Standard 16: Heredity and Reproduction

A. DNA stores and transmits genetic information. Genes are sets of instructions encoded in the structure of DNA.

B. Genetic information is passed from generation to generation by DNA in all organisms and accounts for similarities in related individuals.

C. Manipulation of DNA in organisms has led to commercial production of biological molecules on a large scale and genetically modified organisms.

D. Reproduction is characteristic of living things and is essential for the survival of species.

General Information
Number: SC.912.L.16
Title: Heredity and Reproduction
Type: Standard
Subject: Science
Grade: 912
Body of Knowledge: Life Science

Related Benchmarks

This cluster includes the following benchmarks.

Related Access Points

This cluster includes the following access points.

Independent

SC.912.L.16.In.1
Identify that genes are sets of instructions that determine which characteristics are passed from parent to offspring.
SC.912.L.16.In.2
Identify traits that plants and animals, including humans, inherit.
SC.912.L.16.In.3
Recognize that a substance called DNA carries genetic information in all organisms, and changes (mutations) in DNA can be helpful or harmful to an organism.
SC.912.L.16.In.4
Identify that cancer can result when cells change or grow uncontrollably.
SC.912.L.16.In.5
Identify ways that biotechnology has impacted society and the environment, such as the development of new medicines and farming techniques.
SC.912.L.16.In.6
Describe the basic process of human development from fertilization to birth.
SC.912.L.16.In.7
Recognize that cells reproduce by dividing to produce new cells that are identical (mitosis) or new cells that are different (meiosis).

Supported

SC.912.L.16.Su.1
Recognize characteristics (traits) that offspring inherit from parents.
SC.912.L.16.Su.2
Recognize that all organisms have a substance called DNA with unique information.
SC.912.L.16.Su.3
Recognize that cancer may result when cells change or grow too fast.
SC.912.L.16.Su.4
Recognize that new medicines and foods can be developed by science (biotechnology).
SC.912.L.16.Su.5
Recognize major phases in the process of human development from fertilization to birth.
SC.912.L.16.Su.6
Recognize that cells reproduce by dividing.

Participatory

SC.912.L.16.Pa.1
Recognize similar characteristics (traits) between a child and parents, such as hair, eye, and skin color, or height.
SC.912.L.16.Pa.2
Recognize similarities in characteristics of plants and animals of the same type (species).
SC.912.L.16.Pa.3
Recognize that illness can result when parts of our bodies are not working properly.
SC.912.L.16.Pa.4
Recognize a food.
SC.912.L.16.Pa.5
Recognize the sequence of human development from baby to child to adult.
SC.912.L.16.Pa.6
Recognize that living things produce offspring (reproduce).

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this topic.

Educational Games

Cell Cycle for 500, Alex - Cell Cycle Jeopardy Template:

This interactive website provides challenging questions for students to work cooperatively as they review for formative or summative assessments. The questions provide scaffolding as they progress in order from factual recall to inference.This activity addresses several standards including meiosis, mitosis, gamete/spore formation and independent assortment.

Type: Educational Game

The Control of the Cell Cycle:

The Control of the Cell Cycle educational game is based on the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, which was awarded for discoveries concerning the control of the cell cycle.

Type: Educational Game

Transcribe and Translate a Gene:

See how cells "read" the information in a DNA sequence to build a protein, then build one yourself!

Type: Educational Game

Lesson Plans

Using DNA to Identify People:

 Learning objectives:  Students will learn what DNA fingerprinting is, what it is used for, and how it is used in paternity testing and forensics.  Students will see how this technique actually works in lab.  Students will learn how to analyze the gels used in this technique to match babies to parents, and crime scene evidence to suspects.

Type: Lesson Plan

Do You See What I See:

The student will be able to describe the process of human development including major changes that occur in each trimester of pregnancy. Students will become scientists and explore the major changes that occur during embryo development. First, students will work in groups and correctly match the fetal development picture cards with the appropriate description. Next, students compare and share their findings with other groups and record this data. Finally, students will act as physicians as they investigate a medical case study of a pregnant woman and determine what trimester she is in by analyzing ultrasound reports detailing certain makers of the stages of development. Students will use a claim, evidence, rationale style activity using the ultrasound pictures and learned content to support their answers. The lesson culminates with students sharing their findings through a gallery walk.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Monster Mash: A Lesson About Transcription and Translation:

Students will model the process of protein synthesis and then model how those proteins result in phenotypic changes. Students will also be able to explain the function of models in science. Students will explore how variations in DNA sequences produce varying phenotypes. Students will complete transcription and translation of DNA and RNA and then determine phenotypes produced based on amino acid sequences while completing hands on activity. During this lesson, students will create a factious organism by rolling a dice to determine which DNA sequence it will receive. Students will then perform transcription and translation. Finally, students will determine the phenotype of the organisms by comparing its amino acid sequence to a key that will be provided. Lastly, students will create a picture of the fictitious organism.

Type: Lesson Plan

RNA and Protein Synthesis Activity with Lab:

This lesson will clear misconceptions and probe student thinking by utilizing differentiated instruction and implementing meaningful learning. The educator will also be able to provide students with real world examples. Students are given multiple opportunities to excel and demonstrate their content knowledge throughout this lesson. By assessing their prior knowledge prior to the beginning of a new chapter students will make connections to complex concepts.

Type: Lesson Plan

Transcription and Translation:

This lesson will help students understand how DNA directs the making of proteins. This lesson will also assist students in understanding the relationship between DNA and RNA and how transcription produces a single-stranded RNA molecule.

Type: Lesson Plan

Non-Mendelian Genetics: Not All Genetic Crosses Are Easy-PEAsy:

Students will compare and contrast the non-Mendelian inheritance patterns of codominance and incomplete dominance.

Type: Lesson Plan

Sex or No Sex? That is the Question!:

This lesson plan allows your students to research methods of reproduction that some organisms have available to them. The students will learn how some organisms can reproduce through asexual reproduction (mitosis) as well as through sexual reproduction (meiosis).

This resource can be as detailed and as lengthy as the teacher desires it to be. It can be used long-term to teach multiple subjects and skills, such as, plants, mitosis, meiosis, genetics, microscope skills, slide making, data keeping, research techniques, and/or nature of science. It can be begun at any time during the course of the school year.

Type: Lesson Plan

Illustration of the Cell Cycle: Using Printmaking Techniques to Design the Phases of the Cell Cycle :

Through use of arts integration and the 5E Lesson Model, students will use printmaking techniques to design and illustrate the cell cycle.

Type: Lesson Plan

Life after Death: Some Genes Remain "Alive":

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text intended to support reading in the content area. The article explains what happens to certain genes after an organism has died. This lesson also introduces a related video that explains how the fields of Genetics and Biotechnology have affected the field of Forensic Science. By reading the article and viewing the video, students will learn about new discoveries in gene function after death and the impact varying fields of science have upon another. This lesson includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Say Cheese! Do You Have a Genetic Disease?:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text intended to support reading in the content area. The article explains how biotechnology is being used to identify genetic conditions with a phone app that gathers data from a photo to generate a list of possible genetic conditions. This lesson includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

These GMO Apples Won't Turn Brown:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text intended to support reading in the content area. The article discusses the availability to the general public of GMO apples that take longer to turn brown. The article discusses the techniques utilized to accomplish the apples' genetic modification. A video explains the process of genetic modification and explains how GMOs have already been integrated into society. This lesson includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Spread of Rabies in Peru:

In this lesson plan, students will analyze an informational text intended to support reading in the content area. The article explains how the rabies virus is likely to spread from the interior of Peru to its coast by the year 2020. It further discusses the technology used to determine that the male vampire bat is most likely the carrier of the rabies virus to different areas in Peru. The lesson plan includes a vocabulary guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Central Dogma Protein Construction Stem Challenge:

Proteins are essential for all functions necessary for life in organisms. Proteins are created by reading the sequence of nucleotides in genetic material (DNA). During cellular processes known as transcription and translation, the DNA code is read, transferred into a copy called mRNA, and then the copy is read to create specific amino acids bonded together. The amino acids and their interactions create the specific shapes of proteins. In this activity you will be translating strands of DNA to mRNA, and then into small sequences of amino acids. The amino acids will then be bonded together based on their properties. The proteins will be analyzed for correct bonding patterns since the shape of the protein is directly related to the amino acid sequence and the protein's function.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Amazing Octopus:

In this lesson, students will read an article from the National Science Foundation that discusses the information gained through the first-ever sequencing of the octopus genome. The information gained will help scientists learn more about the function and development of the nervous system and can be applied to various aspects of brain research. This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

STEM Genetics Board Game:

This is a STEM challenge to assist in teaching the probability of traits being passed down from parents to offspring by creating and playing a board game. 

 

Type: Lesson Plan

Transcription & Translation in Action:

In this lesson, students will use manipulatives to act out the processes of transcription and translation. Upon completion, students are asked to complete a One Pager, graphic representation/reflection of their learning.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Making of a Marvel: Part 3:

This lesson emphasizes the phases of meiosis and how it is different from mitosis. Students will model each phase using candy worms as chromosomes and other types of candy to represent other cellular structures. This gives students a hands on perspective of meiosis, allowing them to better grasp the differences in phases, as well as to understand the importance of meiosis in sexual reproduction.

Type: Lesson Plan

New Research into Epigenetics and Rheumatoid Arthritis:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text that describes recent research into the underlying factors affecting rheumatoid arthritis. The text describes how epigenetic analysis in knee and hip joints revealed unique patterns that suggest the disease may differ from joint to joint. The findings may allow for the development of more effective, personalized treatment for those who suffer with RA. This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, a vocabulary handout, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Making of a Marvel: Part 4:

In this lesson, students will examine the process of fertilization. First, students will make predictions regarding the structures of egg and sperm and how it will aid or impede the fertilization process. Students will also make predictions about why meiosis produces differences in the numbers of sperm and eggs made available. Next, students will use microscopes to examine prepared slides of sperm and eggs. They will sketch each and label structures, and answer follow up questions at various DOK levels. For a final activity, students will use a word bank to fill in a narrative paragraph describing the fertilization process.

Type: Lesson Plan

Genetics, Genetics, and More Genetics:

Students will use appropriate tools (Punnett squares) and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data.Students will explore various modes of inheritance through a hands-on activity creating offspring of a fictitious organism. Students will complete Punnett Squares for various genetic crosses, and analyze and interpret the results of those crosses. Students will be able to predict the genotype and phenotype of P1 and F1 generations using Punnett Squares. Students will be able to identify complex patterns of inheritance such as co-dominance and incomplete dominance.

Type: Lesson Plan

Something Old, Something New...:

Students will reflect on prior knowledge, record their understanding of DNA replication based on a 3D computer model, and will then create a model demonstrating the process of DNA replication. Students will investigate where DNA replication occurs in the human body and why it occurs there. Additionally, students will investigate DNA mutations and their potential impact on the organism. Finally, students will summarize what they learned by collaborating with other classmates.

Type: Lesson Plan

Frankenfood or Superfood?:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text designed to support reading in the content area. The article addresses opposition to genetically modified foods. The text discusses the possible reasons why so many people are anti-GMO even though science finds them safe. GMOs allow for more of the world to be fed with a lower impact on the environment. The author suggests some ways that misinformation can be combated with education. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. Numerous options to extend the lesson are also included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Biotechnology at Work: GM Mosquitoes Reduce Dengue Fever:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text that addresses the release of genetically modified mosquitoes in Brazil to reduce the transmission of dengue fever. The male mosquitoes were modified so that when they reproduce, their offspring die before they can transmit the disease. The article contains a data table that shows a drastic reduction in the number of dengue cases in places where GM mosquitoes were used in addition to conventional control methods. This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Gene Transfer and Cancer: Are They Linked?:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text intended to support reading in the content area. The article addresses a recent discovery linking bacteria and cancer cells in human tissue. Researchers believe that lateral gene transfer might play a role in cancer and other diseases associated with DNA damage. These results may lead to personalized medicine and might possibly be used as preventive measures. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Editing Humanity's Problems with CRISPR:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text that describes a promising new gene editing technology called CRISPR. The text describes what CRISPR is and some of its potential applications for individual and public health. Potential ethical considerations and drawbacks are also discussed. The article highlights the inventor of the technology, Dr. Jennifer Doudna, who was recently awarded a $3 million Breakthrough Prize for life sciences. This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. Options to extend the lesson are also included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Far From Home: NASA's Year in Space Mission:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text that presents information on a year-long space mission aboard the International Space Station. This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes the mission of studying the long-term effects of microgravity on human health. Astronaut Scott Kelley and Cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko were used in the year-long study, along with Kelly's identical twin brother, Mark Kelly, who remained on Earth and was used as a control subject. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. Options to extend the lesson are also included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Cancer: A result of mutation?:

In this lesson, students will learn that genetic mutations can occur during the S phase of the cell cycle when DNA is replicated. When mutations arise in genes that control cell division, cancer may result.

