.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.4.V.1.2: Apply knowledge of common Greek and Latin roots, base words, and affixes to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words in grade-level content.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: See Common Greek and Latin Roots 3-5 and Affixes.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.4.V.1.3: Use context clues, figurative language, word relationships, reference materials, and/or background knowledge to determine the meaning of multiple-meaning and unknown words and phrases, appropriate to grade level.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Instruction for this benchmark should include text read-alouds and think-alouds aimed at building and activating background knowledge. Review of words learned in this way is critical to building background knowledge and related vocabulary. Texts read aloud can be two grade levels higher than student reading level. 

        Clarification 2: See Context Clues and Word Relationships

        Clarification 3: See ELA.4.R.3.1 and Elementary Figurative Language.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.5.C.1.1: Demonstrate fluent and legible cursive writing skills.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Students will use cursive writing to produce legible works within the same timeframe as they would use for writing in print.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.5.C.1.2: Write personal or fictional narratives using a logical sequence of events and demonstrating an effective use of techniques such as dialogue, description, and transitional words and phrases.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: See Writing Types.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.5.C.1.3: Write to make a claim supporting a perspective with logical reasons, relevant evidence from sources, elaboration, and an organizational structure with varied transitions.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: See Writing Types and Elaborative Techniques.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.5.C.1.4: Write expository texts about a topic using multiple sources and including an organizational structure, relevant elaboration, and varied transitions.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: See Writing Types and Elaborative Techniques.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.5.C.1.5: Improve writing by planning, revising, and editing, with guidance and support from adults and feedback from peers.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.5.C.2.1: Present information orally, in a logical sequence, using nonverbal cues, appropriate volume, clear pronunciation, and appropriate pacing.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Nonverbal cues appropriate to this grade level are posture, tone, expressive delivery, focus on the audience, and facial expression. Clear pronunciation should be interpreted to mean an understanding and application of phonics rules and sight words as well as care taken in delivery. A student’s speech impediment should not be considered as impeding clear pronunciation. This is the initial grade level that introduces appropriate pacing. Appropriate pacing is adhering to the pauses dictated by punctuation and speaking at a rate that best facilitates comprehension by the audience. Too fast a pace will lose listeners and too slow can become monotonous. The element will also help students address the nervousness that may make them speak too fast during presentations. 

        Clarification 2: For further guidance, see the Elementary Oral Communication Rubric.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.5.C.3.1: Follow the rules of standard English grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling appropriate to grade level.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Skills to be mastered at this grade level are as follows: 
        • Use principal modals to indicate the mood of a verb.
        • Use appositives, main clauses, and subordinate clauses. 
        • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in tense and number.
        • Use conjunctions correctly to join words and phrases in a sentence. 
        Skills to be implemented but not yet mastered are as follows:
        • Use verbals including gerunds, infinitives, and participial phrases.
        • Use comparative and superlative forms of adjectives.
        • Use pronouns correctly with regard to case, number, and person, correcting for vague pronoun reference.
        • Vary sentence structure. 

        Clarification 2: See Convention Progression by Grade Level for more information.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.5.C.4.1: Conduct research to answer a question, organizing information about the topic and using multiple reliable and valid sources.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: While the benchmark does require that students consult multiple sources, there is no requirement that they use every source they consult. Part of the skill in researching is discernment—being able to tell which information is relevant and which sources are trustworthy enough to include.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.5.C.5.1: Arrange multimedia elements to create emphasis in oral or written tasks.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Multimedia elements may include, but are not limited to, drawings, pictures, artifacts, and audio or digital representation. At this grade level, students are using more than one element. The elements may be of the same type (for example, two pictures or a picture and an audio recording). The elements should relate directly to the task and emphasize or clarify a point made within the task, perhaps by showing examples to clarify a claim or data to emphasize a point. The elements should be smoothly integrated.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.5.C.5.2: Use digital writing tools individually or collaboratively to plan, draft, and revise writing.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.5.F.1.3: Use knowledge of grade-appropriate phonics and word-analysis skills to decode words.
        1. Apply knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology to read and write unfamiliar single-syllable and multisyllabic words in and out of context. 

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.5.F.1.4: Read grade-level texts with accuracy, automaticity, and appropriate prosody or expression.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: See Fluency Norms for grade-level norms. Norms are expressed as words correct per minute (WCPM), a measure that combines accuracy with rate. 

