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# Standard #: SC.8.P.8.4

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Classify and compare substances on the basis of characteristic physical properties that can be demonstrated or measured; for example, density, thermal or electrical conductivity, solubility, magnetic properties, melting and boiling points, and know that these properties are independent of the amount of the sample.

### General Information

Subject Area: Science
Body of Knowledge: Physical Science
Idea: Level 2: Basic Application of Skills & Concepts
Big Idea: Properties of Matter - A. All objects and substances in the world are made of matter. Matter has two fundamental properties: matter takes up space and matter has mass which gives it inertia.

B. Objects and substances can be classified by their physical and chemical properties. Mass is the amount of matter (or "stuff") in an object. Weight, on the other hand, is the measure of force of attraction (gravitational force) between an object and Earth.

The concepts of mass and weight are complicated and potentially confusing to elementary students. Hence, the more familiar term of "weight" is recommended for use to stand for both mass and weight in grades K-5. By grades 6-8, students are expected to understand the distinction between mass and weight, and use them appropriately.

Clarification for grades K-2: The use of the more familiar term ‘weight’ instead of the term “mass” is recommended for grades K-2.

Clarification for grades 3-5: In grade 3, introduce the term mass as compared to the term weight. In grade 4, investigate the concept of weight versus mass of objects. In grade 5, discuss why mass (not weight) is used to compare properties of solids, liquids and gases.

Date of Last Rating: 05/08
Status: State Board Approved
Assessed: Yes

### Test Item Specifications

Item Type(s): This benchmark may be assessed using: MC item(s)
Also Assesses
SC.8.P.8.3
Explore and describe the densities of various materials through measurement of their masses and volumes.

Clarification :
Students will classify and/or compare substances on the basis of their physical properties and/or explain that these properties are independent of the amount of the sample.

Students will describe density and/or calculate and compare the densities of various materials using the materials’ masses and volumes.
Content Limits :
Items may require use of the density formula to calculate density, mass, or volume when comparing substances.

Items that assess conductivity, solubility, or magnetic properties will be at a conceptual level only. Items will not require calculations for these topics.

Items addressing solubility may include the terms solvent, solute, and saturation. Items may assess the concept of saturation.

Items will not require memorization of the specific melting points and/or boiling points of substances.
Stimulus Attributes :
Temperature will only be shown in degrees Celsius (°C).

Scenarios requiring calculation of density must include the density equation.
Response Attributes :
None specified
Prior Knowledge :
Items may require the student to apply science knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.3.P.8.1, SC.3.P.8.2, SC.3.P.8.3, SC.3.P.9.1, SC.4.P.8.1, SC.P.4.8.2, SC.4.P.8.4, SC.5.P.8.1, SC.5.P.11.1, and SC.5.P.11.2.

### Sample Test Items (1)

 Test Item # Question Difficulty Type Sample Item 1 Matthew has six cubes of different materials. Each cube has a mass of 10 grams (g). Matthew sorts the cubes into two groups using one physical property.which physical property did matthew most likely use to sort the cubes into two groups? N/A MC: Multiple Choice

#### Related Courses

 Course Number1111 Course Title222 2002100: M/J Comprehensive Science 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current)) 2002110: M/J Comprehensive Science 3, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current)) 2003010: M/J Physical Science (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current)) 2003020: M/J Physical Science, Advanced (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current)) 7820017: Access M/J Comprehensive Science 3 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current)) 2002055: M/J Comprehensive Science 1 Accelerated Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022, 2022 and beyond (current)) 7920030: Fundamental Integrated Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2013 - 2015, 2015 - 2017 (course terminated))

#### Related Access Points

 Access Point Number Access Point Title SC.8.P.8.In.4 Observe and compare substances based on their physical properties, such as thermal and electrical conductivity, solubility, or magnetic properties. SC.8.P.8.Su.4 Observe and compare substances by physical properties, such as weight, size, boiling and melting points, and magnetic properties. SC.8.P.8.Pa.3 Recognize substances by physical properties, such as weight (heavy and light), size (big and small), and temperature (hot and cold).