Type: Lesson Plan

Cell Cycles, UV Damage, and Cancer:

This lesson asks students to investigate the potential risks of cancer associated with everyday carcinogens, including UV gel manicures, a popular beauty regimen in nail care.

Type: Lesson Plan

Of Mice and Mutations: Natural Selection in Action:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. In this lesson, students will analyze a text that addresses the issue of evolution by natural selection and mutation, using Florida "beach mice" as a case study. The lesson plan includes text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. Ideas for extending the lesson are also included.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Making of a Marvel: Part 1:

The Making of a Marvel Part 1 is the first lesson of the reproductive unit (six lessons total). Students will begin with making cost analysis lists, as a class, of costs and benefits to asexual and sexual reproduction. The goal of this introductory exercise is to grab attention and illustrate that in sexual reproduction, the value of genetic diversity is well worth the cost. The second phase of the lesson begins with a brief discussion on the anatomy of both male and female reproductive systems. Together as a class we will then label diagrams of both systems. As a final activity in the lesson, students will receive cut out diagrams of both male and female systems. In this hands-on-manipulative students will match the corresponding structure and function labels given to them with the correct part of the diagram. This lesson follows the gradual release method of I do, we do, you do.

Type: Lesson Plan

Modeling Transcription and Translation:

This lesson plan consists mostly of student-centered activities that involve learning and mastering the steps in DNA replication, transcription, and translation.

Type: Lesson Plan

Getting Tangled with Yarn and the Cell Cycle:

Students will use different yarn colors to illustrate the cell cycle, including interphase, mitosis, and cytokinesis.

Then, they will present their assignments in front of the class and complete a post-lesson worksheet.

Type: Lesson Plan

Got Bull?:

This MEA is a genetics based lesson for upper level biology students. Students will review the data on several bulls and help a client choose the best bulls to begin a new cattle operation.

Type: Lesson Plan

Making Mitosis with Yarn:

Students will model stages of mitosis and meiosis using yarn. By the end of the lesson, the students will be able to recognize the difference between mitosis and meiosis, know what type of cells are produced from mitosis and meiosis, and how many new cells are created at the end of each process.

This lesson is designed for student with mild/moderate disabilities enrolled in an Access class or in the inclusion classroom with assistance from the support facilitation teacher or possibly an Advanced Placement Biology student.

Type: Lesson Plan

Mutation Manipulation Simulation Lab:

DNA replication, mutations, the cell cycle, and cancer are often taught separately in high school biology. Composing an activity that connects the understanding of these concepts and how they are interrelated is not always done effectively. DNA replication is a normal task for all cells, yet some cells become cancer cells because of changes to their DNA. This unwanted mutation can surpass the check points in the cell cycle and overtake normal cells.

In this two day lesson, students will be reminded of those DNA concepts using reading strategies needed to support scientific explanation with research evidence in a concise activity. This lesson builds a scaffold of background knowledge from Day 1 to enhance the simulation lab of cancer cell engulfing normal cells in Day 2, which often causes the demise of otherwise healthy individuals. The entire lesson should take about 45 minutes each day.

Type: Lesson Plan

Protein Synthesis Math Relays!:

While working in cooperative groups, students will gain practice acting out DNA replication, transcription and translation! Instead of students creating a protein as their final piece, they will need to solve a math problem and supply the correct answer as their "protein"!

Type: Lesson Plan

The Real Story of Where Babies Come From:

Students will observe, explore, and create a story about the main structures of the female/male reproductive systems, describing how these systems interact during the process of fertilization to a create human being.

Type: Lesson Plan

Cell-U-Lar Wars ~ What Will Survive? Binary Fission Versus Mitotic Cell Division:

The students will learn that binary fission and mitosis are both methods of cell division used by various organisms. The students will compare and contrast the difference between both methods of cell division, while building background knowledge through cooperative, direct, and fun-filled scientific discovery. This lesson requires students to use multiple reading and learning strategies to increase their comprehension skills.

Type: Lesson Plan

Let's Cure Cancer!:

This a Model-Eliciting-Activity (MEA) that provides students with the opportunity to investigate the process of cancer as they research new chemotherapeutic agents to reduce cancer mortality rates and improve outcomes for cancer patients.

Type: Lesson Plan

Mendelian Genetics - Dihybrid Crosses:

This lesson allows for students to solve dihybrid crosses by applying their knowledge of Mendelian genetics. Students should already be familiar with monohybrid crosses prior to attempting this lesson.

Type: Lesson Plan

One Fly, Two Fly, Red Fly, Blue Fly:

Students apply the scientific process in an online lab inquiry of how traits are inherited with the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. They also learn and apply the principles of Mendelian inheritance. Students make hypotheses for monohybrid, dihybrid and sex-linked traits and test their hypotheses by selecting fruit flies with different visible mutations, mating them, and analyzing the phenotypic ratios of the offspring. Students record their observations into an online notebook and write an online lab report.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Code of Life:

This is a basic lesson on DNA transcription, one of the two primary steps in protein synthesis. Students will learn about the role of messenger RNA (mRNA) in transcription and translation through teacher- and student-led activities.

Type: Lesson Plan

Modeling Mitosis:

During this lesson, students will watch animated videos to provide a visual representation of the different phases of mitosis to reinforce the essential content being taught. Students will model the process of mitosis to demonstrate that cells repeatedly divide for growth and repair and daughter cells are identical to the parent cell.

Type: Lesson Plan

Understanding Translation:

In this lesson, the students will learn about the final step of protein synthesis through a series of activities. At the end of this lesson, the students will be able tie in translation and its role in protein synthesis.

Type: Lesson Plan

Protein Car Synthesis:

Students will use this hands on activity to work their way through Transcription and Translation. Students can work in small groups to first construct a complete code of mRNA, and then construct a protein by finding corresponding Anticodons from tRNA. The accurate Base Pairing will result in the accumulation of Amino Acids. Amino Acids will be represented with automobile parts. For the completion of this activity, students will be able to piece together a fully formed automobile (or protein). This activity is accompanied by a written analogy of Transcription and Translation using a library and a mechanic.

Type: Lesson Plan

Livestock Plans for Raising Red Nosed Reindeer:

This lesson about genetics and mutations investigates how red nosed reindeer could be raised in a livestock setting. Students will draw Punnett squares and design livestock plans for reproduction of red nosed reindeer.

Type: Lesson Plan

Protein Synthesis: Transcription & Translation:

Students will explore the process of protein synthesis, specifically transcription and translation, using a sequenced graphic organizer and an interactive simulation (Lesson 1 & 2).

This resource contains 3 lessons:

  • Lesson 1: Transcription & Translation
  • Lesson 2: Lac Operon
  • Lesson 3: Proteins & Cancer

As an extension (Lesson 3) the students will justify the applications of biotechnology that uses transcription and translation to synthesize proteins that target cancer cells or reason the possibilities of the amplification of antibodies using immortal cells.

They will explore how mutations, genetic or epigenetic (lifestyle-chemicals, radiation, viruses), resulting in cancer.

The student will connect changes that occur in the genetic code, during transcription and translation, to the deleterious impact on proto oncogenes that promote cell division and tumor suppressor genes that normally inhibit it.

Type: Lesson Plan

DNA Mutations:

In this lesson, students will learn the effect of DNA mutations on protein formation and phenotype. The students will convert a DNA sequence to an amino acid sequence and use color-by-number pictures to show the difference between an original and mutated sequence. Through comparisons with other students in the class, the students will learn that not all mutations will result in a change, while some may cause a great deal of change in a gene (and therefore the protein and/or phenotype).

Type: Lesson Plan

Ice Cream Sundae Gene Expression:

This lesson allows students to visualize how genes are expressed by completing the process of transcription and translation of 10 ice cream sundae genes. After students have completed the transcription and translation they will be using the expression of each gene to assemble an ice cream sundae with their coded ice cream type and toppings. The students will be able to make a connection between how genes are expressed in an ice cream sundae and relate it back to human gene expression.

Type: Lesson Plan

Transcription and Translation Made Easy:

"Transcription and Translation Made Easy" is an interactive whole-class activity that follows the transfer of information from the DNA to protein formation. The activity uses letters as parts of words as an analogy for amino acids as parts of proteins to allow the students to observe the type of mutations that may occur and the level of damage that each can cause.

Type: Lesson Plan

Eggenetic Baby:

Students will apply their knowledge of genetics and predicting heredity to synthesize an original model of traits.

Type: Lesson Plan

Cell Cycle Picture Book:

After reading the sections and/or chapter on the concept of the cell cycle, including mitosis, the students will be guided through the process of making a picture book. This picture book will enhance the students' knowledge of what occurs within the cell structures as it moves through all the stages of the cell cycle. This book will then be shared with other students and/or the teacher to demonstrate that each student can accurately describe the process of the cell cycle.

Type: Lesson Plan

Super Power Proteins:

In this lesson the students will have the opportunity to explore the concept of transcription with a hands-on, easy to use model and also be able to create a super hero to apply the concept.

Type: Lesson Plan

"DNA:Breaking the Code!":

In this lesson, students learn about DNA, the building block of genetic material. Students learn the basic components of DNA and see how they fit together. The teacher will offer activities and support to support with these goals. The goal of this lesson is to familiarize students to the cell and its DNA as the genetic material that manages how the cell will function. It is recommended to teach this lesson before teaching heredity is the passage of these instructions from one generation to another.

Type: Lesson Plan

Suspect Strawberry, DNA testing?:

This lesson uses the scientific method to extract DNA from food sources, other than strawberries, to support that DNA is common to almost all organisms.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Cell Cycle:

In this lesson students will explore the cell cycle and cell division. They will utilize Power Point presentations, videos and interactive animations to answer questions pertaining to the importance of mitosis and cell growth. To reinforce skills and concepts, students will do a flip chart activity.

Type: Lesson Plan

Alien Encounters -- Transcription and Translation:

This is a 3-4 day lesson which focuses on the role of DNA and RNA in protein synthesis. It teaches students about the process of transcription and translation which makes the amino acid chains. This lesson has a variety of activities to engage students in learning, including virtual manipulatives, tutorials, videos and a summative lab to wrap up information learned.

Type: Lesson Plan

Formation of New Cells:

This lesson focuses on comparing and contrasting mitosis and meiosis. Included in the activity is an interactive resource that allows students to explore both processes side by side.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Truth about Blue Eyes:


Students work together to understand an article describing how genes cause eye color (and it probably doesn't match what's in your textbook!)

Type: Lesson Plan

Cloning and Genetic Modification: What's the Difference?:

This multi-step lesson engages students in comparing and contrasting two current methods of bioengineering; cloning and genetic modification. After identifying how these processes are completed, students organize their new knowledge, peer review, and apply their ideas to hypothetical scenarios. Finally, students evaluate misconceptions and correct them in a letter to the editor format.

Type: Lesson Plan

Drawing the Cell Cycle Using Onion Root Tips:

In this lesson students will observe onion root tips under a microscope, count the number of cells they find in each stage of the cell cycle, and then use this information to draw a pie graph that will predict the percentage of time spent in each stage.

Type: Lesson Plan

What the HeLa?:

Students will watch a short video introducing what HeLa cells are and why they are worth some attention.
They will:

  1. In a group, research specific perspectives (family, society, medical/technology, legal rights).
  2. Record reasons they support/refute the ethical use of HeLa cells.
  3. Get into different groups with one perspective each to debate and come to a consensus as a whole: "Is the use of HeLa cells ethical?"

Type: Lesson Plan

Mitosis and Meiosis Pipe Cleaner Simulation: Crossing Over and Independent Assortment:

This lesson requires the students to simulate the movement of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis using different-colored pipe cleaners. The pipe cleaners allow the instructor to highlight both recombination (crossing over) and independent assortment, two important components of meiotic cell division. The processes that create variation among gametes are also emphasized.

This lesson plan includes excellent teacher support in the form of videos that explain how the pipe cleaners should be manipulated to demonstrate the concepts of mitosis, meiosis, and independent assortment.

Type: Lesson Plan

Bioengineered Foods:

In this lesson, students compare the processes of selective breeding and transgenic manipulation of plants. They consider the pros and cons of growing genetically modified crops. They explore the possible future consequences of genetically modified organisms. Finally, they analyze public opinion data about the use of genetically modified foods

Type: Lesson Plan

Evaluating Claims About Cancer:

Students identify claims about UV exposure presented in a selection of media items, then design, execute, and report the results of an experiment designed to test one such claim.