        Clarification 2: Appropriate prosody refers to pausing patterns during oral reading that reflect the punctuation and meaning of a text. See Sample Oral Reading Fluency Rubrics for prosody. 

        Clarification 3: Grade-level texts, for the purposes of fluency, are those within the grade band on quantitative text complexity measures and appropriate in content and qualitative measures.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.5.R.1.1: Analyze how setting, events, conflict, and characterization contribute to the plot in a literary text.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.5.R.1.2: Explain the development of stated or implied theme(s) throughout a literary text.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Where the development of multiple themes is being explained, the themes may come from the same or multiple literary texts.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.5.R.1.3: Describe how an author develops a character’s perspective in a literary text.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: The term perspective means “a particular attitude toward or way of regarding something.”

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.5.R.1.4: Explain how figurative language and other poetic elements work together in a poem.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Figurative language for the purposes of this benchmark refers to metaphor, simile, alliteration, personification, hyperbole, imagery, and idiom. Other examples can be used in instruction. Clarification 2: Poetic elements to be used for the purposes of this benchmark are form, rhyme, meter, line breaks, and imagery.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.5.R.2.1: Explain how text structures and/or features contribute to the overall meaning of texts.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: For more information, see Text Structures and Text Features.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.5.R.2.2: Explain how relevant details support the central idea(s), implied or explicit.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.5.R.2.3: Analyze an author’s purpose and/or perspective in an informational text.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: The term perspective means “a particular attitude toward or way of regarding something.”

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.5.R.2.4: Track the development of an argument, identifying the specific claim(s), evidence, and reasoning.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: A claim is a statement that asserts something is true. A claim can either be fact or opinion. Claims can be used alone or with other claims to form a larger argument.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.5.R.3.1: Analyze how figurative language contributes to meaning in text(s).

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.5.R.3.2: Summarize a text to enhance comprehension.
        1. Include plot and theme for a literary text. 
        2. Include the central idea and relevant details for an informational text. 
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Most grade-level texts are appropriate for this benchmark.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.5.R.3.3: Compare and contrast primary and secondary sources related to the same topic.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.5.V.1.1: Use grade-level academic vocabulary appropriately in speaking and writing.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Grade-level academic vocabulary consists of words that are likely to appear across subject areas for the current grade level and beyond, vital to comprehension, critical for academic discussions and writing, and usually require explicit instruction.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.5.V.1.2: Apply knowledge of Greek and Latin roots and affixes, recognizing the connection between affixes and parts of speech, to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words in grade-level content.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: See Common Greek and Latin Roots 3-5.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.5.V.1.3: Use context clues, figurative language, word relationships, reference materials, and/or background knowledge to determine the meaning of multiple-meaning and unknown words and phrases, appropriate to grade level.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Instruction for this benchmark should include text read-alouds and think-alouds aimed at building and activating background knowledge. Review of words learned in this way is critical to building background knowledge and related vocabulary. Texts read aloud can be two grade levels higher than student reading level. 

        Clarification 2: See Context Clues and Word Relationships

        Clarification 3: See ELA.5.R.3.1 and Elementary Figurative Language.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.K.C.1.1: Print many upper- and lowercase letters.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Students should attend to spacing between letters. 

        Clarification 2: Of the many letters students need to be able to print, all vowels must be included. For example, a student who can print 22 letters, both upper- and lowercase, but not “a” or “A” has not mastered the benchmark.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.K.C.1.2: Using a combination of drawing, dictating, and/or writing, create narratives with the events in chronological order.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: The product can be written, drawn, dictated, or a combination of all. 

        Clarification 2: See Writing Types.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.K.C.1.3: Using a combination of drawing, dictating, and/or writing, express opinions about a topic or text with at least one supporting reason.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: The product can be written, oral, drawn, dictated, or a combination of all. 

