Lesson Plan Template: General Lesson Plan
Learning Objectives: What should students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?
- Following the lesson, students will be able to construct, compare and analyze fractions as a part of a group or set.
- Students will be able to defend, explain and justify their thinking.
- Students will be able to explain why two or more fractions are equivalent even though they have different denominators.
Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?
Prior to this lesson, students should have a basic knowledge of fractions, i.e. that a fraction is a part of a whole.
Students should have a basic knowledge of equivalency in fractions.
Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?
- How did you decide on the number of colored tiles to use?
- How are you able to prove that your chosen design matches the directive on the Fraction Action Card?
- Were there any colored tiles left over? How did you decide what to do with them?
- How would you be able to create the same fractional part but using a different design?
Teaching Phase: How will the teacher present the concept or skill to students?
- The teacher will read aloud the book Fraction Fun by David Adler. (For more information about the book (click to open))
- In this book, David Adler uses pizza to introduce students (with colorful illustrations) to the concept of parts of a whole and equivalent fractions.
- You may say to students that the author is using pizza to convey parts of a whole.
- For purposes of this classroom activity, students will use colored tiles to create a quilt.
Note: Students should be working in cooperative pairs (a group of 2). If you have an odd number of students, a group of 3 is acceptable.
- Distribute materials to each group of students: A baggie of colored tiles of assorted colors (See Teacher Recommendations), and a sheet of 1 inch square centimeter graph paper. Students should have their own crayons/colored pencils/markers.
- Instruct students to remove the colored tiles from the bag and place in front of them on their desk.
- Say, "Students, using your colored tiles, I'd like you to make a quilt design that is one half red."
- As students are constructing their quilt, circulate around the room. Make note of the quilt construction and ensure that, regardless of the number of tiles used, each quilt has one half that is red. The other half may be a color of their own choosing. Colored tiles should be placed on the graph paper with the teacher emphasizing that one individual square on the graph paper is equal to one quilt square. Crayons/markers will not be used in this phase of the lesson.
- Pause for class discussion. (You may want to give students a minute or two to get up and look at other students' quilt designs.)
- Ask, "Does everyone's quilt look the same?" "Did everyone use the same colors?" "Did everyone use the same number of colored tiles?" "How did your group decide how many tiles to use?"
- Repeat this activity, this time asking for one half green and one half blue.
- Again, allow students time to look at the quilt designs of their classmates. Students should begin to get the understanding that, even though you asked them to make a quilt design in halves, there are any number of colored tiles they could use - two, four, eight, twelve, etc.
- Ask, "When I instructed you to make a design that was one half green and one half blue, would you have been able to use a total of 15 tiles? 9 tiles?"Students should be led to the understanding that, in this instance, an even number of colored tiles would be a requirement.
Guided Practice: What activities or exercises will the students complete with teacher guidance?
- Before beginning this phase, pass out FRACTION_ACTION_CARDS.docx(click to open). Each group of students should have one set of cards. (Note: You may want to have these cards laminated prior to the lesson.)
- Direct students to take out Fraction Action Card #1 and work together to compete the assigned task. Circulate around the room to observe, question and probe.
- Specifically, each group will construct a physical model of the task assigned on this card, (See Teaching Phase). However, for this part of the lesson, after their physical model has been constructed and agreed upon by both members of the group, they will then transfer the physical model to a drawing on the graph paper.
- For example, if the Fraction Action Card states to "Construct a quilt that is one fourth red and three fourths green" they would first build that model with their colored tiles. Then, on the centimeter graph paper, shade the appropriate squares. On top of their drawing, they would write the fraction -- 1/4 red, 3/4 green". Since this part of the lesson is new, circulate to each group ensuring that they indeed have transferred the physical model to a model on the graph paper using crayons/markers before proceeding to the rest of the Fraction Action Cards. Only after checking each group, instruct students to proceed with the next 3 Fraction Action Cards.
- After students have completed 4 out of the 10* Fraction Action Cards, pause for discussion. *Remember that you have done one together; students will complete 3 independently). Again, give students a minute or two to walk around to look at the quilt designs of others. Lead a class discussion: "Do everyone's quilts look the same?" "If they don't look the same (remembering that everyone has the identical card) why not?"(Accept all answers.)
