Standard #: SC.8.P.8.5


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Recognize that there are a finite number of elements and that their atoms combine in a multitude of ways to produce compounds that make up all of the living and nonliving things that we encounter.


General Information

Subject Area: Science
Grade: 8
Body of Knowledge: Physical Science
Big Idea: Properties of Matter - A. All objects and substances in the world are made of matter. Matter has two fundamental properties: matter takes up space and matter has mass which gives it inertia.

B. Objects and substances can be classified by their physical and chemical properties. Mass is the amount of matter (or "stuff") in an object. Weight, on the other hand, is the measure of force of attraction (gravitational force) between an object and Earth.

The concepts of mass and weight are complicated and potentially confusing to elementary students. Hence, the more familiar term of "weight" is recommended for use to stand for both mass and weight in grades K-5. By grades 6-8, students are expected to understand the distinction between mass and weight, and use them appropriately.

Clarification for grades K-2: The use of the more familiar term ‘weight’ instead of the term “mass” is recommended for grades K-2.

Clarification for grades 3-5: In grade 3, introduce the term mass as compared to the term weight. In grade 4, investigate the concept of weight versus mass of objects. In grade 5, discuss why mass (not weight) is used to compare properties of solids, liquids and gases.

Date Adopted or Revised: 02/08
Content Complexity Rating: Level 1: Recall - More Information
Date of Last Rating: 05/08
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes

Test Item Specifications

    Item Type(s): This benchmark may be assessed using: MC item(s)
    Also Assesses
    SC.8.P.8.1
    Explore the scientific theory of atoms (also known as atomic theory) by using models to explain the motion of particles in solids, liquids, and gases.

    SC.8.P.8.6 Recognize that elements are grouped in the periodic table according to similarities of their properties.

    SC.8.P.8.7 Explore the scientific theory of atoms (also known as atomic theory) by recognizing that atoms are the smallest unit of an element and are composed of sub-atomic particles (electrons surrounding a nucleus containing protons and neutrons).

    SC.8.P.8.8 Identify basic examples of and compare and classify the properties of compounds, including acids, bases, and salts.

    SC.8.P.8.9 Distinguish among mixtures (including solutions) and pure substances.

    Clarification :
    Students will describe how elements combine in a multitude of ways to produce compounds that make up all living and nonliving things.

    Students will describe the motion of particles in solids, liquids, and/or gases.

    Students will explain that elements are grouped in the periodic table according to similarities of their properties.

    Students will explain that atoms are the smallest unit of an element and are composed of subatomic particles.

    Students will identify common examples of acids, bases, and/or salts.

    Students will compare, contrast, and/or classify the properties of compounds, including acids and bases.

    Students will differentiate among pure substances, mixtures, and solutions.
    Content Limits :
    Items referring to elements are limited to the elements 1–57 and 72–89.

    Items referring to subatomic particles will only assess protons, neutrons, and electrons.

    Items will not assess chemical bonding. Items may assess a conceptual understanding of the pH scale.

    Items will not require knowledge of the pH of specific substances.

    Items addressing the properties of acids and bases are limited to pH.

    Items assessing mixtures and solutions may include components in different states of matter (e.g., gas dissolved in liquid).

    Items assessing periodic trends must be at the conceptual level.

    Items will not assess valence electrons or electron configurations.
    Stimulus Attributes :
    None specified
    Response Attributes :
    None specified
    Prior Knowledge :
    Items may require the student to apply science knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.5.P.8.2 and SC.5.P.8.3.


Sample Test Items (1)

Test Item # Question Difficulty Type
Sample Item 1 Lithium (Li), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Rubidium (Rb), Cesium (Cs), and Francium (Fr) are in the same column in the periodic table. Why are these elements in the same column in the periodic table? N/A MC: Multiple Choice


Related Courses

Course Number1111 Course Title222
2002100: M/J Comprehensive Science 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2002110: M/J Comprehensive Science 3, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2003010: M/J Physical Science (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
2003020: M/J Physical Science, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))
7820017: Access M/J Comprehensive Science 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
2002055: M/J Comprehensive Science 1 Accelerated Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current))


Related Access Points

Access Point Number Access Point Title
SC.8.P.8.In.5 Recognize that common elements combine in different ways to make up all living and nonliving things.
SC.8.P.8.Su.5 Recognize that parts of matter can be separated in tiny particles.
SC.8.P.8.Pa.5 Separate a mixture into its parts.