        Clarification 2: See Writing Types.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.K.C.1.4: Using a combination of drawing, dictating, and/or writing, provide factual information about a topic.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: The product can be written, drawn, dictated, or a combination of all. 
        Clarification 2: Some opinion can be added to the information, but it should mostly be factual. It is important that students understand the difference between writing to explain and writing to express an opinion. 
        Clarification 3: See Writing Types.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.K.C.1.5: With guidance and support from adults, improve drawing and writing, as needed, by planning, revising, and editing.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: “As needed” refers to the fact that sometimes instruction will focus on a specific skill or part of the process. For example, a lesson may focus on planning. In those instances, only the planning step would be focused on. By the end of the year, students should have ample opportunities to engage in planning, revising, and editing.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.K.C.2.1: Present information orally using complete sentences.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: For further guidance, see the Elementary Oral Communication Rubric.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.K.C.3.1: Follow the rules of standard English grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling appropriate to grade level.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Skills to be mastered at this grade level are as follows:
        • Begin each sentence with a capital letter and use ending punctuation.
        • Capitalize the days of the week, the months of the year, and the pronoun I.
        • Form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/ or /es/.
        • Use interrogatives to ask questions. 
        Skills to be implemented but not yet mastered are as follows:
        • Capitalize proper nouns.
        • Form and use simple verb tenses for regular verbs by adding the affix -ed.
        • Form and use complete simple sentences.
        • Use possessives.
        • Use subject-verb agreement in simple sentences.
        Clarification 2: See Convention Progression by Grade Level for more information. 

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.K.C.4.1: Recall information to answer a question about a single topic.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.K.C.5.1: Use a multimedia element to enhance oral or written tasks.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Multimedia elements may include, but are not limited to, a drawing, picture, artifact, audio or digital representation.
        Multimedia elements may include, but are not limited to, a drawing, picture, artifact, audio or digital representation. At this grade level, the element should relate to the task but that relationship may be tangential. It does not require but can include the use of computers.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.K.F.1.1: Demonstrate knowledge of the basic concepts of print.
        1. Locate a printed word on a page.
        2. Distinguish letters from words within sentences. 
        3. Match print to speech to demonstrate that language is represented by print. 
        4. Identify parts of a book (front cover, back cover, title page). 
        5. Move top to bottom and left to right on the printed page; returning to the beginning of the next line. 
        6. Identify all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet. 
        7. Recognize that print conveys specific meaning and pictures may support meaning.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Matching print to speech involves making a one-to-one correspondence between a spoken word and the print on the page. This can be accomplished by having the child point to each word in a sentence as it is read by an adult.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.K.F.1.2: Demonstrate phonological awareness.
        1. Blend and segment syllables in spoken words.
        2. Identify and produce alliterative and rhyming words. 
        3. Blend and segment onset and rimes of single-syllable words. 
        4. Identify the initial, medial, and final sound of spoken words. 
        5. Add or delete phonemes at the beginning or end of a spoken word and say the resulting word. 
        6. Segment and blend phonemes in single-syllable spoken words. 
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Phonological awareness only refers to what can be done orally at the syllable, onset-rime, and phoneme levels. It does not involve print or letter knowledge.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.K.F.1.3: Use knowledge of grade-appropriate phonics and word-analysis skills to decode words accurately.
        1. Demonstrate knowledge of the most frequent sound for each consonant. 
        2. Demonstrate knowledge of the short and long sounds for the five major vowels. 
        3. Decode consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words. 
        4. Encode consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Phonics refers to the relationship between graphemes (letters or letter combinations) and phonemes (speech sounds). 

        Clarification 2: Students will decode decodable high frequency words appropriate to the grade level. See K.F.1.4 and Dolch and Fry word lists. Students will read grade-level appropriate high frequency words, decodable or not, with automaticity.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.K.F.1.4: Recognize and read with automaticity grade-level high frequency words.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: See Dolch and Fry word lists. 

        Clarification 2: Many of the high frequency words at this grade level are either irregularly spelled and therefore not decodable or are temporarily irregular, meaning that students have not yet learned the phonics rule that would enable them to decode the word. Those words that are decodable should be introduced to students using appropriate phonics rules. See K.F.1.3. Students will read grade-level appropriate high frequency words, decodable or not, with automaticity.


        Examples:

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.K.R.1.1: Describe the main character(s), setting, and important events in a story.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: In describing the main character, students can describe appearance, actions, feelings, and thoughts of the character. Students will explain what in the text their description is based on. 
        Clarification 2: For setting, students will discuss where the events of the story are happening. The time element of setting should only be addressed in texts where it is explicitly indicated. 
        Clarification 3: Descriptions can be oral, either in response to a question or through discussion.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.K.R.1.3: Explain the roles of author and illustrator of a story.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Students will explain that the author writes the words and the illustrator creates the pictures, recognizing that sometimes one person does both jobs, as in Dr. Seuss’ Hop on Pop where Dr. Seuss performs both roles.

