Lesson Plan Template: Model Eliciting Activity (MEA)
Introduction to Baseball - Students need familiarly with the basic terminology and structure of baseball. If the teacher is familiar with the concepts of a single, double, triple, etc., and earned run average, s/he can simply lead a class discussion of the game until s/he determines students have the necessary familiarity through discussion and oral question and answers. However, if the teacher prefers to use a more formal explanation of the game, there are good explanatory pages at:
Through prior instruction, students should be familiar with the concept of a weighted average. If the teacher believes the students may need practice/review on this topic, Formative Assessment Example #1 can be used.
Through prior instruction students should understand how to complete the missing item in a row of a table by subtracting the sum of the remaining items from the total. If the teacher believes the students may need practice/review on this topic, Formative Assessment Example #2 can be used.
Students can complete the task with pencil, paper, and a four-function calculator. Use of a graphing calculator or spreadsheet is optional, but can simplify and speed calculations.
As the students are working, the teacher should circulate and "listen in" to make sure students retained the understanding that the number of singles can be obtained by subtracting the sum of the doubles, triples, and home runs from the total hits. As a last resort, the teacher may want to make the relationship more explicit by using Formative Assessment Example #3 for a team that is not in the problem.
Feedback to Students
Students will receive continuous feedback.
Prior to the lesson, students will receive feedback in the form of a teacher-led discussion. Teachers will ask Readiness Questions to ensure students are prepared to begin the problem. Teachers will discuss correct answers and field any questions which may arise. Teachers will circulate during the problem to answer questions and give feedback. Where appropriate, the teacher will ask the Comprehension/Readiness questions to redirect students who are struggling.
Collect data sets 1 from each group after they finish working on Reading Passage and Data Set 1. Use the E-mail 1 rubric to assess E-mail 1, and return it to the group as soon as you have finished; your feedback on E-mail 1 may help them improve their product in Reading Passage and Data Set 2.
Collect Dat Set 2, and the second e-mails from each group. Use the Summative Assessment Rubric to assess.
This link includes answer keys for data sets 1 and 2, plus a couple of likely student solutions.
LAFS.9.10.WHST.1.2 Given a set of data with a request to order the individuals and make a recommendation based on specified criteria, the student will:
- Choose relevant information from the data given to develop a ranking system.
- Clearly explain the methodology used to determine the ranking.
- Show examples of calculations where helpful.
- Use precise language and correct contextual (baseball) vocabulary to describe the procedure used and make the recommendation.
- Maintain a casual but appropriate tone in the written response free from slang or profanity.
- Clearly recommend one of the individuals from the list provided and justify the recommendation based on the methodology used.
MAFS.912.F-BF.1.1 Given a table of data with a complete "total" column, but data missing from one informational column, the student will:
- Develop and write an appropriate function to calculate the value of the missing data
- Use the function to correctly calculate the value of the missing data.
- Students need familiarly with the basic terminology and structure of baseball.
- Students should know how to calculate a weighted average and understand when it is appropriate to use a weighted average.
- Students should understand how to complete the missing item in a row of a table by subtracting the sum of the remaining items from the total.
- If possible, a day or two before you plan to use the lesson, engage the class in a general conversation about baseball.
And so on. Use the responses to this discussion to identify those students (if any) who seem to have a working knowledge of the game. Create groups of four and “farm out” the most knowledgeable students so that they don’t end up in the same group together.
- Does anyone watch/play baseball?
- Who is your favorite team?
- What position do you play?
- Who is your favorite player?
- Do you ever go to the [local team name] games?
- Did anybody see the story in the news about [some baseball event or player recently in the news]?
- Who do you think is the best player ever?
- If you have students who prove to be totally unfamiliar with baseball, you will need to start with the Introduction to Baseball described in the Before Lesson item in the Formative Assessment part of the lesson. Conclude with Comprehension/Readiness Questions #1 – 4. (20 minutes)
- Confirm that students are comfortable with the other mathematical skills described in the Prior Knowledge section. If necessary, use the examples linked to from Formative Assessment to reinforce the needed skills. (25 minutes)
- Pass out Reading Passage 1 and give students time to read it carefully (about 10 minutes). After they finish reading, answer any questions the students have about the reading. Then distribute Data Set 1 and allow students time to examine it (5 minutes). Then ask the Readiness Questions (15-20 minutes).
- Allow students about 10 minutes to individually silently brainstorm ideas they might use to solve the problem. Then have students move to the groups you have determined previously to work on the problem.
- As students work together, circulate throughout the room. As you listen in, determine if you need to ask any or all of Comprehension/Readiness Questions #5 – 8. (20 minutes).