Type: Lesson Plan

Cancer and the Cell Cycle:

Students use five web animations and four videos to help them construct an explanation for how cancer develops, then use their new understanding to explain several historical observations about agents that cause cancer. After completing this activity, students will:

  • understand that many different agents can cause cancer,
  • understand that cancer represents a breakdown of the processes that regulate the growth of normal cells and tissues,
  • recognize that cancer develops as a result of genetic damage that occurs to cells across time,
  • be able to explain that cancer is associated with the occurrence of damage to particular classes of genes involved in the normal regulation of the cell cycle, and
  • understand that studying the processes involved in the development of cancer has led to a significantly increased understanding of the normal cell cycle as well as to new strategies for treating cancer.

Type: Lesson Plan

Cancer as a Multistep Process:

This lesson is the third in a series, preceded by "The Faces of Cancer" and "Cancer and the Cell Cycle." In this lesson, students use random number tables and an Internet-based simulation to test several hypotheses about the development of cancer.

After completing this activity, students will:

  • understand that cancer results from the accumulation of genetic damage to cells across time, and
  • be able to explain the increase in cancer incidence that occurs with an increase in age in terms of a multiple hit (mutations in a number of genes) hypothesis for cancer's development.

Type: Lesson Plan

Acting on Information About Cancer:

Students assume the roles of federal legislators and explore several Cell Biology and Cancer website resources to identify reasons to support or oppose a proposed statute that would require individuals under the age of 18 to wear protective clothing when outdoors.

After completing this activity, students will:

  • understand that science can help us improve personal and public health,
  • be able to explain that good choices can reduce an individual's risk of developing cancer and can improve an individual's chance of survival if he or she does develop it,
  • understand that ethics brings to public policy debates two presumptions: that we should protect individual autonomy and that we should protect individual and societal health and well-being,
  • recognize that ethical values sometimes conflict in public policy debates about strategies for reducing the risk of cancer, and
  • understand that it is possible for people to hold different positions on a controversial topic and still participate in a reasoned discussion about it.

Type: Lesson Plan

Mendelian Genetics:

A full lesson plan on teaching Mendelian Genetics and how to use and understand Punnett squares.

Type: Lesson Plan

Tissue Specific Gene Expression:

How is it that all cells in our body have the same genes, yet cells in different tissues express different genes? A basic notion in biology that most high school students fail to conceptualize is the fact that all cells in the animal or human body contain the same DNA, yet different cells in different tissues express, on the one hand, a set of common genes, and on the other, express another set of genes that vary depending on the type of tissue and the stage of development. In this video lesson, the student will be reminded that genes in a cell/tissue are expressed when certain conditions in the nucleus are met. Interestingly, the system utilized by the cell to ensure tissue specific gene expression is rather simple. Among other factors - all discussed fully in the lesson - the cells make use of a tiny scaffold known as the "Nuclear Matrix or Nucleo-Skeleton". This video lesson spans 20 minutes and provides 5 exercises for students to work out in groups and in consultation with their classroom teacher. The entire duration of the video demonstration and exercises should take about 45-50 minutes, or equivalent to one classroom session. There are no supplies needed for students' participation in the provided exercises. They will only need their notebooks and pens. However, the teacher may wish to emulate the demonstrations used in the video lesson by the presenter and in this case simple material can be used as those used in the video. These include play dough, pencils, rubber bands (to construct the nuclear matrix model), a tennis ball and 2-3 Meters worth of shoe laces. The students should be aware of basic information about DNA folding in the nucleus, DNA replication, gene transcription, translation and protein synthesis.

Type: Lesson Plan

From Teenage to Old Age: How Cancer Develops Over Time:

This lesson focuses on: how cancer is caused by mutations that accumulate over time in cells' DNA, how the genes mutated in cancer are involved in normal cell growth & division, and how different types of mutations affect the functions of these genes. We recommend that this lesson be the first BLOSSOMS lesson on cancer, that the students use, from the series of three cancer lessons made by scientists at the Broad Institute of MIT & Harvard. It would be helpful if the students already knew basic information about DNA structure & function, and how mutations can affect the RNA & protein encoded by this DNA. Only paper and writing utensils, and the ability to print out or display the provided handouts, are necessary to complete this lesson. This lesson is intended to take one or two class periods. The two most central hands-on activities in the lesson are as follows:

  • Students do an activity with a "mutation mat" (which is much like a bingo board) that shows how mutations accumulate in cells over time. This activity demonstrates why cancer is a disease of old age, because the more years that pass, the higher the chance that enough mutations have occurred in the relevant genes in a single cell, to cause it to become a cancer cell.
  • Students complete a worksheet about various examples of "mutations" that could affect a steam engine train and cause it to barrel out of control (for example: if the train's brakes aren't working, or if the coal shovelers are shoveling too quickly).

The lesson ends with two additional discussion topics: how a person can be pre-disposed to cancer if he/she inherits a mutation from his/her parents; and how different tissues in the body get exposed to different mutagens, thus causing different types of cancer.

Type: Lesson Plan

The King of Dinosaurs or a Chicken Dinner?:

This lesson uses the fundamentals of protein synthesis as a context for investigating the closest living relative to Tyrannosaurus rex and evaluating whether or not paleontologist and dinosaur expert, Jack Horner, will be able to "create" live dinosaurs in the lab. The first objective is for students to be able to access and properly utilize the NIH's protein sequence database to perform a BLAST, using biochemical evidence to determine T rex's closest living relative. The second objective is for students to be able to explain and evaluate Jack Horner's plans for creating live dinosaurs in the lab. The main prerequisite for the lesson is a basic understanding of protein synthesis, or the flow of information in the cell from DNA to RNA during transcription and then from RNA to protein during translation. You will find downloadable handouts of the necessary documents for the lesson. To complete the lesson, you will need the handouts and ideally computers with Internet connections so that students can complete the BLAST on their own or in groups. The computers are not a requirement, however, because the video has an optional segment that goes through the BLAST step-by-step and shows students exactly what they would see if they were doing it themselves. There is an optional reading assignment from WIRED magazine at the close of the lesson, and the article can be accessed for free on-line at http://www.wired.com/magazine/2011/09/ff_chickensaurus/. The lesson should take somewhere around 90 minutes, a portion of which is group or classroom discussion based on prompts from the video or the handouts.

Type: Lesson Plan

Cells on Stage:

The lesson addresses the phases of the cell cycle and mitosis through live acting

Type: Lesson Plan

Cleaning Up Your Act:

Cleaning Up Your Act Model Eliciting Activity (MEA) provides students with a real world engineering problem in which they must work as a team to design a procedure to select the best material for cleaning up an oil spill. The main focus of this MEA is to recognize the consequences of a catastrophic event, and understand the environmental and economical impact based on data analysis. Students will conduct individual and team investigations in order to arrive at a scientifically sound solution to the problem.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Making of a Super Hero (39855):

Part 1 - Students will transcribe and translate their way through a fun classroom scavenger hunt.
Part 2 - After genetically manipulating Joe's DNA, students try to develop the next Super Hero.

Type: Lesson Plan

How to be a Molecular Biologist the Easy Way:

This lesson plan details the ethical concepts of biotechnology and allows students to explore basic concepts of manipulating and analyzing DNA in a classroom setting. The lesson takes the students through a discussion of controversial topics related to molecular biology and biotechnology, DNA isolation, restriction digestion of DNA, gel electrophoresis, and DNA cloning.

Type: Lesson Plan

From Cell to DNA:

The goal of this lesson is to introduce students to the human cell and its DNA as the genetic information that governs how the cell will function.

Type: Lesson Plan

Genetically Modified Foods:

Using short videos, articles and a scavenger hunt, students will learn the process of genetically modifying crops and understand the benefits and drawbacks of genetically modified foods.

Type: Lesson Plan

Cancer: Cells Make Mistakes Too!:

Students will practice reading in the content area and answer questions regarding cancer and how it spreads.

Type: Lesson Plan

Bird Brains - Evolutionary Relationships:

Students will compare the sequence of amino acids in a gene shared between humans and six other organisms and infer evolutionary relationships among the species.

Type: Lesson Plan

Killer Microbe:

A lesson about the important topic of antibiotic-resistant bacteria with student activities and A/V resources.

Type: Lesson Plan

Profile: Judah Folkman Cancer Research:

This PBS/NOVA lesson combines a discussion of the Nature of Science using a renowned Cancer researcher (and supported by the profiles of several other renowned scientists in the activities) to study concepts of creativity and tentativeness in the Nature of Science with a study of the biological characteristics of cells in disease (cancer).

Type: Lesson Plan

Personal DNA Testing:

A lesson with multi-media components from PBS/NOVA that focuses on DNA testing, including techniques, purposes, and considerations for biotechnology and human decisions regarding health. Students will learn about single nucleotide polymorphisms, how they are used in science, and how they are being used in the medical field. Students will apply this knowledge by looking at a mock data set and probabilities to inform medical recommendations.

Type: Lesson Plan

Pandemic Flu:

In this lesson, students will model an avian-human flu virus structure, replication, and spread. The accompanying PBS NOVA movie Pandemic Flu regarding H5N1 Avian and Swine Flu highlights interactions between the virus, humans, and birds.

Type: Lesson Plan

Applied mitosis and meiosis: plant biotechnology:

Students will learn about sexual and asexual reproduction and relate each to the process of mitosis and meiosis within the context of plant biotechnology

Type: Lesson Plan

CRACKING THE CODE/CLONING PAPER PLASMID:

This is an activity where students "crack" the genetic code. They will "read" and "write" a message. They will also participate in "cloning" a plasmid.

Type: Lesson Plan

Dragon Genetics:

In this lab, Dragon Genetics: Principles of Mendelian Genetics, students learn the principles of Mendelian genetics by using Popsicle sticks, each of which represents a pair of homologous chromosomes with multiple genetic traits. Pairs of students use their sets of Popsicle sticks to represent a mating and then identify the genetic makeup and phenotypic traits of the resulting baby dragon.

Type: Lesson Plan

Genotype and Phenotype Activity:

This is a hands-on activity that will help students distinguish between genotype and phenotype.

Type: Lesson Plan

How Do Babies Develop?:

In this lesson, students explore the development of the human fetus during pregnancy.

Type: Lesson Plan

Human Reproduction:

Students learn about the male and female reproductive systems and the developmental changes of pregnancy. Students will create a timeline about the trimesters of pregnancy.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Wolfman Syndrome:

This clicker case uses congenital generalized hypertrichosis (CGH), a rare genetic disease, to teach students the basic principles of Mendelian inheritance.

Students watch a video clip from an ABC News interview that introduces them to Danny Gomez, a circus performer with the Mexican international Circus. Danny and several other family members of his family have a condition called hypertrichosis-excessive hair growth in areas of the body that is not predominately androgen dependent. In the process of meeting Danny and his family, students learn basic genetic concepts including DNA organization, karyotype analysis, dominance and recessive patterns of inheritance, sex linkage, and lyonization, as well as a brief introduction to the evolutionary idea of atavism.

Type: Lesson Plan

Where it all Begins: The Basic Structures of the Reproductive System:

Students will identify and/or describe the basic anatomy and physiology of the human reproductive system. Students will understand how the structures of the human reproductive system work together to create and deliver gametes for fertilization.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorials

Hidden Mutations:

Dive into genetic mutations and learn how they can alter the phenotypes of organisms.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Cell Cycle and Mitosis:

Follow the life of a cell in the tightly controlled process called the cell cycle! In this interactive tutorial, you will learn how a single cell gives rise to two identical daughter cells during the cell cycle and mitosis.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Mitosis and Cell Division:

Explore the steps of mitosis and cell division in this interactive tutorial, and see how they result in the separation of a cell's genetic material and division of its contents into two identical daughter cells. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Human Reproductive System, Part 1:

Explore the genetic advantage of sexual reproduction, describe the basic anatomy and physiology of both the male and female human reproductive systems, describe the process of human development leading up to birth, and identify major changes associated with each trimester of pregnancy.

This interactive tutorial is part 1 in a two-part series. Click here to launch Part 2, Human Reproductive System, Fetal Development

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Human Reproductive System (Part 2):

Explore the process of human development leading up to birth, and identify major changes associated with each trimester of pregnancy.

This interactive tutorial is part 2 in a two-part series. Click here to launch Part 1, Human Reproductive Systems.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Assessment of Genetic Biodiversity through Biotechnology:

Examine how genetic identification is aiding marine biologists studying organisms in deep ocean regions. This interactive tutorial also features a CPALMS Perspectives video.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Reproduction Strategies:

Explore consequences and challenges of reproductive strategies of sea anemones.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing Patterns of Inheritance:

Learn strategies to help you solve genetics problems by applying your knowledge of inheritance patterns. You’ll encounter a few “mystery cases” that you’ll solve through your genetics analysis in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

DNA to Genes to Proteins:

Learn about the first step of protein synthesis, transcription of DNA to RNA. In this interactive tutorial, you'll explore epigenetics as a mechanism to activate or inactivate gene expression. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis:

Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis in this interactive tutorial. You'll also relate them to the processes of sexual and asexual reproduction and their consequences for genetic variation.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Protein Synthesis: Your Personal Protein Factory:

Explore the basic processes of transcription and translation, and how they result in the expression of genes as you complete this interactive tutorial.