        Clarification 2: Students should also explain that both authors and illustrators contribute to the meaning of the text.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.K.R.1.4: Identify rhyme in a poem.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: This benchmark builds on the skills from the phonological awareness benchmark ELA.K.F.1.2(b): Identify and produce alliterative and rhyming words. The expectation is that students identify rhyming words in a poem that is read aloud. 

        Clarification 2: Students will also note where the rhyme is coming, e.g., at the end of a line.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.K.R.2.1: Use titles, headings, and illustrations to predict and confirm the topic of texts.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: The step of confirming the prediction is essential to mastery of this benchmark.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.K.R.2.2: Identify the topic of and multiple details in a text.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: The topic is the general subject of the text, a word or a short phrase describing what the text is about. For example, the main topic of the book Why Should I Recycle? is recycling.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.K.R.2.4: Explain the difference between opinions and facts about a topic.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Students will explain which statements are fact and which are opinion within a text. 

        Clarification 2: Students will orally explain that facts are things that a person knows about something and that can be proven true or false. Students will orally explain that opinions are what a person thinks about something, often related to feelings or beliefs. Opinions cannot be proven true or false. 

        Example: “Dogs need food and water to survive” is a fact. It can be proven to be true. “Dogs are the best pets” is an opinion. It’s what someone may think, but it can’t be proven.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.K.R.3.1: Identify and explain descriptive words in text(s).
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Students will explain examples of descriptive words in text and how they add meaning. 

        Clarification 2: Students will be introduced to the academic vocabulary word “adjective.” However, students are not expected to use the word independently. Discussion should focus on how the descriptive words add meaning to the text.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.K.R.3.2: Retell a text orally to enhance comprehension:
        1. Use main character(s), setting, and important events for a story.
        2. Use topic and details for an informational text.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Most grade-level texts are appropriate for this benchmark.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.K.R.3.3: Compare and contrast characters’ experiences in stories.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Students will orally compare and contrast the experiences that characters have had, comparing them to those experienced by other characters, in the same story or a different story. Those experiences can be expressed as events, feelings, or behaviors.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.K.V.1.1: Use grade-level academic vocabulary appropriately in speaking and writing.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Grade-level academic vocabulary consists of words that are likely to appear across subject areas for the current grade level and beyond, are vital to comprehension, critical for academic discussions and writing, and usually require explicit instruction.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.K.V.1.2: Ask and answer questions about unfamiliar words in grade-level content.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.K.V.1.3: Identify and sort common words into basic categories, relating vocabulary to background knowledge.
        Clarifications:
        Clarification 1: Instruction for this benchmark should include text read-alouds and think-alouds aimed at building and activating background knowledge. Review of words learned in this way is critical to building background knowledge and related vocabulary. Texts read aloud can be two grade levels higher than student reading level. 

        Clarification 2: See Context Clues and Word Relationships.

        Standard Relation to Course: Major

        ELA.K12.EE.1.1: Cite evidence to explain and justify reasoning.
        Clarifications:
        K-1 Students include textual evidence in their oral communication with guidance and support from adults. The evidence can consist of details from the text without naming the text. During 1st grade, students learn how to incorporate the evidence in their writing.

        2-3 Students include relevant textual evidence in their written and oral communication. Students should name the text when they refer to it. In 3rd grade, students should use a combination of direct and indirect citations.

        4-5 Students continue with previous skills and reference comments made by speakers and peers. Students cite texts that they’ve directly quoted, paraphrased, or used for information. When writing, students will use the form of citation dictated by the instructor or the style guide referenced by the instructor. 

        6-8 Students continue with previous skills and use a style guide to create a proper citation.

        9-12 Students continue with previous skills and should be aware of existing style guides and the ways in which they differ.

        Standard Relation to Course: Supporting

        ELA.K12.EE.2.1: Read and comprehend grade-level complex texts proficiently.
        Clarifications:
        See Text Complexity for grade-level complexity bands and a text complexity rubric.