- After students have completed their work on Data Set 1, ask the Guiding/Reflective Questions. (15 minutes) Collect the completed E-mail 1 from students, but have them keep Data Set 1 to use in the second part of the activity. (Note: by collecting e-mail 1 here, you will insure that students have actually completed part 1 of the task, as the E-mail is to contain a complete explanation of the methods the students used. Use E-mail 1 rubric in the Summative Assessment to check the E-mail and return it to the students as they continue working on the Reading Passage and Data Set 2).
- Pass out Reading Passage 2 and give students time to read it carefully (about 10 minutes). After they finish reading, answer any questions the students have about the reading. Then distribute Data Set 2 and allow students time to examine it (5 minutes).
- As students work together, circulate throughout the room. As you listen in, determine if you need to ask any or all of Comprehension/Readiness Questions #9 – 11. (20 minutes).
- After students have completed their work on Data Set 2, ask Reflection Questions 2. (15 minutes)
- Students present their methodology and results to the class (5 – 10 minutes per group).
- Collect Data Sets 1 and 2 and the two e-mails and use the Summative Assessment Rubric to assess.
- If you had data for additional ballparks, could you apply the same method to rank them?
- Is there any additional information that would have your results better?
- Did you hear any ideas from your classmates that were different from your own? Do you agree or disagree with their method?
- Does your e-mail have all the parts you need to answer the question(s)?
Reading Passage 1
- What problem are you being asked to solve? (Which ballpark has the greatest home field advantage)
- Who is your "client?" (Ronnie, a simulation baseball league manager)
- What is your relationship to the client? (He is your friend)
- How will this affect your preparation of your response? (It may be informal, but should still be clear and free of slang)
- What things do you need to include in your solution? (A function for calculating the number of singles, the procedure we used for ranking the ballparks, and a recommendation of park with the greatest home field advantage.)
- Do you think there is more than one way you could come up with an answer?
Data Set 1
Letter Template 1
There are 10 questions which can be used to assess student comprehension as well as guide groups that may be having more difficulty. The attachment lists questions #1 – 4 to be used after the "introduction to baseball," questions 5 – 8 to be used while students are working on Data Set #1, and questions 9 – 11 to be used while students are working on Data Set #2.
- In a sentence or two, describe the difference between a double and a single.
(Answer: On a single, the hitter only advances to first base. On a double, the hitter advances to second base without stopping.)
- What is more valuable to the team: a double or a home run?
(Answer: a home run because it automatically scores a run. A player who makes a double might not score unless another player makes a hit.)
- It is easy to see who got more or less hits. How can this information help you determine who has the best home field advantage?
- Do you most teams hit as well in their home ballpark as they do when they are visiting another team? Why or why not?
(Answers will vary, and there is more than one right answer. Students may point out that teams hit better in their home park because they are more "comfortable" there. Some students may know that not every ballpark is the same size, so teams playing in bigger parks may get fewer hits than when they visit smaller parks. Students may point out that there are some parks where most teams get a lot of hits; Coors Field is an example due to the altitude. Students may also observe that teams that have poor attendance at their home games might hit better on the road because of livelier crowds.)
- How did you get the values in the "1B" column? Do the directions ask you to do anything specific regarding that column?
(Answer: Subtract the number of doubles + triples + home runs from the total hits. Write a function that can be used to do this.)
- Why do you think you were given counts for the different types of hits, instead of just the total number of hits? Why does it matter that the Cubs got 102 home runs at home when the Phillies got 84, since their total home hits only differ by 5?
(Answer: Because not every hit counts the same. A home run automatically scores; any other kind of hit does not. Also, a player who hits a triple is closer to going on and scoring than one who only hits a single).
- (Only if students are really struggling with the idea of finding the difference in total bases) I can see that Chicago and Milwaukee are only 5 hits apart at home. What about on the road? Since they are very close at home, should I say they both have about the same home field advantage?
(Answer: On the road, Milwaukee had more hits than they did at home, while the Chicago had fewer. So the hits show a home field advantage for Chicago, but not for Milwaukee).
- Is it possible to get a tie? If so, how would you break the tie?
(Answers will vary: choose the team with better attendance; choose the team with more hits at home even if the difference between the two is the same)
- If two teams have the same home ERA, how can you determine which team has the greater home field advantage?
(Answer: subtract the home ERA from the road ERA. The bigger the difference, the greater the home field advantage)
- Is it possible to tie? If so, how would you break the tie?
(Answers may vary, but probably look for the smaller home ERA)
- How do you determine that one ERA is "better" than another?
(Answers: lower/smaller ERA's are better)
Reading Passage 2
Lexile = 840L
Data Set 2
Additional Instructions or Materials
- pencil, eraser, paper
- four-function calculator
- optional: graphing calculator
- optional: computer with spreadsheet software
Reflection question 2
- Did the new (ERA) data change your park recommendation?
- Do you feel the new data made your recommendation better?
- Did other groups suggest ways to use the ERA that were different from yours? Do you agree or disagree with their method?
- Does your second e-mail have all the parts you need to answer the question(s)?