 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

DNA Replication:

Learn how to identify explicit evidence and understand implicit meaning in a text…

You began your life as a single cell and you now have trillions of cells. Even though a cell only uses a portion of its DNA, each cell contains the same set of DNA instructions. How is it possible that DNA can be copied so that every cell gets the same set of instructions? By the end of this tutorial you should be able to describe how DNA is copied and explain how this process allows cells to have identical genetic information.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Meiosis: A Special Kind of Cell Division:

Learn how to describe Meiosis, the process by which sex cells--the sperm and the egg--are created in living things. In this interactive tutorial, you will also discover how sexual reproduction results in genetically diverse offspring.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Cancer: Mutated Cells Gone Wild!:

Explore the relationship between mutations, the cell cycle, and uncontrolled cell growth which may result in cancer with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Complex Modes of Inheritance:

Learn the basics of inheritance in this interactive tutorial. You discover how to differentiate between polygenic and multiple alleles, predict genetic outcomes using a Punnett square, and analyze inheritance patterns caused by various modes of inheritances including codominant, incomplete dominance, sex-linked, polygenic, and multiple alleles. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Universal Genetic Code:

Learn how to better understand the composition of DNA, the purpose of the information in DNA, why the DNA sequence is considered a universal code, and what might happen if mistakes appear in the code.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Impact of Biotechnology:

Learn how to identify and define types of biotechnology and consider the impacts of biotechnologies on the individual, society and the environment in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Perspectives Video: Experts

Cancer, a patient's story:

Basic cancer mechanisms and current treatment options.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Relationship of Cnidarian Gametes and Body Mass:

Will Ryan describes the relationship between anemone reproductive strategy and body mass.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Rapid Genetic Identification of Sharks:

Dr. Mahmood Shivji explains how rapid genetic testing of shark tissue samples is used to address societal pressures on marine environments.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Assessment of Genetic Biodiversity of Deep-sea Fish in the Gulf of Mexico:

Dr. Mahmood Shivji describes research efforts to assess biodiversity of fish species in the deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico through the use of genetic testing.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Gene Expression and Regulation:

Genes are transcribed and translated into proteins, a process called gene expression. Learn here how you have the proteins you need in the quantities required through regulation.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

DNA Microsatellite Analysis for Plant Ecology:

Dr. David McNutt explains how large clonal plant populations can be analyzed with microsatellite analysis of their DNA.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Proteins and Secretory Pathways:

A cell has made a protein; now what? Learn more about protein secretion!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Biochemistry and Medicine:

Advances in "big data" are leading to rapid developments in personalized medicine. Learn more!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Gene Expression:

Check this out and learn about how prokaryotes and eukaryotes regulate gene expression.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Transcription and Translation:

How do you know what genes are thinking? By their expression. Learn more from a plant geneticist.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

The Geometry of DNA Replication:

A discussion of the applications of Knot Theory, replication of DNA, enzymes, and fluid dynamics.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Mutations, the Cell Cycle, and Cancer:

Sometimes the cell cycle gets derailed a bit, which can lead to the development of tumors. Learn more about mutations!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Protein Factories:

What's in a molecular biologist's toolbox? Very small tools for working with cellular machines and molecules!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Agriculture: Plant Propagation via Asexual Reproduction:

This plant geneticist wants to propagate knowledge about different kinds of plant propagation.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Agriculture: Mitosis and Meiosis:

Your understanding of agriscience will bloom and grow as this plant geneticist describes how they use mitosis and meiosis when developing new grape varieties.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Observable Inheritance Patterns:

A plant geneticist describes observable inheritance patterns and genetic mutations in maize.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Viticulture and Biotechnology:

A viticulture scientist explains grape expectations for medicine and society.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Viruses, Bacteria, and Biotechnology:

Watch now and learn more about plants, bacteria, and phage viruses!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiasts

Pregnancy and Birth:

This woman knows all about birthing babies!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

DNA Biotechnology and Forensic Science:

Watch as Sue Livingston reveals how DNA and forensic biotechnology methods can be used to help solve crimes.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Perspectives Video: Teaching Ideas

Teaching Inheritance with Alien Family Photos:

Here's a genetics activity that's out of this world!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Using Films to Connect Science Content to the Real World:

Get out the popcorn; it's time for science. This teacher talks about three films she uses to make movie day a productive class day.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Karyotyping :

In this table-top karyotyping activity, students group chromosomes, identify abnormalities, and then research the resulting genetic disorder.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Tabletop Mitosis:

Is that your tosis? No, it's mitosis! Listen to this teacher describe a fun, interactive simulation that will help students understand mitosis and the cell cycle.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Modeling Incomplete Dominance and Co-Dominance:

Don't lose your marbles over genetics concepts! Here's an idea to teach about non-Mendelian inheritance!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Resource Collection

neoK12:

Educational lesson, videos and games for K-12 students. Covers all subjects, with Science and Social Studies very well represented.

Type: Resource Collection

Student Center Activities

Acting Out Transcription and Translation (A Model):

Use this resource as a follow up to the following video that explains RNAi http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/lsps07.sci.life.gen.rnai/rnai-discovered/. This group activity can introduces two analogies to illustrate how RNAi interferes with specific gene expression and protein production. In the first model, students review protein synthesis. In the second model, the interference of RNAi with the protein production is illustrated. Throughout this process, students develop an understanding of transcription and translation.

Type: Student Center Activity

Dihybrid Cross Problem Set:

In this problem set, multiple choice problems are displayed one at a time. If students answer correctly, they are shown a short explanation. If their answer is incorrect, a tutorial will follow, and the students will be given another chance to answer.

Type: Student Center Activity

Teaching Ideas

Dihybrid Crosses:

This simple guide will walk you through the steps of solving a typical dihybrid cross common in genetics. The method can also work for any cross that involves two traits.

Type: Teaching Idea

Fish and Onions, Can You Dig It?:

This resource provides microscope photos of fish and onion cells and allows students to identify the phase of mitosis shown in each photograph.

Type: Teaching Idea

Modeling Transcription and Translation :

In the lab "From Gene to Protein - Transcription and Translation," students learn how genes are involved in the process of protein synthesis, including exploring specific examples such as albinism and sickle cell anemia. Students use paper models to simulate the process of transcription and translation.

Type: Teaching Idea

Translation Activity-SeaWorld Classroom Activity:

Students will identify the steps involved in the translation process.

Type: Teaching Idea

Comparing and Contrasting Mitosis and Meiosis:

This step-by-animations explores the stages of two types of cell division, mitosis and meiosis, and how these processes are compared and contrasted to one another and provides a printable version.

Type: Teaching Idea

Text Resources

This App Uses Facial Recognition Software to Help Identify Genetic Conditions:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article describes a new tool (Face2Gene) that is being used by geneticists to help identify genetic disorders. The app uploads a picture and searches databases for specific facial measurements and characteristics common to specific genetic conditions. The app sends out a list of possible conditions, as well as a metric of their likelihood.

Type: Text Resource

Some Genes Remain "Alive" for Days After the Body Dies:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Researchers from the University of Washington, led by microbiologist Peter Nobel, found that hundreds of genes reawaken and function in mice and fish for up to four days. Nobel also discovered that these genes are responsible for responding to stress and regulating the immune system. There were also others that are important for a developing embryo being used and these shouldn’t be needed after birth. In addition, the genes may also be linked to increased cancer in organ transplants and scientists are hoping to use the information in forensic science to better estimate a time of death.

Type: Text Resource

Rabies Could Spread to Peru's Coast by 2020:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses how the rabies virus is likely to spread to the coast of Peru by the year 2020. It further discusses the technology used to determine that the male vampire bat is most likely the carrier of the rabies virus to different areas in Peru.

Type: Text Resource

The First Non-Browning GMO Apples Slated to Hit Shelves Next Month:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article discusses newly developed apples that have lower levels of PPO enzyme, thus keeping them from turning brown quickly.

Type: Text Resource

First-Ever Octopus Genome Sequenced:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses the information gained through the sequencing of the octopus' genome. This information will help scientists learn more about the function and development of the nervous system and can be applied to brain research.

Type: Text Resource

GM Mosquitoes Succeed at Reducing Dengue, Company Says:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article describes a recent study that allowed researchers to prove the benefits of releasing GM mosquitoes in Brazil in order to decrease disease transmission. At first, research showed that the mosquito population had dropped, but then the research also showed that diseases like dengue fever had dropped dramatically in comparison to areas with conventional mosquito control.

Type: Text Resource

Why People Oppose GMOs Even Though Science Says They Are Safe:

The informational text resource explains why the conventional wisdom of much of the public tends to be against GMOs: genetically modified organisms. Author Stefaan Blancke discusses why people feel hostile toward GMOs: because of emotions, intuitions, and essentialism. The author explains that science has found nothing unsafe about GMOs, but he does conclude that each GMO should be researched and admits that some GM applications could have unwanted effects.

Type: Text Resource

Rheumatoid Arthritis Mechanisms May Vary by Joint:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. New research indicates that rheumatoid arthritis mechanisms may vary by joint. These findings may point to developing specific therapies for individual patients that target precise locations.

Type: Text Resource

Bacterial DNA May Integrate into Human Genome More Readily in Tumor Tissue:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article describes how scientists have recently found that lateral gene transfer occurs more rapidly into cancer or tumor cells than in normal, healthy cells. Scientists are going to further their research to see if there is a link between lateral gene transfer from the microbes that live on or around us and cancer. They believe this will also lead to a more personalized type of medicine.

Type: Text Resource

Rewriting Genetic Information to Prevent Disease:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. CRISPR is an ancient immune response mechanism found in many bacteria that can locate and destroy the genome of an invader, such as a virus. Now researchers want to harness this natural system to control gene editing and regulation, and potentially correct harmful genetic mutations in humans. The ethical considerations of this technology are also discussed.

Type: Text Resource

Ten things to know about Scott Kelly’s #YearInSpace:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article describes an ongoing NASA research project where astronaut Scott Kelly and cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko are being tested for the effects of a year-long spaceflight. However, the science of their mission spans three years: one year before they left, one year in space, and another upon their return. In addition, part of the research also includes the Twin Study; Scott’s identical twin brother, and a former astronaut, served as a human control on the ground during Scott’s year-long stay in space.

Type: Text Resource

The Mythology of Natural Selection:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text describes how natural selection occurs when mutations occur in an individual's DNA sequence. Two different populations can have two different genetic mutations yet end up with a similar phenotype.

Type: Text Resource

Long-held Theory on Human Gestation Refuted:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This is a fine synopsis of a previously reported (and highly technical) study that shows the thought process behind challenging an existing theory. The subject is human evolution and the biology of childbirth. It encompasses basic anthropology concepts such as walking upright, as well as the biology of energy needs in pregnancy. Long-held views (that narrow birth canals are required for bipedalism) are debunked by careful analysis of how women with varying hip widths actually walk—and the authors found no difference.

Type: Text Resource

Genetic Solution to Cancer, Diabetes?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text describes a rare form of dwarfism called Laron's Syndrome, which is associated with an unusually low incidence of cancer and diabetes. This combination of characteristics allows scientists to speculate on the relationship between all three conditions. It appears that a mutation that causes dwarfism protects against the common diseases of cancer and diabetes.

Type: Text Resource

Cloning Is Used to Create Embryonic Stem Cells:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article explains how cloning technology has achieved the long-desired goal of creating embryonic stem cells. It explores the science and morality of this complex issue.

Type: Text Resource

Is Large-Scale Production of Biofuel Possible?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Is large-scale production of biofuel possible? The author attempts to answer this key question. As the world seeks to decrease its dependence on petroleum fuel by genetically engineering certain crops, there is the potential to commercially produce biofuels. Plant sources for bioenergy, the harnessing of plant bioenergy, and the sustainability of the industry are all issues considered in this text. The article discusses both environmental and economic consequences.

Type: Text Resource

Humans and Squid Evolved Same Eyes Using Same Genes:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text discusses the evolution of the eye across different types of organisms. Eyes have evolved independently several times (such as in squid vs. humans), though all animals with eyes share the Pax6 gene, which is responsible for organizing the formation of a simple eye. The evolution of the Pax6 gene, particularly in how its RNA product is spliced, is responsible for the diversity of eye types, such as the camera eye in squid.

Type: Text Resource

Killing a Patient to Save His Life:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article explores a controversial clinical trial being conducted by the University of Pittsburgh. Scientists are exploring more efficient ways to save lives when patients enter the emergency room in critical condition. The idea involves draining the patient's blood and replacing it with freezing saltwater to induce a hypothermic state that will buy doctors more time to save human lives. This is causing an ethical debate as patients will be essentially clinically dead during this procedure. The technique is known as Emergency Preservation and Resuscitation (EPR).