        Standard Relation to Course: Supporting

        ELA.K12.EE.3.1: Make inferences to support comprehension.
        Clarifications:
        Students will make inferences before the words infer or inference are introduced. Kindergarten students will answer questions like “Why is the girl smiling?” or make predictions about what will happen based on the title page. Students will use the terms and apply them in 2nd grade and beyond.

        Standard Relation to Course: Supporting

        ELA.K12.EE.4.1: Use appropriate collaborative techniques and active listening skills when engaging in discussions in a variety of situations.
        Clarifications:
        In kindergarten, students learn to listen to one another respectfully.

        In grades 1-2, students build upon these skills by justifying what they are thinking. For example: “I think ________ because _______.” The collaborative conversations are becoming academic conversations.

        In grades 3-12, students engage in academic conversations discussing claims and justifying their reasoning, refining and applying skills. Students build on ideas, propel the conversation, and support claims and counterclaims with evidence.

        Standard Relation to Course: Supporting

        ELA.K12.EE.5.1: Use the accepted rules governing a specific format to create quality work.
        Clarifications:
        Students will incorporate skills learned into work products to produce quality work. For students to incorporate these skills appropriately, they must receive instruction. A 3rd grade student creating a poster board display must have instruction in how to effectively present information to do quality work.

        Standard Relation to Course: Supporting

        ELA.K12.EE.6.1: Use appropriate voice and tone when speaking or writing.
        Clarifications:
        In kindergarten and 1st grade, students learn the difference between formal and informal language. For example, the way we talk to our friends differs from the way we speak to adults. In 2nd grade and beyond, students practice appropriate social and academic language to discuss texts.

        Standard Relation to Course: Supporting

        ELD.K12.ELL.LA.1: English language learners communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Language Arts.

        Standard Relation to Course: Supporting

        ELD.K12.ELL.SI.1: English language learners communicate for social and instructional purposes within the school setting.

        Standard Relation to Course: Supporting




        General Course Information and Notes

        VERSION DESCRIPTION

        This course may be composed of a multilevel classroom with learners from diverse backgrounds at varying proficiency levels using a standards-based curriculum. This course supports students who are struggling with written and oral communication. Each student's curriculum should be defined using the most appropriate standards from those listed below to meet the individual's needs.


        GENERAL NOTES

        English Language Arts is not a discrete set of skills, but a rich discipline with meaningful, significant content, the knowledge of which helps all students actively and fully participate in our society. Standards should not stand alone as a separate focus for instruction, but should be combined purposefully.

        English Language Development ELD Standards Special Notes Section:

        Teachers are required to provide listening, speaking, reading and writing instruction that allows English language learners (ELL) to communicate information, ideas and concepts for academic success in the content area of Language Arts. For the given level of English language proficiency and with visual, graphic, or interactive support, students will interact with grade level words, expressions, sentences and discourse to process or produce language necessary for academic success. The ELD standard should specify a relevant content area concept or topic of study chosen by curriculum developers and teachers which maximizes an ELL’s need for communication and social skills. To access an ELL supporting document which delineates performance definitions and descriptors, please click on the following link: https://cpalmsmediaprod.blob.core.windows.net/uploads/docs/standards/eld/la.pdf


        VERSION REQUIREMENTS

        One-third of all Kindergarten-5th grade Sample ELA Book List(s) should be used in instruction, with a focus on grade-appropriate texts specific to student needs. 


        General Information

        Course Number: 5010030 Course Path: Section: Grades PreK to 12 Education Courses > Grade Group: Grades PreK to 5 Education Courses > Subject: English/Language Arts > SubSubject: General >
        Abbreviated Title: FNC BAS SKLS COMMS E
        Course Attributes:
        • Class Size Core Required
        • Florida Standards Course
        Course Status: Course Approved



        Educator Certifications

        Elementary Education (Grades K-6)
        Elementary Education (Elementary Grades 1-6)
        Reading (Elementary and Secondary Grades K-12)
        Prekindergarten/Primary Education (Age 3 through Grade 3)
        Primary Education (K-3)
        English (Elementary Grades 1-6)


        There are more than 720 related instructional/educational resources available for this on CPALMS. Click on the following link to access them: https://www.cpalms.org/PreviewCourse/Preview/22396