Related Resources

Assessment

Name Description
Adopt An Element This can be used as a homework assignment or completed in the computer lab. Students will have to research information on one element and complete an advertisement for that element as if they were trying to market it.

Lesson Plans

Name Description
Periodic Table - Atoms and Bonding

In this Model Eliciting Activity (MEA), students will use their knowledge of the organization of the periodic table and the basic properties of atoms to determine which elements should be used to develop compounds with two atoms of different elements. Students must determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in a neutrally charged atom of an element using the periodic table. They must also determine which elements will likely bond together using their location on the periodic table. Students completing this MEA will develop two short essay responses to a client in the scientific industry.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

All the Small Things

Students will observe and analyze visual representations. Students will sort, classify and compare their findings to known characteristics of pure substances (elements and compounds) and mixtures. Students will differentiate matter into pure substances (elements and compounds) and mixtures on a basic molecular level. Students will use hands-on card sorting to create a rule for sorting matter. The definitions of pure substance, mixture, element, and compound will be introduced.

Alien Elements-Are they hiding here?

This lesson is a high interest presentation and activity that presents the concepts of elemental composition, temperature effects, and states of matter geared to 8th graders.

What are you made of? Students will learn about known elements and discover the products that can be made when those elements react.
Search for Extraterrestrial Life

Students rank locations that NASA should search within our solar system for life. Students begin by reading about the origins of life on Earth and locations within our solar system with the potential for life. After students create a ranked list, they must report their findings to NASA in the form of a letter that also includes the procedure used in ranking their choices. A second request is sent from NASA to include distance from Earth as a factor in the ranking of locations and students must return a letter with their revised rankings and the new procedure used.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

The Universe's Pantry Lesson 4 of 5 This lesson, part of a series, introduces students to construct the idea that atoms combine to form molecules.

Original Student Tutorial

Name Description
Atoms Make Up Everything

Learn to demonstrate that there are a finite number of elements that combine to form all existing compounds, whether living or non-living, and in any state of matter.

Text Resources

Name Description
Explainer: How and Why Fires Burn

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article explains the science behind why and how fire burns. The article describes why fire is not considered matter and what is required for fire to burn, as well as how the atoms rearrange themselves during the combustion process. 

We Are Stardust

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This text examines how humans and all things around us are made of elements created in stars. The article references fusion, the powerful collision of enormous stars, and the intense explosion of supernovas. All of this is tied to the creation of heavier elements that hurtle through space, to be reassembled as distant solar systems.

Unit/Lesson Sequence

Name Description
Middle School Chemistry Unit | Chapter 4 | The Periodic Table & Bonding Students look more deeply into the structure of the atom and play a game to better understand the relationship between protons, neutrons, electrons, and energy levels in atoms and their location in the periodic table. Students will also explore covalent and ionic bonding.

Video/Audio/Animations

Name Description
Element Word Scramble Students test their knowledge about the names of elements and learn some of their properties through the hint provided with each scrambled word
The Periodic Table of Elements This interactive periodic table provides a good tool for teachers to obtain a historic background about the nature and properties of the elements

Virtual Manipulative

Name Description
Periodic Table

This unique periodic table presents the elements in an interesting visual display. Select an element to find an image of the element, a description, history, and even an animation. Other chemical data is linked as a PDF file (requires Acrobat Reader).

Worksheet

Name Description
Composition of Matter

This is a worksheet of examples to distinguish between elements, compounds and mixtures and between heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures and between colloids and suspensions.

Student Resources

Original Student Tutorial

Name Description
Atoms Make Up Everything:

Learn to demonstrate that there are a finite number of elements that combine to form all existing compounds, whether living or non-living, and in any state of matter.

Video/Audio/Animation

Name Description
Element Word Scramble: Students test their knowledge about the names of elements and learn some of their properties through the hint provided with each scrambled word

Virtual Manipulative

Name Description
Periodic Table:

This unique periodic table presents the elements in an interesting visual display. Select an element to find an image of the element, a description, history, and even an animation. Other chemical data is linked as a PDF file (requires Acrobat Reader).



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