Type: Text Resource

The Cell's Protein Factory in Action:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The ribosome, the site of protein synthesis, is the focus of this article. The text describes how a problem-some antibiotics are targeting the ribosomes of both harmful and beneficial bacteria-is being solved by studying the movement of ribosomes during translation.

Type: Text Resource

Ethical Issues in Genetic Engineering and Transgenics:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This thought-provoking article explores ethical issues and legal implications associated with genetic engineering and transgenics. It discusses the science behind genetic engineering, current research developments, and potential societal issues surrounding bioengineering of humans and other organisms.

Type: Text Resource

Cell Cycle and Cell Division:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The phases of the cell cycle are described, along with scientists' methods of studying the process. The proteins and cyclins involved in cell division are explained as well. The text ends by exploring future opportunities for discovery in this field.

Type: Text Resource

Body's Immune System Kills Mutant Cells Daily:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article explores how scientists discovered that the immune system naturally suppresses cancer while they were researching how B cells change during the growth of lymphoma. The text explains how T cells work as an "immune surveillance" and can be a way of preventing blood cancers. Through experimentation, scientists discovered how vitally important those cells are to possibly suppressing other forms of cancer in the future.

Type: Text Resource

Raman Method Analyzes Live Cells Quickly and Accurately :

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology has developed a non-invasive process for analyzing living cells. This technique uses Raman spectroscopy and will be able to to identify cancer cells based upon their unique Raman spectra. Alternative applications include separating bone marrow from other tissues for transplantation.

Type: Text Resource

How Basic Research Fuels Medical Advances:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Research out of Scripps Research Institute's Florida campus illustrates how studying simple processes, such as DNA replication, can lead to highly beneficial medical advances: in this case, a possible cure for adult-onset muscular dystrophy. The article also shows how basic research has led to some familiar medical applications.

Type: Text Resource

Animal Clones: Double Trouble?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Would you want to eat "clone chops?" This article discusses the possibility of food products derived from cloned animals appearing on our plates in the future. Also included is a brief history of cloning and the methods by which it is executed. In addition, the ethical and health arguments surrounding this development are discussed.

Type: Text Resource

Sexual Reproduction - How it Works:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article gives an overview of the human reproductive system, including the organs that are present in both sexes and the role that each gender plays in reproduction. It is organized in a manner that supports readers' comprehension of the subject and captures their attention.

Type: Text Resource

"Nanodaisies" Deliver Drug Cocktail to Cancer Cells:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This short but sophisticated article explains how a team of researchers developed daisy-shaped nanostructures to battle cancer cells and the potential impact this biotechnology may have on medical issues.

Type: Text Resource

Chemists Expand Nature's Genetic Alphabet:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article provides some of the newest and most exciting information relating to the DNA in living things. It is a synopsis of a recent experiment in which scientists were able to successfully add two new "letters" into DNA and have the cell replicate these new bases. This could lead to advances in genetics, medicine, and various other fields of study.

Type: Text Resource

"Designer" Chromosome for Brewer's Yeast Built from Scratch:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Scientists have been able to create a synthetic functioning chromosome (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) found in yeast. With this breakthrough, they might be able to create customizable bio-fuels, vaccines, or even synthetic organisms in the future.

Type: Text Resource

Fetal Development, Human:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. There are many stages of the development of living things. This article focuses on the development of a human being starting at fertilization. The author gives vivid descriptions of each step of the process, breaking these steps into two larger groups: early development and the fetal period.

Type: Text Resource

Mitosis Online Activity:

Mitosis internet exploration: Identifying the different stages of mitosis in plant and animal cells.

Type: Text Resource

Know Your Genes:

This website is a good resource for reviewing the basics of the study of genetics. It conveniently lists and describes common genetic disorders, and describes procedure for setting up a medical family tree.

Type: Text Resource

Cells' Fiery Suicide in HIV Provides New Treatment Hope:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article explains how HIV-infected cells go through a self-destructive response called "pyroptosis," and how a drug might be able to prevent the infected cells' death.

Type: Text Resource

Live Cells Printed Using 'Rubber Stamp' Method:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article discusses how new 3D printing methods can be used to print new living cells rapidly.

Type: Text Resource

Slug-Inspired Glue Can Heal a Broken Heart:

This informational text is intended to support reading in the content area. The article describes a new glue, mimicking the sea slug, that can be used to mend heart defects.

Type: Text Resource

Incredible Technology: How to Bring Extinct Animals Back to Life:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article discusses possible ways in which an extinct animal might be revived, as well as the potential consequences of de-extinction.

Type: Text Resource

Human DNA Is Not A Document, It's An App:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article discusses the relevance of the new findings regarding DNA coding and uses seven technological metaphors (i.e. Apps and Zappos) to compare DNA coding to contemporary physics.

Type: Text Resource

Discovery of New Enzyme Could Yield Better Plants for Biofuel:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text describes the discovery of a new gene that produces an enzyme that controls lignin production in plants. Withholding the gene results in less lignin in plants and makes it easier to extract sugars used in the production of biofuels.

Type: Text Resource

Blood Made Suitable For All:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text explains how blood is classified into types based on the presence of antigens. It describes a process whereby antigens can be removed by an enzyme to make all blood types the same as the universal donor.

Type: Text Resource

What is Cancer? What Causes Cancer?:

This informational text is intended to support reading in the content area. This article both identifies cancer and some of its causes; specifically, the fact that uncontrolled cell growth may result in a cancerous tumor.

Type: Text Resource

IVF Pioneer Wins Medicine Nobel Prize:

This informational text is intended to support reading in the content area. This article covers the topics of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF), bioengineering, the scientific pioneers, and the ethical debate surrounding it.

Type: Text Resource

Tutorials

Phases of Meiosis II:

This video discusses the phases of Meiosis (Part 2 of 2).

Type: Tutorial

Phases of Meiosis I:

This video discusses the phases of Meiosis (Part 1 of 2).

Type: Tutorial

Diagnosing Words: Effective Vocabulary Strategies:

Click "View Site" to open a full-screen version. This tutorial is designed to help secondary science teachers learn how to integrate literacy skills into their science curriculum. This tutorial will demonstrate a number of strategies teachers can impart to students to help them use context clues to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words within science texts. It will also help them teach students how to select the appropriate definition from reference materials. The focus on literacy across content areas is intended to help foster students' reading, writing, and thinking skills in multiple disciplines.

Type: Tutorial

Spermatogenesis:

Spermatogenesis is the process in which spermatozoa are produced from male primordial germ cells by way of mitosis and meiosis. This tutorial will help the learners to understand the process of spermatogenesis.

Type: Tutorial

How Meiosis Works:

This tutorial discusses the process of meiosis which results in the formation of sperm cells and egg cells. It is the process by which diploid cells become haploid gametes.

Type: Tutorial

Meiosis:


This animation describes what occurs in a cell during the process of meiosis. Each phase of meiosis is defined and a visual accompanies the definition. Students can see the process of a diploid cell becoming a haploid cell.

Type: Tutorial

Mitosis and DNA Replication:

This tutorial discusses the process of mitosis in detail, describing the events that occur during interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telephase. The process of DNA replication is also explained.

Type: Tutorial

Punnet Square Fun:

This Khan Academy video explains and demonstrates how to use Punnett Squares for monohybrid crosses and dihybrid crosses. The video also shows how to use Punnett Squares for inheritance patterns such as codominance, incomplete dominance, and multiple alleles.

Type: Tutorial

Chromosomes, Chromatids, and Chromatin:

This Khan Academy video reviews the basic processes of DNA replication and protein synthesis. It then goes on to explain how the terms chromosome, chromatin, and chromatid, relate to each other.

Type: Tutorial

Embryonic Stem Cells:

This Khan Academy video describes what happens to a zygote as it becomes an embyro. It further explains what a stem cell is and discusses why there are questions concerning the use of stem cells.

Type: Tutorial

Transcription and Translation:

This Khan Academy video briefly describes DNA replication and then goes into a thorough explanation of both transcription and translation.

Type: Tutorial

DNA:

This Khan Academy video describes the structure of the molecule DNA in great detail. It also discuses the role DNA plays in the process of protein synthesis, explaining transcription and translation. The video discusses the relationship between DNA and chromosomes as well.

Type: Tutorial

Sex-Linked Traits:

This Khan Academy tutorial addresses the differences between the X and Y chromosomes in humans. The SRY gene found on the Y chromosome is discussed and the genes that cause color-blindness and hemophilia on the X chromosome are discussed.

Type: Tutorial

Comparison of Meiosis and Mitosis:

This tutorial will help you to understand the differences and similarities between meiosis and mitosis.

Type: Tutorial

Unique Features of Meiosis:

This tutorial will help you to understand the three unique features of meiosis and how meiosis is related to genetic inheritance.

Type: Tutorial

Stages of Meiosis:

This animation details the process of meiosis and explains each of the stages.

Type: Tutorial

DNA Sequencing Using the Sanger Method:

DNA sequencing is a technique for determining the complete sequence of bases (As, Ts, Gs, and Cs) for a particular piece of DNA. Sequencing is relatively time consuming, as the process must be done to fairly short lengths of DNA at a time. This tutorial will help you to understand the process of DNA sequencing.

Type: Tutorial

Meiosis II:

This tutorial will help you to understand how meiosis II is very similar to mitosis. In both cases, chromosomes line up and sister chromatids are separated by the action of the spindle fibers.

Type: Tutorial

Meiosis 1:

This tutorial will help you to understand the unique features of the first round of meiosis. In meiosis 1, members of homologous chromosome pairs are separated. This results in the segregation of genes into two gametes.

Type: Tutorial

Comparison of Meiosis and Mitosis:

This tutorial will help students understand the differences between meiosis and mitosis. The processes differ in two fundamental ways. Meiosis has two rounds of genetic separation and cellular division while mitosis only has one of each. In meiosis, homologous chromosomes separate leading to daughter cells that are not genetically identical. In mitosis, the daughter cells are identical to the parent as well as to each other.

Type: Tutorial

Cancer:

This Khan Academy video discusses the basics of cancer. The relationship between mutation, the cell cycle and uncontolled cell growth is explained.

Type: Tutorial

How Intracellular Receptors Regulate Gene Transcription:

Gene transcription is controlled by multiple factors. Some proteins bind to DNA sequences and start the process of gene transcription. RNA synthesis can only occur when these activators are bound to specific DNA sequences. This tutorial will help you to understand the process of gene transcription.

Type: Tutorial

Meiosis with Crossing Over:

An important fundamental concept of genetics is the idea of independent assortment. This states that genes are inherited independently of one another. This tutorial will help you better understand crossing over and independent assortment during meiosis.

Type: Tutorial

The Process of DNA Replication:

DNA replication is the process of producing two identical replicas from one original DNA molecule. This tutorial will help you to understand the process of DNA replication and the factors involved in the replication process.

This challenging tutorial addresses the concept at a high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

DNA Replication:

This tutorial will help you to understand how nucleotides are added to the leading and lagging strands of DNA during replication.

This challenging tutorial addresses the concept at a high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

DNA Three Letter Words:

You will see how the genetic code, using the DNA alphabet A,T,C, and G, produces codons to specify the 20 known amino acids. Each codon consists of a three letter code producing 64 possible words which specify the amino acids and stop signals.

Type: Tutorial

Some Genes are Dominant:

This tutorial will help you to understand how Mendel, the father of genetics, planned and crossed the pure-bred pea plant to understand the process of genetics. With the help of the animation, you should be able to understand how the alleles are transferred from one generation to another.

Type: Tutorial

Genes Come in Pairs:

This tutorial will help you to understand that genes play an important role in determining physical traits. These traits helps us to identify the homozygous or heterozygous variety of genes. When the pair of genes are homozygous, they are known as pure bred, i.e they have two copies of the same gene for each trait. For heterozygous variety, they have different gene for each trait. Out of this pair, one will be dominant and other will be recessive.

Type: Tutorial

Chromosomes Carry Genes:

With this tutorial, you can understand that DNA is wrapped together to form structures called chromosomes. Genes are sections of DNA that are carried on the chromosomes and determine specific characteristics in organisms. This specific tutorial focuses on sex-linked traits and the work done by Thomas Hunt Morgan with fruit flies.

Type: Tutorial

Polymerase Chain Reaction:

This tutorial will help you to understand the procedure of amplifying a single copy of DNA into millions of copies. Polymerase chain reaction is a molecular prototyping technique which helps in copying small segments of DNA into significant amounts required for molecular and genetic analyses.

Type: Tutorial

Comparison of Meiosis and Mitosis:

This tutorial will help you compare meiosis and mitosis. It discusses the similarities that are found in both, as well as the fundamental differences between the two types of cell division.