#### Educational Software / Tool

 Name Description Density: Sea Water Mixing & Sinking This is an excellent resource for teachers and students that provides student sheets, data graphs, vocabulary, and teacher notes as well as Big Ideas, Essential Questions, Data Tables, Formative Assessment questions - extremely teacher friendly who need assistance on this Big Idea and Concept. (The Preconceptions were helpful to my students.)

#### Original Student Tutorial

 Name Description Classifying and Comparing Physical Properties Learn to identify physical properties, compare and contrast substances based on their physical properties. In this interactive tutorial, you'll focus on density and determine whether physical properties have the ability to change.

#### Perspectives Video: Experts

 Name Description MicroGravity Sensors & Statistics Statistical analysis played an essential role in using microgravity sensors to determine location of caves in Wakulla County. Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide. Building and Deploying Floats Glass is the clear choice for deep ocean research probes, if you know what shape to use. Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide. Ocean Density Let these thoughts about ocean density really sink in! Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

#### Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiasts

 Name Description Properties of Materials This discussion about the physical properties of flamenco guitars is full of good vibes. Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide. How Material Properties affect Audio Recordings Want a clean sound in your recording? Oxidation will test your mettle. Make sure you choose the right material for the job. Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

#### Perspectives Video: Teaching Ideas

 Name Description Shrinky Dink Density Shrinky Dinks for science! Students learn about the properties of Shrinky Dinks by finding their mass, volume, and density before and after shrinking. Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide. An Illuminating Inquiry about Conductivity In the dark about chemistry and conductivity? See the light as this chemist explains a great demonstration. Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

#### Teaching Ideas

 Name Description How Low Can it Go? SeaWorld Classroom Activity Students will investigate how salt and other dissolved solids can lower the freezing point of water. Density of Solid Objects A series of straightforward simulations offers students a variety of ways to explore the concepts of mass, volume, and density. Students see that objects of the same mass may not have the same volume, objects of the same volume may not have the same mass, objects having a density greater than that of water sink in water, and the density of a floating object determines the position of the object in a tank of water.

#### Text Resources

 Name Description Vitamin Can Keep Electronics 'Healthy' This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. When electric charges build up on objects, static electricity can occur. Static electricity can be particularly harmful to electronic devices if there are small static discharges. Researchers have found that treating electronics with vitamin E can help reduce static electricity by removing free radicals that are attached to the charges. Heat-Resistant Makeup This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Scientists have developed a new type of camouflage "makeup" for soldiers that can help prevent burns from nearby explosions. They have chemically swapped out flammable materials for a new heat-resistant polymer to create a type of makeup with applications well beyond the military.

#### Unit/Lesson Sequences

 Name Description Middle School Chemistry Unit | Chapter 5 | The Water Molecule and Dissolving Students investigate the polarity of the water molecule and design tests to compare water to less polar liquids for evaporation rate, surface tension, and ability to dissolve certain substances. Students also discover that dissolving applies to solids, liquids, and gases. Middle School Chemistry Unit | Chapter 3 | Density Students experiment with objects that have the same volume but different mass and other objects that have the same mass but different volume to develop a meaning of density. Students also experiment with density in the context of sinking and floating and look at substances on the molecular level to discover why one substance is more or less dense than another.

#### Original Student Tutorial

 Name Description Classifying and Comparing Physical Properties: Learn to identify physical properties, compare and contrast substances based on their physical properties. In this interactive tutorial, you'll focus on density and determine whether physical properties have the ability to change.

#### Perspectives Video: Expert

 Name Description MicroGravity Sensors & Statistics: Statistical analysis played an essential role in using microgravity sensors to determine location of caves in Wakulla County. Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

#### Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiasts

 Name Description Properties of Materials: This discussion about the physical properties of flamenco guitars is full of good vibes. Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide. How Material Properties affect Audio Recordings: Want a clean sound in your recording? Oxidation will test your mettle. Make sure you choose the right material for the job. Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

#### Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiasts

 Name Description Properties of Materials: This discussion about the physical properties of flamenco guitars is full of good vibes. Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide. How Material Properties affect Audio Recordings: Want a clean sound in your recording? Oxidation will test your mettle. Make sure you choose the right material for the job. Download the CPALMS Perspectives video student note taking guide.

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