- Lead students in a discussion regarding equivalent fractions. You may use the above example (1/4 red and 3/4 green). Show how this quilt design could be made with only four tiles (one of them red and 3 of them green). Show how this same quilt design could have been made with 8 tiles (2 red and 6 green).
- Continue to model and ask students to build quilt designs showing equivalent fractions (5/6 and 10/12; 3/6 and 1/2 and 4/8), etc.
- Instruct students to continue on to complete cards 5-10. As students are working cooperatively, circulate and assist as necessary.
Independent Practice: What activities or exercises will students complete to reinforce the concepts and skills developed in the lesson?
- On a separate sheet of paper, have each group of students create one additional Fraction Action Card (of their own choosing) using exactly 18 colored tiles.
- Have them complete the action on the card, coloring a quilt. Students may then trade the Fraction Action Card they created with another group for the other group to "solve."
Closure: How will the teacher assist students in organizing the knowledge gained in the lesson?
- Each student will complete the following activity in their Math Journals:
- Draw and color a small quilt showing three different ways to make one fourth.
- Draw and color a small quilt showing two ways to make one third using more than three tiles.
- Defend, justify or refute this statement, "I am not able to make one half of anything if there is an odd number (total) of colored tiles."
- Collect Quilt Cards upon completion of the lesson.
- For homework that evening assign an additional Quilt Card according to this designated pattern:
- One fourth red
- Two eighths blue
- Four sixteenths yellow
- Color the remaining quilt a color of your choosing. Write a fractional amount for the additional color you chose. Are there any equivalent fractions in this quilt design? If so, write the equivalent fraction names.
While cooperative groups are making their quilt using the Fraction Action Cards, the teacher will circulate around the room, ask probing questions and assist. (For sample probing questions, please see "Guiding Questions" segment of this lesson plan.) With each group of children, these are the "look fors"*:
- Are students working cooperatively?
- How are students making decisions as to: the color of tiles? The total amount of tiles? The fractional parts required?
*For the purposes of this lesson, "look fors" is defined as specific tools and problem solving techniques the teacher is expecting to see as students work through their assigned tasks.
Feedback to Students
Verbal feedback and assistance will be provided throughout both the Guided and Independent Practice portions of the lesson as the teacher circulates throughout the room, guiding and assisting as necessary.
For example, students may need support in these areas:
- They may not be able to see that, for a fraction of 1/3, quilts can be made with more than 3 tiles. Assist, as necessary, in helping students to see that a fraction of 1/3 can also be made with 6 tiles, 9 tiles, etc.
- Numerical fractional relationships may be more easily "seen" with the use of a multiplication chart. Guide students in the use of the multiplication chart as they form fractional amounts.
ACCOMMODATIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS
Due the design of this lesson as a cooperative learning activity, assistance/support from peers is built in to the lesson. However, if students are struggling, provide support in the selection of tiles to be used for each Fraction Action Card, using, at first, only the minimum number of colored tiles.
- As an extension activity, you may give students a Fraction Action Card instructing them to make a particular design, however, limiting the amount of colored tiles they are able to use. For example, "I would like you to use only 16 tiles. Design and color a quilt that is one eighth blue, one half green, and three eighths yellow."
- Here is some additional practice with equivalent fractions.
Special Materials Needed:
- Fraction Fun by David Adler
- 1 inch centimeter grid paper
- 1 inch square colored tiles (blue, green, red and yellow)
- Markers, colored pencils or crayons
- Fraction Action Cards (attached)
- Lined paper and pencil
- Math Journals
Baggies with preselected tiles should be prepared prior to the lesson. Each baggie should have 32 colored tiles, with 8 of each color (blue, green, red and yellow).
This lesson is aligned with Mathematical Practice Standards: MAFS.K12.MP.4.1; MAFS.K12.MP.7.1; MAFS.K12.MP.8.1
SOURCE AND ACCESS INFORMATION
Name of Author/Source: Mary Kublin
District/Organization of Contributor(s): Brevard
Is this Resource freely Available? Yes
Access Privileges: Public
* Please note that examples of resources are not intended as complete curriculum.