Type: Tutorial

Stages of Meiosis:

Meiosis is the process by which a diploid eukaryotic cell divides to generate four haploid cells. This process is important in forming gametes for sexual reproduction. This tutorial will help you understand the process of meiosis and its various stages.

Type: Tutorial

Unique Features of Meiosis:

This tutorial will help you to understand the basic principles of genetic inheritance which are segregation and independent assortment of two alleles.

The principles of genetic inheritance are based on unique features of meiosis. Synapsis of homologous chromosomes and the separation of the homologous pairs during anaphase 1 cause the segregation of alleles. Crossing over and the random separation of chromosomes cause independent assortment.

Type: Tutorial

Meiosis:


This tutorial will help students understand the process of meiosis. Each stage in the process of meiosis is explained and animated in this tutorial.

Type: Tutorial

Maturation of the Follicle and Oocyte:

This tutorial will help you to understand the function of the follicle. Each follicle is a single egg cell surrounded by several layers of follicle cells. An ovary consists of many follicles. The follicle cells protect and nourish the egg prior to its release into the oviducts during ovulation.

Type: Tutorial

DNA Fingerprinting:

This tutorial will help you to visualize how DNA fingerprinting uses the pattern of DNA fragments caused by specific enzymes to identify individual organisms including humans, animals, plants or any other organism with DNA.

Type: Tutorial

Protein Synthesis:

This tutorial is a full lesson on the process of protein synthesis. Transcription and translation are both explained in detail.

Type: Tutorial

Binary Fission:

This tutorial will help the learners understand the process of binary fission in bacteria. During binary fission, the DNA copies itself, the cell divides in half, and two identical daughter cells are produced.

Type: Tutorial

Human Chromosomes:

This tutorial will allow the student to model the process of making a karyotype which is a picture of all the chromosomes in a cell. Students will match each pair of chromosomes by their size, the size and location of chromosome bands, and location of the centromere.

Type: Tutorial

Polymerase Chain Reaction:

This tutorial introduces the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is a technique used in molecular biology to make multiple copies of a gene even when only small amounts of DNA are available.

Type: Tutorial

DNA: The Book of You:

Your body is made of cells -- but how does a single cell know to become part of your nose, instead of your toes? The answer is in your body's instruction book: DNA. Joe Hanson compares DNA to a detailed manual for building a person out of cells -- with 46 chapters (chromosomes) and hundreds of thousands of pages covering every part of you.

Type: Tutorial

How Does Cancer Spread Through the Body?:

This TED-ED original lesson explains the three common routes of metastasis. Cancer usually begins with one tumor in a specific area of the body. But if the tumor is not removed, cancer has the ability to spread to nearby organs as well as places far away from the origin, like the brain. How does cancer move to these new areas and why are some organs more likely to get infected than others? Ivan Seah Yu Jun explains the three common routes of metastasis.

Type: Tutorial

How Do Cancer Cells Behave Differently From Healthy Ones?:

How do cancer cells grow? How does chemotherapy fight cancer (and cause negative side effects)? The answers lie in cell division. George Zaidan explains how rapid cell division is cancer's "strength" -- and also its weakness.

Type: Tutorial

Regulating Genes:

This tutorial uses animation and practice opportunities to explore how mutations in DNA can impact the expression of a gene. Get a close up view of the nucleus of a fertilized egg and observe how mutations in different locations of a DNA strand influence the traits that are expressed during development.

Type: Tutorial

DNA Structure:

This tutorial will help the learners to understand structure of DNA and how this structure allows for accurate replication.

Type: Tutorial

RNA Translation:

This tutorial will demonstrates the process of RNA translation through an interactive animation.

Type: Tutorial

DNA Replication:

This tutorial will help learners understand the process of DNA replication, including the enzymes involved. Learners will be able to recognize that an exact copy of DNA must be created prior to cell division.

Type: Tutorial

Meiosis Tutorial:

This online tutorial is designed to help students understand the events that occur in process of meiosis.

Type: Tutorial

Video/Audio/Animations

HIV Life Cycle:


This video presentation will help you to understand how HIV infects a cell and replicates itself using reverse transcriptase and the host's cellular machinery.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Development of the Human Embryonic Brain:


This video presentation shows how the fetal brain grows during pregnancy, both in terms of its size and the number of neurons.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Meiosis vs. Mitosis : How cells divide.:

This is a computer animation side by side of meiosis and mitosis comparing the phases as they occur slowly.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Can We Live Forever? (video):

This 2011 episode of PBS's Nova ScienceNow contains a few segments describing cutting edge science regarding longevity. The program touches on the science of laboratory-created body parts, the genetics of longevity, and creating technical extensions of ourselves through avatars that could live forever. The production style is lighthearted, informative, and very engaging for students.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Lab: Restriction Analysis:

  • An interactive exercise for using agarose gel electrophoresis for separating DNA molecules
  • Explain how restriction endonucleases is used in restriction analysis of DNA

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Video: Mitosis:

This is a brief video that can be used in a 7th grade classroom to demonstrate the process of mitosis. It could be used repeatedly to reinforce the stages as this is typically a difficult concept for middle school age students to comprehend.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Exploring Mutant Organisms:

  • Interviews with expert scientists about the genome and mutant organisms
  • Examples on model organisms used in genome research
  • Animation explaining how mutations occur

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Lab: Mendelian Inheritance:

  • Provides a historical background about Gregor Mendel, the father of Genetics
  • Lists the rules of inheritance
  • Contains an interactive activity for making a pedigree

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Lab: DNA Extraction:

  • Background on the discovery of the DNA double helix
  • Contains an interactive activity for base pairing
  • Contains an interactive activity for DNA extraction

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Lab: Bacterial Transformation:

  • This activity provides a historical background about research related to bacterial analysis
  • Contains an animation that shows how enzymes work on cutting DNA strands

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Lab: DNA Fingerprint: Alu:

  • Background on tracking human ancestry using the alu marker
  • Animation on polymerase chain reaction, PCR
  • Interactive activity for performing PCR

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Cell Division and the Cell Cycle:

This dramatic video choreographed to powerful music introduces the viewer/student to the wonder and miracle of the cell division and cell cycle. It is designed as a motivational "trailer" to be shown by Biology, Biochemistry and Life Science teachers in middle and high school.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

MIT BLOSSOMS - Discovering Medicines, Using Robots and Computers:

Scientists who are working to discover new medicines often use robots to prepare samples of cells, allowing them to test chemicals to identify those that might be used to treat diseases. Students will meet a scientist who works to identify new medicines. She created free software that "looks" at images of cells and determines which images show cells that have responded to the potential medicines. Students will learn about how this technology is currently enabling research to identify new antibiotics to treat tuberculosis. Students will complete hands-on activities that demonstrate how new medicines can be discovered using robots and computer software, starring the student as "the computer." In the process, the students learn about experimental design, including positive and negative controls. Students should have some introductory knowledge about the following topics: (1) biology: students should have a basic understanding of infection and good hygiene, they should know what bacteria and cells are; (2) chemistry: the students should know what a chemical compound (molecule) is. They should have an understanding that medicines, also called "drugs", are chemical compounds; (3) basic experimental design: students should understand the terms "samples" and "testing". All hand-outs necessary for this video lesson can be downloaded below.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Bacteria:

This video discusses how bacteria spread and the pros and cons of bacteria.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Cancer:

An introduction to what cancer is and how it is the by-product of broken DNA replication.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Photosynthesis animation and other cell processes in animation:

This site has fantastic short Flash animations of intricate cell processes, including photosynthesis and the electron transport chain.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Sex-Linked Traits:

This video describes the chromosomal basis for gender and sex-linked traits.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Viruses:

This videos discusses how viruses work.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Virtual Manipulatives

Genetics:

This tutorial explores the work of Gregor Mendel and his foundational genetics experiments with pea plants. It provides practice opportunities to check your understanding of inheritance patterns including single gene recessive traits and sex linked traits. The tutorial also covers more complex patterns of inheritance such those resulting from multiple alleles. Note: This resource is part of a larger collection of information regarding Genetics. Users may view information before and after the specific genetics components highlighted here.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Gel electrophoresis Virtual Lab:

This virtual lab provides an excellent resource to show how biotechnology can be incorporated into an actual situation. The student will be walked through the gel electrophoresis process and then apply the results to solve a crime.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Meiosis or Mitosis:

This virtual lab has three components: a short tutorial describing meiosis, a series of microscope slides allowing students to identify stages of meiosis, and a karyotyping activity. The first components support student understanding of mitosis and meiosis, as well as gamete formation. The karyotyping activity is fun and interesting for students, but is not necessary for mastery of NGSS science benchmarks.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

DNA - The Double Helix Game:

DNA is the genetic material of all known living organisms and some viruses. DNA contains two stands wrapped around each other in a helix, and these stands are held in place by four chemicals called bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). The bases pair up with each other in a specific manner to form units called base pairs - adenine always pairs with thymine, and cytosine always pairs with guanine.
In this game your job is to first make exact copies of a double-stranded DNA molecule by correctly matching base pairs to each strand, and to then determine which organism the DNA belongs to.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

DNA-The Double Helix:


In this interactive game, the students will understand how a DNA molecule is built up, how the copies of the DNA molecule made and what is the meaning of base-pairing. The job of the students in this game is to first make exact copies of a double-stranded DNA molecule by correctly matching the base pairs to each strand, and to then determine which organism the DNA belongs to.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

DNA Polymerase:


In this activity students will recognize that DNA polymerase is responsible for the process of DNA replication, during which a double-stranded DNA molecule is copied into two identical DNA molecules. DNA ploymerase catalyze the polymerization of deoxyribonucleotides alongside a DNA strand, which they read and use as a template. The newly-polymerized molecule is complementary to the template strand.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Translation: Making a protein from a messenger RNA:


The genes in DNA encode protein molecules. Expressing a gene means manufacturing its corresponding protein.Translation is the key process of making a protein from the genetic code expresses in the DNA. In translation, messenger RNA is read according to the genetic code, which relates the DNA sequence to the amino acid sequence in proteins. This virtual manipulative will allow the students to understand the process of translation. Students will also get a chance to observe, what happens when a new random mutation generates stop codons.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Build a GeneNetwork:


The lac operon is a set of genes which are responsible for the metabolism of lactose in some bacterial cells. Students will explore the effects of mutation within the lac operon by adding or removing genes from the DNA.

  • Predicts the effects on lactose metabolism when the various genes and DNA control elements are mutated (added or removed).
  • Predicts the effects on lactose metabolism when the concentration of lactose is changed.
  • Explain the roles of Lacl, LacZ, and LacY in lactose regulation.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Centre of the Cell: Mitosis Interactive:

In this interactive, students order stages of mitosis. Each stage is represented by a short video of a real cell undergoing that phase of mitosis and a short description of the events. Students order the videos to create a short video of mitosis.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

DNA Extraction Virtual Lab:

In this interactive Biotechniques virtual lab, you will isolate DNA from a human test subject and learn the uses for DNA obtained through extraction. The "Try It Yourself" section below the virtual lab gives instruction and background information about how to extract DNA from living tissue using basic materials available in grocery stores.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

DNA Replication Animation:

This resource is an animation to explain DNA replication. It is an interactive simulation activity for students. See also "Transcription and Translation Animation" to get all of the steps from DNA to protein.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Mitosis:

This website provides an interactive demonstration of a cell going through the different stages of mitosis. You can progress through each stage at your own pace, or watch as the process unfolds before your eyes. The demonstration also has a description of what happens in each phase of mitosis, from interphase through cytokenesis.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Norn Genetics:

This is a simplified, interactive demonstration of genetic principles. Using a fictional species named the Norn, students can predict the outcome of genetic crosses (mono and di-hybrid, sex-linked, and multiple-allele). This could be used to strengthen the students understanding of genetics, practice Punnet squares, or practice calculation of genotypic/phenotypic ratios. However, it is unlikely to be useful as an independent assignment (if used as designed).

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Transcription and Translation Animation:

This interactive animation allows students to replicate the steps of protein synthesis from DNA. It coincides with the resource "DNA Replication Animation".

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Worksheets

The Biology Corner:

This resource for biology teachers includes a lesson plan section which contains classroom activities, labs and worksheets. The activity sheets are categorized by Science and Literacy, Anatomy, Scientific Method, Cells, Phyla, Evolution and Taxonomy, Genetics, Ecology, and Plants.

Type: Worksheet

Dragon Genetics -- Independent Assortment and Gene Linkage :

This is a lab/activity that uses dragons as "research subjects" for genetics research. It highlights independent assortment as well as gene linkage. Students will do the first part of the activity using independent assortment (genes on different chromosomes). The second part of the activity looks at genes on the same chromosome, and how linkage plays a part in allele assortment. It can be used to show how crossing over allows increased variation when involving linked genes.

Worksheets are available in both Word and PDF formats, for both teacher and student. There is an additional dragon genetics lab that illustrates the principles of Mendelian genetics as a whole.

Type: Worksheet

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this topic.

Original Student Tutorials

Hidden Mutations:

Dive into genetic mutations and learn how they can alter the phenotypes of organisms.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Cell Cycle and Mitosis:

Follow the life of a cell in the tightly controlled process called the cell cycle! In this interactive tutorial, you will learn how a single cell gives rise to two identical daughter cells during the cell cycle and mitosis.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Mitosis and Cell Division:

Explore the steps of mitosis and cell division in this interactive tutorial, and see how they result in the separation of a cell's genetic material and division of its contents into two identical daughter cells. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Human Reproductive System, Part 1:

Explore the genetic advantage of sexual reproduction, describe the basic anatomy and physiology of both the male and female human reproductive systems, describe the process of human development leading up to birth, and identify major changes associated with each trimester of pregnancy.

This interactive tutorial is part 1 in a two-part series. Click here to launch Part 2, Human Reproductive System, Fetal Development

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Human Reproductive System (Part 2):

Explore the process of human development leading up to birth, and identify major changes associated with each trimester of pregnancy.

This interactive tutorial is part 2 in a two-part series. Click here to launch Part 1, Human Reproductive Systems.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Assessment of Genetic Biodiversity through Biotechnology:

Examine how genetic identification is aiding marine biologists studying organisms in deep ocean regions. This interactive tutorial also features a CPALMS Perspectives video.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Reproduction Strategies:

Explore consequences and challenges of reproductive strategies of sea anemones.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Analyzing Patterns of Inheritance:

Learn strategies to help you solve genetics problems by applying your knowledge of inheritance patterns. You’ll encounter a few “mystery cases” that you’ll solve through your genetics analysis in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

DNA to Genes to Proteins:

Learn about the first step of protein synthesis, transcription of DNA to RNA. In this interactive tutorial, you'll explore epigenetics as a mechanism to activate or inactivate gene expression. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis:

Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis in this interactive tutorial. You'll also relate them to the processes of sexual and asexual reproduction and their consequences for genetic variation.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Protein Synthesis: Your Personal Protein Factory:

Explore the basic processes of transcription and translation, and how they result in the expression of genes as you complete this interactive tutorial.

 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

DNA Replication:

Learn how to identify explicit evidence and understand implicit meaning in a text…

You began your life as a single cell and you now have trillions of cells. Even though a cell only uses a portion of its DNA, each cell contains the same set of DNA instructions. How is it possible that DNA can be copied so that every cell gets the same set of instructions? By the end of this tutorial you should be able to describe how DNA is copied and explain how this process allows cells to have identical genetic information.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Meiosis: A Special Kind of Cell Division:

Learn how to describe Meiosis, the process by which sex cells--the sperm and the egg--are created in living things. In this interactive tutorial, you will also discover how sexual reproduction results in genetically diverse offspring.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Cancer: Mutated Cells Gone Wild!:

Explore the relationship between mutations, the cell cycle, and uncontrolled cell growth which may result in cancer with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Complex Modes of Inheritance:

Learn the basics of inheritance in this interactive tutorial. You discover how to differentiate between polygenic and multiple alleles, predict genetic outcomes using a Punnett square, and analyze inheritance patterns caused by various modes of inheritances including codominant, incomplete dominance, sex-linked, polygenic, and multiple alleles. 

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Universal Genetic Code:

Learn how to better understand the composition of DNA, the purpose of the information in DNA, why the DNA sequence is considered a universal code, and what might happen if mistakes appear in the code.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Impact of Biotechnology:

Learn how to identify and define types of biotechnology and consider the impacts of biotechnologies on the individual, society and the environment in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Educational Games

The Control of the Cell Cycle:

The Control of the Cell Cycle educational game is based on the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, which was awarded for discoveries concerning the control of the cell cycle.

Type: Educational Game

Transcribe and Translate a Gene:

See how cells "read" the information in a DNA sequence to build a protein, then build one yourself!

Type: Educational Game

Lesson Plan

Using DNA to Identify People:

 Learning objectives:  Students will learn what DNA fingerprinting is, what it is used for, and how it is used in paternity testing and forensics.  Students will see how this technique actually works in lab.  Students will learn how to analyze the gels used in this technique to match babies to parents, and crime scene evidence to suspects.

Type: Lesson Plan

Perspectives Video: Experts

Proteins and Secretory Pathways:

A cell has made a protein; now what? Learn more about protein secretion!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Biochemistry and Medicine:

Advances in "big data" are leading to rapid developments in personalized medicine. Learn more!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Gene Expression:

Check this out and learn about how prokaryotes and eukaryotes regulate gene expression.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Transcription and Translation:

How do you know what genes are thinking? By their expression. Learn more from a plant geneticist.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Mutations, the Cell Cycle, and Cancer:

Sometimes the cell cycle gets derailed a bit, which can lead to the development of tumors. Learn more about mutations!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Protein Factories:

What's in a molecular biologist's toolbox? Very small tools for working with cellular machines and molecules!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Agriculture: Plant Propagation via Asexual Reproduction:

This plant geneticist wants to propagate knowledge about different kinds of plant propagation.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Agriculture: Mitosis and Meiosis:

Your understanding of agriscience will bloom and grow as this plant geneticist describes how they use mitosis and meiosis when developing new grape varieties.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Observable Inheritance Patterns:

A plant geneticist describes observable inheritance patterns and genetic mutations in maize.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Viticulture and Biotechnology:

A viticulture scientist explains grape expectations for medicine and society.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Student Center Activity

Dihybrid Cross Problem Set:

In this problem set, multiple choice problems are displayed one at a time. If students answer correctly, they are shown a short explanation. If their answer is incorrect, a tutorial will follow, and the students will be given another chance to answer.

Type: Student Center Activity

Text Resources

Mitosis Online Activity:

Mitosis internet exploration: Identifying the different stages of mitosis in plant and animal cells.

Type: Text Resource

Know Your Genes:

This website is a good resource for reviewing the basics of the study of genetics. It conveniently lists and describes common genetic disorders, and describes procedure for setting up a medical family tree.

Type: Text Resource

Tutorials

Phases of Meiosis II:

This video discusses the phases of Meiosis (Part 2 of 2).

Type: Tutorial

Phases of Meiosis I:

This video discusses the phases of Meiosis (Part 1 of 2).

Type: Tutorial

Spermatogenesis:

Spermatogenesis is the process in which spermatozoa are produced from male primordial germ cells by way of mitosis and meiosis. This tutorial will help the learners to understand the process of spermatogenesis.

Type: Tutorial

How Meiosis Works:

This tutorial discusses the process of meiosis which results in the formation of sperm cells and egg cells. It is the process by which diploid cells become haploid gametes.

Type: Tutorial

Meiosis:


This animation describes what occurs in a cell during the process of meiosis. Each phase of meiosis is defined and a visual accompanies the definition. Students can see the process of a diploid cell becoming a haploid cell.

Type: Tutorial

Mitosis and DNA Replication:

This tutorial discusses the process of mitosis in detail, describing the events that occur during interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telephase. The process of DNA replication is also explained.

Type: Tutorial

Punnet Square Fun:

This Khan Academy video explains and demonstrates how to use Punnett Squares for monohybrid crosses and dihybrid crosses. The video also shows how to use Punnett Squares for inheritance patterns such as codominance, incomplete dominance, and multiple alleles.

Type: Tutorial

Chromosomes, Chromatids, and Chromatin:

This Khan Academy video reviews the basic processes of DNA replication and protein synthesis. It then goes on to explain how the terms chromosome, chromatin, and chromatid, relate to each other.

Type: Tutorial

Embryonic Stem Cells:

This Khan Academy video describes what happens to a zygote as it becomes an embyro. It further explains what a stem cell is and discusses why there are questions concerning the use of stem cells.

Type: Tutorial

Transcription and Translation:

This Khan Academy video briefly describes DNA replication and then goes into a thorough explanation of both transcription and translation.

Type: Tutorial

DNA:

This Khan Academy video describes the structure of the molecule DNA in great detail. It also discuses the role DNA plays in the process of protein synthesis, explaining transcription and translation. The video discusses the relationship between DNA and chromosomes as well.

Type: Tutorial

Sex-Linked Traits:

This Khan Academy tutorial addresses the differences between the X and Y chromosomes in humans. The SRY gene found on the Y chromosome is discussed and the genes that cause color-blindness and hemophilia on the X chromosome are discussed.

Type: Tutorial

Comparison of Meiosis and Mitosis:

This tutorial will help you to understand the differences and similarities between meiosis and mitosis.

Type: Tutorial

Unique Features of Meiosis:

This tutorial will help you to understand the three unique features of meiosis and how meiosis is related to genetic inheritance.

Type: Tutorial

Stages of Meiosis:

This animation details the process of meiosis and explains each of the stages.

Type: Tutorial

DNA Sequencing Using the Sanger Method:

DNA sequencing is a technique for determining the complete sequence of bases (As, Ts, Gs, and Cs) for a particular piece of DNA. Sequencing is relatively time consuming, as the process must be done to fairly short lengths of DNA at a time. This tutorial will help you to understand the process of DNA sequencing.

Type: Tutorial

Meiosis II:

This tutorial will help you to understand how meiosis II is very similar to mitosis. In both cases, chromosomes line up and sister chromatids are separated by the action of the spindle fibers.

Type: Tutorial

Meiosis 1:

This tutorial will help you to understand the unique features of the first round of meiosis. In meiosis 1, members of homologous chromosome pairs are separated. This results in the segregation of genes into two gametes.

Type: Tutorial

Comparison of Meiosis and Mitosis:

This tutorial will help students understand the differences between meiosis and mitosis. The processes differ in two fundamental ways. Meiosis has two rounds of genetic separation and cellular division while mitosis only has one of each. In meiosis, homologous chromosomes separate leading to daughter cells that are not genetically identical. In mitosis, the daughter cells are identical to the parent as well as to each other.

Type: Tutorial

Cancer:

This Khan Academy video discusses the basics of cancer. The relationship between mutation, the cell cycle and uncontolled cell growth is explained.

Type: Tutorial

How Intracellular Receptors Regulate Gene Transcription:

Gene transcription is controlled by multiple factors. Some proteins bind to DNA sequences and start the process of gene transcription. RNA synthesis can only occur when these activators are bound to specific DNA sequences. This tutorial will help you to understand the process of gene transcription.

Type: Tutorial

Meiosis with Crossing Over:

An important fundamental concept of genetics is the idea of independent assortment. This states that genes are inherited independently of one another. This tutorial will help you better understand crossing over and independent assortment during meiosis.

Type: Tutorial

The Process of DNA Replication:

DNA replication is the process of producing two identical replicas from one original DNA molecule. This tutorial will help you to understand the process of DNA replication and the factors involved in the replication process.

This challenging tutorial addresses the concept at a high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

DNA Replication:

This tutorial will help you to understand how nucleotides are added to the leading and lagging strands of DNA during replication.

This challenging tutorial addresses the concept at a high level of complexity.

Type: Tutorial

DNA Three Letter Words:

You will see how the genetic code, using the DNA alphabet A,T,C, and G, produces codons to specify the 20 known amino acids. Each codon consists of a three letter code producing 64 possible words which specify the amino acids and stop signals.

Type: Tutorial

Some Genes are Dominant:

This tutorial will help you to understand how Mendel, the father of genetics, planned and crossed the pure-bred pea plant to understand the process of genetics. With the help of the animation, you should be able to understand how the alleles are transferred from one generation to another.

Type: Tutorial

Genes Come in Pairs:

This tutorial will help you to understand that genes play an important role in determining physical traits. These traits helps us to identify the homozygous or heterozygous variety of genes. When the pair of genes are homozygous, they are known as pure bred, i.e they have two copies of the same gene for each trait. For heterozygous variety, they have different gene for each trait. Out of this pair, one will be dominant and other will be recessive.

Type: Tutorial

Polymerase Chain Reaction:

This tutorial will help you to understand the procedure of amplifying a single copy of DNA into millions of copies. Polymerase chain reaction is a molecular prototyping technique which helps in copying small segments of DNA into significant amounts required for molecular and genetic analyses.

Type: Tutorial

Comparison of Meiosis and Mitosis:

This tutorial will help you compare meiosis and mitosis. It discusses the similarities that are found in both, as well as the fundamental differences between the two types of cell division.

Type: Tutorial

Stages of Meiosis:

Meiosis is the process by which a diploid eukaryotic cell divides to generate four haploid cells. This process is important in forming gametes for sexual reproduction. This tutorial will help you understand the process of meiosis and its various stages.

Type: Tutorial

Unique Features of Meiosis:

This tutorial will help you to understand the basic principles of genetic inheritance which are segregation and independent assortment of two alleles.

The principles of genetic inheritance are based on unique features of meiosis. Synapsis of homologous chromosomes and the separation of the homologous pairs during anaphase 1 cause the segregation of alleles. Crossing over and the random separation of chromosomes cause independent assortment.

Type: Tutorial

Meiosis:


This tutorial will help students understand the process of meiosis. Each stage in the process of meiosis is explained and animated in this tutorial.

Type: Tutorial

Maturation of the Follicle and Oocyte:

This tutorial will help you to understand the function of the follicle. Each follicle is a single egg cell surrounded by several layers of follicle cells. An ovary consists of many follicles. The follicle cells protect and nourish the egg prior to its release into the oviducts during ovulation.

Type: Tutorial

DNA Fingerprinting:

This tutorial will help you to visualize how DNA fingerprinting uses the pattern of DNA fragments caused by specific enzymes to identify individual organisms including humans, animals, plants or any other organism with DNA.

Type: Tutorial

Protein Synthesis:

This tutorial is a full lesson on the process of protein synthesis. Transcription and translation are both explained in detail.

Type: Tutorial

Binary Fission:

This tutorial will help the learners understand the process of binary fission in bacteria. During binary fission, the DNA copies itself, the cell divides in half, and two identical daughter cells are produced.

Type: Tutorial

Human Chromosomes:

This tutorial will allow the student to model the process of making a karyotype which is a picture of all the chromosomes in a cell. Students will match each pair of chromosomes by their size, the size and location of chromosome bands, and location of the centromere.

Type: Tutorial

Polymerase Chain Reaction:

This tutorial introduces the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is a technique used in molecular biology to make multiple copies of a gene even when only small amounts of DNA are available.

Type: Tutorial

DNA: The Book of You:

Your body is made of cells -- but how does a single cell know to become part of your nose, instead of your toes? The answer is in your body's instruction book: DNA. Joe Hanson compares DNA to a detailed manual for building a person out of cells -- with 46 chapters (chromosomes) and hundreds of thousands of pages covering every part of you.

Type: Tutorial

How Does Cancer Spread Through the Body?:

This TED-ED original lesson explains the three common routes of metastasis. Cancer usually begins with one tumor in a specific area of the body. But if the tumor is not removed, cancer has the ability to spread to nearby organs as well as places far away from the origin, like the brain. How does cancer move to these new areas and why are some organs more likely to get infected than others? Ivan Seah Yu Jun explains the three common routes of metastasis.

Type: Tutorial

How Do Cancer Cells Behave Differently From Healthy Ones?:

How do cancer cells grow? How does chemotherapy fight cancer (and cause negative side effects)? The answers lie in cell division. George Zaidan explains how rapid cell division is cancer's "strength" -- and also its weakness.

Type: Tutorial

Regulating Genes:

This tutorial uses animation and practice opportunities to explore how mutations in DNA can impact the expression of a gene. Get a close up view of the nucleus of a fertilized egg and observe how mutations in different locations of a DNA strand influence the traits that are expressed during development.

Type: Tutorial

DNA Structure:

This tutorial will help the learners to understand structure of DNA and how this structure allows for accurate replication.

Type: Tutorial

RNA Translation:

This tutorial will demonstrates the process of RNA translation through an interactive animation.

Type: Tutorial

DNA Replication:

This tutorial will help learners understand the process of DNA replication, including the enzymes involved. Learners will be able to recognize that an exact copy of DNA must be created prior to cell division.

Type: Tutorial

Meiosis Tutorial:

This online tutorial is designed to help students understand the events that occur in process of meiosis.

Type: Tutorial

Video/Audio/Animations

HIV Life Cycle:


This video presentation will help you to understand how HIV infects a cell and replicates itself using reverse transcriptase and the host's cellular machinery.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Development of the Human Embryonic Brain:


This video presentation shows how the fetal brain grows during pregnancy, both in terms of its size and the number of neurons.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Meiosis vs. Mitosis : How cells divide.:

This is a computer animation side by side of meiosis and mitosis comparing the phases as they occur slowly.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Lab: Restriction Analysis:

  • An interactive exercise for using agarose gel electrophoresis for separating DNA molecules
  • Explain how restriction endonucleases is used in restriction analysis of DNA

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Exploring Mutant Organisms:

  • Interviews with expert scientists about the genome and mutant organisms
  • Examples on model organisms used in genome research
  • Animation explaining how mutations occur

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Lab: Mendelian Inheritance:

  • Provides a historical background about Gregor Mendel, the father of Genetics
  • Lists the rules of inheritance
  • Contains an interactive activity for making a pedigree

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Lab: DNA Extraction:

  • Background on the discovery of the DNA double helix
  • Contains an interactive activity for base pairing
  • Contains an interactive activity for DNA extraction

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Lab: Bacterial Transformation:

  • This activity provides a historical background about research related to bacterial analysis
  • Contains an animation that shows how enzymes work on cutting DNA strands

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Lab: DNA Fingerprint: Alu:

  • Background on tracking human ancestry using the alu marker
  • Animation on polymerase chain reaction, PCR
  • Interactive activity for performing PCR

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Bacteria:

This video discusses how bacteria spread and the pros and cons of bacteria.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Cancer:

An introduction to what cancer is and how it is the by-product of broken DNA replication.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Photosynthesis animation and other cell processes in animation:

This site has fantastic short Flash animations of intricate cell processes, including photosynthesis and the electron transport chain.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Sex-Linked Traits:

This video describes the chromosomal basis for gender and sex-linked traits.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Viruses:

This videos discusses how viruses work.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Virtual Manipulatives

Genetics:

This tutorial explores the work of Gregor Mendel and his foundational genetics experiments with pea plants. It provides practice opportunities to check your understanding of inheritance patterns including single gene recessive traits and sex linked traits. The tutorial also covers more complex patterns of inheritance such those resulting from multiple alleles. Note: This resource is part of a larger collection of information regarding Genetics. Users may view information before and after the specific genetics components highlighted here.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Gel electrophoresis Virtual Lab:

This virtual lab provides an excellent resource to show how biotechnology can be incorporated into an actual situation. The student will be walked through the gel electrophoresis process and then apply the results to solve a crime.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

DNA - The Double Helix Game:

DNA is the genetic material of all known living organisms and some viruses. DNA contains two stands wrapped around each other in a helix, and these stands are held in place by four chemicals called bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). The bases pair up with each other in a specific manner to form units called base pairs - adenine always pairs with thymine, and cytosine always pairs with guanine.
In this game your job is to first make exact copies of a double-stranded DNA molecule by correctly matching base pairs to each strand, and to then determine which organism the DNA belongs to.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

DNA Polymerase:


In this activity students will recognize that DNA polymerase is responsible for the process of DNA replication, during which a double-stranded DNA molecule is copied into two identical DNA molecules. DNA ploymerase catalyze the polymerization of deoxyribonucleotides alongside a DNA strand, which they read and use as a template. The newly-polymerized molecule is complementary to the template strand.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Translation: Making a protein from a messenger RNA:


The genes in DNA encode protein molecules. Expressing a gene means manufacturing its corresponding protein.Translation is the key process of making a protein from the genetic code expresses in the DNA. In translation, messenger RNA is read according to the genetic code, which relates the DNA sequence to the amino acid sequence in proteins. This virtual manipulative will allow the students to understand the process of translation. Students will also get a chance to observe, what happens when a new random mutation generates stop codons.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Build a GeneNetwork:


The lac operon is a set of genes which are responsible for the metabolism of lactose in some bacterial cells. Students will explore the effects of mutation within the lac operon by adding or removing genes from the DNA.

  • Predicts the effects on lactose metabolism when the various genes and DNA control elements are mutated (added or removed).
  • Predicts the effects on lactose metabolism when the concentration of lactose is changed.
  • Explain the roles of Lacl, LacZ, and LacY in lactose regulation.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

DNA Extraction Virtual Lab:

In this interactive Biotechniques virtual lab, you will isolate DNA from a human test subject and learn the uses for DNA obtained through extraction. The "Try It Yourself" section below the virtual lab gives instruction and background information about how to extract DNA from living tissue using basic materials available in grocery stores.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Norn Genetics:

This is a simplified, interactive demonstration of genetic principles. Using a fictional species named the Norn, students can predict the outcome of genetic crosses (mono and di-hybrid, sex-linked, and multiple-allele). This could be used to strengthen the students understanding of genetics, practice Punnet squares, or practice calculation of genotypic/phenotypic ratios. However, it is unlikely to be useful as an independent assignment (if used as designed).

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this topic.

Educational Game

The Control of the Cell Cycle:

The Control of the Cell Cycle educational game is based on the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, which was awarded for discoveries concerning the control of the cell cycle.

Type: Educational Game

Perspectives Video: Experts

Proteins and Secretory Pathways:

A cell has made a protein; now what? Learn more about protein secretion!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Biochemistry and Medicine:

Advances in "big data" are leading to rapid developments in personalized medicine. Learn more!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Gene Expression:

Check this out and learn about how prokaryotes and eukaryotes regulate gene expression.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Transcription and Translation:

How do you know what genes are thinking? By their expression. Learn more from a plant geneticist.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Mutations, the Cell Cycle, and Cancer:

Sometimes the cell cycle gets derailed a bit, which can lead to the development of tumors. Learn more about mutations!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Protein Factories:

What's in a molecular biologist's toolbox? Very small tools for working with cellular machines and molecules!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Agriculture: Plant Propagation via Asexual Reproduction:

This plant geneticist wants to propagate knowledge about different kinds of plant propagation.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Agriculture: Mitosis and Meiosis:

Your understanding of agriscience will bloom and grow as this plant geneticist describes how they use mitosis and meiosis when developing new grape varieties.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Observable Inheritance Patterns:

A plant geneticist describes observable inheritance patterns and genetic mutations in maize.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Viticulture and Biotechnology:

A viticulture scientist explains grape expectations for medicine and society.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Perspectives Video: Teaching Ideas

Using Films to Connect Science Content to the Real World:

Get out the popcorn; it's time for science. This teacher talks about three films she uses to make movie day a productive class day.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Karyotyping :

In this table-top karyotyping activity, students group chromosomes, identify abnormalities, and then research the resulting genetic disorder.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Tabletop Mitosis:

Is that your tosis? No, it's mitosis! Listen to this teacher describe a fun, interactive simulation that will help students understand mitosis and the cell cycle.

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Modeling Incomplete Dominance and Co-Dominance:

Don't lose your marbles over genetics concepts! Here's an idea to teach about non-Mendelian inheritance!

Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Teaching Idea

Comparing and Contrasting Mitosis and Meiosis:

This step-by-animations explores the stages of two types of cell division, mitosis and meiosis, and how these processes are compared and contrasted to one another and provides a printable version.

Type: Teaching Idea

Tutorials

Mitosis and DNA Replication:

This tutorial discusses the process of mitosis in detail, describing the events that occur during interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telephase. The process of DNA replication is also explained.

Type: Tutorial

DNA Structure:

This tutorial will help the learners to understand structure of DNA and how this structure allows for accurate replication.

Type: Tutorial

Virtual Manipulatives

DNA - The Double Helix Game:

DNA is the genetic material of all known living organisms and some viruses. DNA contains two stands wrapped around each other in a helix, and these stands are held in place by four chemicals called bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). The bases pair up with each other in a specific manner to form units called base pairs - adenine always pairs with thymine, and cytosine always pairs with guanine.
In this game your job is to first make exact copies of a double-stranded DNA molecule by correctly matching base pairs to each strand, and to then determine which organism the DNA belongs to.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

DNA Polymerase:


In this activity students will recognize that DNA polymerase is responsible for the process of DNA replication, during which a double-stranded DNA molecule is copied into two identical DNA molecules. DNA ploymerase catalyze the polymerization of deoxyribonucleotides alongside a DNA strand, which they read and use as a template. The newly-polymerized molecule is complementary to the template strand.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Translation: Making a protein from a messenger RNA:


The genes in DNA encode protein molecules. Expressing a gene means manufacturing its corresponding protein.Translation is the key process of making a protein from the genetic code expresses in the DNA. In translation, messenger RNA is read according to the genetic code, which relates the DNA sequence to the amino acid sequence in proteins. This virtual manipulative will allow the students to understand the process of translation. Students will also get a chance to observe, what happens when a new random mutation generates stop codons.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Build a GeneNetwork:


The lac operon is a set of genes which are responsible for the metabolism of lactose in some bacterial cells. Students will explore the effects of mutation within the lac operon by adding or removing genes from the DNA.

  • Predicts the effects on lactose metabolism when the various genes and DNA control elements are mutated (added or removed).
  • Predicts the effects on lactose metabolism when the concentration of lactose is changed.
  • Explain the roles of Lacl, LacZ, and LacY in lactose regulation.

Type: Virtual Manipulative